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Xing Chen, Detlef Wolf, Juliane Siebourg-Polster, Christian Czech, Ulrike Bonati, Dirk Fischer, Omar Khwaja, Martin Strahm
Progressive and irreversible muscle atrophy characterizes Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and other similar muscle disorder diseases. Objective assessment of muscle functions is an essential and important, although challenging, prerequisite for successful clinical trials. Current clinical rating scales restrain the movement abnormalities to certain predefined coarse-grained individual items. The Kinect 3-D sensor has emerged as a low-cost and portable motion sensing technology used to capture and track people's movement in many medical and research fields...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Basma R Damiri, Hisham N Sandouka, Eiad H Janini, Omar N Yaish
BACKGROUND: Substance use has been an increasing problem in the occupied Palestinian territory for decades. The aim of this study was to describe the practice, knowledge, and attitudes associated with substance use by university students in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in 2015. Male and female students from four main public universities in the West Bank were recruited to fill out a self-administered questionnaire...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ahmad Yaseen, Sa'd Suleiman, Omar Abu Zenah, Adham Abu Taha
BACKGROUND: Red blood-cell transfusion has greatly reduced the mortality and morbidity in multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. However, this can result in red blood-cell isoimmunisation with autoantibodies and alloantibodies, which can lead to serious complications such as delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and types of alloantibodies in multiply transfused patients living in the north of the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Craig M Lilly, Omar Badawi, Xinggang Liu, Gill Christine S, Ilene Harris
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients transfused red blood cell (RBC) products according to guideline-specified pretransfusion hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations or for other reasons were more likely to survive their intensive care unit (ICU) stay. DESIGN: An observational study of 375 478 episodes of ICU care, over 5 years, was performed with ICU survival as the primary outcome. Outcomes were analyzed as a function of pretransfusion Hb concentration for groups with distinct transfusion indications while adjusting for potential confounders...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Omar Safi Zuberi, Lu Anne V Dinglasan
We report the case of a 55-year-old patient presenting with biliary obstruction caused by coil migration from a recently performed embolization of a post-traumatic gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm. Based on imaging findings, biliary drain placement was initially performed and the subsequent endoscopy demonstrated coil erosion into the common bile duct and duodenum, resulting in choledochoduodenal fistula. Choledochojejunostomy was thereafter performed to bypass the area of injury.
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Juan P Gallino, Cecilia Ruibal, Esteban Casaretto, Andrea L Fleitas, Victoria Bonnecarrère, Omar Borsani, Sabina Vidal
Water is usually the main limiting factor for soybean productivity worldwide and yet advances in genetic improvement for drought resistance in this crop are still limited. In the present study, we investigated the physiological and molecular responses to drought in two soybean contrasting genotypes, a slow wilting N7001 and a drought sensitive TJS2049 cultivars. Measurements of stomatal conductance, carbon isotope ratios and accumulated dry matter showed that N7001 responds to drought by employing mechanisms resulting in a more efficient water use than TJS2049...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qiaomu Tian, Jose Antonio Mendez, Laura Rivera-Castaneda, Omar Mahmood, Adam Showalter, Elizabeth Ang, Sarah Kazmi, Huinan Liu
Medical implants play a key role in treating bone fractures. Permanent implants are currently used for immobilization of fractures and bearing physiological loads during bone healing. After bone has healed, these implants, if not removed, often cause complications in the long run; and secondary surgeries for removing them pose additional discomfort and expenses for patients. Magnesium (Mg)-based bioresorbable implants, can potentially eliminate the need for additional surgeries by degrading safely over time in the human body...
April 15, 2018: Materials Letters
Shaimaa A Abdelatef, Mohammed T El-Saadi, Noha H Amin, Ahmed H Abdelazeem, Hany A Omar, Khaled R A Abdellatif
A novel series of spirobenzo[h]chromene and spirochromane derivatives was designed, synthesized and evaluated as potential anticancer agents against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma), HT-29 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma) and A549 (human lung carcinoma) cell lines using MTT assay. Eight compounds 7, 8e, 13a-e and 16 showed a better anticancer activity than that of sorafenib, the multi-kinase inhibitor with IC50 values between 1.78 and 5.47 μM or erlotinib with IC50 values over 20 μM. Representative compounds 8e, 13c and 16 were selected for further mechanistic investigation via EGFR, B-RAF and tubulin polymerization assays...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Omar B Da'ar, Abdulaziz Alshaya
This study estimated whether continued programming of a highly specialized four-year dentistry residency training in Saudi Arabia was cost-beneficial. We utilized a purposive sampling to administer a survey to trainees in major cities. Additionally, we used publically available market information about general practitioners. We employed Benefit-Cost Analysis accounting approach as a conceptual framework. Using general practitioners as the base category, we grouped overall social analytical perspectives into resident trainees and rest of society...
February 19, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Jonathan P Cranford, Thomas J O'Hara, Christopher T Villongco, Omar M Hafez, Robert C Blake, Joseph Loscalzo, Jean-Luc Fattebert, David F Richards, Xiaohua Zhang, James N Glosli, Andrew D McCulloch, David E Krummen, Felice C Lightstone, Sergio E Wong
Patient-specific models of the ventricular myocardium, combined with the computational power to run rapid simulations, are approaching the level where they could be used for personalized cardiovascular medicine. A major remaining challenge is determining model parameters from available patient data, especially for models of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs): the sites of initial ventricular electrical activation. There are no non-invasive methods for localizing PMJs in patients, and the relationship between the standard clinical ECG and PMJ model parameters is underexplored...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Caroline André, Caterina Catania, Julie Remus-Borel, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Wilfrid Mazier, Elke Binder, Delphine Gonzales, Samantha Clark, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Layé, Daniela Cota
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) potently decreases food intake and body weight in diet-induced obese mice by acting through neuronal circuits and pathways located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. CNTF also exerts pro-inflammatory actions within the brain. Here we tested whether CNTF modifies energy balance by inducing inflammatory responses in the ARC and whether these effects depend upon the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which regulates both energy metabolism and inflammation...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Alfredo Briones-Herrera, Sabino Hazael Avila-Rojas, Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Magdalena Cristóbal, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Enrique Pinzón, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Edilia Tapia
Maleic acid (MA)-induced nephropathy that is characterized by proteinuria, glycosuria, phosphaturia and a deficient urinary acidification and concentration. Sulforaphane (SF) is an indirect antioxidant that shows nephroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to test the pre-treatment with SF against the MA-induced nephropathy. Wistar rats (230-260 g) were separated in the following groups: control, MA (which received 400 mg/kg of MA), SF + MA (which received MA and 1 mg/kg of SF each day for four days) and SF (which only received SF)...
March 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Haili Li, Keren Byrne, Renata Galiamov, Omar Mendoza-Porras, Utpal Bose, Crispin A Howitt, Michelle L Colgrave
A strict, lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet is currently the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Vinegar and soy sauce are fermented condiments that often include wheat and/or barley. During fermentation cereal proteins are partially degraded by enzymes to yield peptide fragments and amino acids. Whether these fermented products contain intact or degraded gluten proteins and if they are safe for people with CD remains in question. LC-MS offers the benefit of being able to detect hydrolysed gluten that might be present in commercial vinegar and soy sauce products...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ruiting Lin, Siyuan Xia, Changliang Shan, Dong Chen, Yijie Liu, Xue Gao, Mei Wang, Hee-Bum Kang, Yaozhu Pan, Shuangping Liu, Young Rock Chung, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Taha Merghoub, Michael Rossi, Ragini R Kudchadkar, David H Lawson, Fadlo R Khuri, Sagar Lonial, Jing Chen
Dietary supplements such as vitamins and minerals are widely used in the hope of improving health but may have unidentified risks and side effects. In particular, a pathogenic link between dietary supplements and specific oncogenes remains unknown. Here we report that chondroitin-4-sulfate (CHSA), a natural glycosaminoglycan approved as a dietary supplement used for osteoarthritis, selectively promotes the tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in patient- and cell line-derived xenograft mice and confers resistance to BRAF inhibitors...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Omar A Z Tutakhel, Frans Bianchi, Daniël A Smits, René J M Bindels, Joost G J Hoenderop, Jenny van der Wijst
The NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is essential for electrolyte homeostasis and control of blood pressure. The human SLC12A3 gene, which encodes NCC, gives rise to 3 isoforms, of which only the shortest isoform [NaCl cotransporter isoform 3 (NCC3 )] has been studied extensively. All NCC isoforms share key phosphorylation sites at T55 and T60 that are essential mediators of NCC function. Recently, a novel phosphorylation site at S811 was identified in isoforms 1 and 2 [NaCl cotransporter splice variant (NCCSV )], which are only present in humans and higher primates...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Siti Azdiah Abdul Aziz, Megan Mcstea, Nor Syuhada Ahmad Bashah, Meng Li Chong, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Sharifah Faridah Syed Omar, Helmi Sulaiman, Iskandar Azwa, Maw Pin Tan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Reena Rajasuriar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman
OBJECTIVES: In a clinic-based, treated HIV-infected cohort, we identified individuals with sarcopenia and compared with age, sex and ethnically matched controls; and investigated associated risk factors and health outcomes. DESIGN: Sarcopenia (age-related muscle loss) causes significant morbidity to the elderly, leading to frequent hospitalizations, disability and death. Few have characterized sarcopenia in the HIV-infected who experience accelerated aging. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass with weak grip strength and/or slow gait speed using lower 20th percentiles of controls...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Huaxing Wu, Nor Adila Mhd Omar, Niclas Håkansson, Alicja Wolk, Karl Michaëlsson, Rikard Landberg
OBJECTIVE: Wheat and rye, the most consumed whole grains (WG) in the Nordic countries, contain alkylresorcinols (AR) in their bran. AR concentrations in human adipose tissue might reflect long-term WG rye and wheat intake. We aimed to evaluate AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies as a long-term biomarker of WG wheat and rye intake in free-living Swedish men and women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies were analysed and compared with long-term WG intake assessed by three FFQ (repeated over a period of 14 years in men, 17 years in women) and with plasma AR concentrations...
March 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Cecilia Andersson, Sara J Bonvini, Peter Horvath, Eduardo Marquez, Imran Satia, Paul Kirkham, Florence Schleich, Marco Idzko, Reinoud Gosens, Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Apostolos Bossios, Omar Usmani, Antonio Spanevello, Ian M Adcock, Alexander G Mathioudakis
For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5) and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
Olabisi R Sanusi, Omar Arnaout, Rudy J Rahme, Craig Horbinski, James P Chandler
OBJECTIVE: Chordomas are rare tumors of notochordal origin that are known to be locally aggressive and are often treated with surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. The accepted standard of treatment for chordomas of the mobile spine which includes en-bloc resection with wide margins cannot be easily applied to the chordomas of the skull base given their proximity to critical neurovascular structures. We describe our experience with the role of surgery and adjuvant radiation in the treatment of chordomas over 16 years...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jui-Hsiang Hung, Shi-Kae Wee, Hany A Omar, Chia-Hui Su, Hsing-Yi Chen, Pin-Shern Chen, Chien-Chih Chiu, Ming-Syuan Wu, Yen-Ni Teng
Leucine-rich repeats and WD repeat domain containing protein 1 (LRWD1) is implicated in the regulation of signal transduction, transcription, RNA processing and tumor development. However, LRWD1 transcriptional regulation is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between LRWD1 expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in human embryonal carcinoma cell line, NT2/D1 cells, which will help in understanding the transcriptional regulatory role of ROS in cells. Results showed that the exposure of NT2/D1 cells to various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) caused a significant increase in the mRNA and protein expression of LRWD1...
March 12, 2018: Biochimie
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