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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936658/analysis-of-peroxisome-biogenesis-in-pollen-by-confocal-microscopy-and-transmission-electron-microscopy
#1
Peng-Fei Jia, Hong-Ju Li, Wei-Cai Yang
Peroxisome is an essential single-membrane bound organelle in most eukaryotic cells and functions in diverse cellular processes. De novo formation, division, and turnover of peroxisomes contribute to its biogenesis, morphology, and population regulation. In plants, peroxisome plays multiple roles, including metabolism, development, and stress response. Defective peroxisome biogenesis and development retard plant growth, adaption, and reproduction. Through tracing the subcellular localization of fluorescent reporter tagged matrix protein of peroxisome, fluorescence microscopy is a reliable and fast way to detect peroxisome biogenesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936657/whole-mount-rna-fish-on-ovules-and-developing-seeds
#2
Andrea Bleckmann, Thomas Dresselhaus
A key element to understand developmental and reproductive processes like germline development, double fertilization, and embryogenesis is the study of cell-specific gene expression patterns which is best analyzed by RNA in situ hybridization. Different visualization techniques have been established to mark either the region of mRNA production (using the classical chromogenic detection system) or the specific localization of mRNAs (using fluorescent labeled probes). In this chapter, we describe and compare whole mount RNA in situ hybridization techniques on ovules and young developing seeds from Arabidopsis thaliana using three different detection systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936275/a-bio-inspired-method-for-direct-measurement-of-local-wall-shear-rates-with-micrometer-localization-using-the-multimeric-protein-von-willebrand-factor-as-sensor-molecule
#3
Klaus Bonazza, Bernhard Scheichl, Johannes Frank, Hanspeter Rottensteiner, Gerald Schrenk, Gernot Friedbacher, Peter L Turecek, Friedrich Scheiflinger, Günter Allmaier
Wall shear rates are critical for a broad variety of fluidic phenomena and are taken into account in nearly every experimental or simulation study. Generally, shear rates are not observable directly but rather derived from other parameters such as pressure and flow, often assuming somehow idealized systems. However, there is a biological system which is able to constantly measure the wall shear as a part of a regulatory circuit: The blood circulation system takes advantage of shear rate sensor (protein)molecules (multimeric forms of von Willebrand Factor, VWF), which are dissolved in the blood plasma and dramatically change their conformation under shear conditions...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936218/atoma1-affects-the-oxphos-system-and-plant-growth-in-contrast-to-other-newly-identified-atp-independent-proteases-in-arabidopsis-mitochondria
#4
Iwona Migdal, Renata Skibior-Blaszczyk, Malgorzata Heidorn-Czarna, Marta Kolodziejczak, Arnold Garbiec, Hanna Janska
Compared with yeast, our knowledge on members of the ATP-independent plant mitochondrial proteolytic machinery is rather poor. In the present study, using confocal microscopy and immunoblotting, we proved that homologs of yeast Oma1, Atp23, Imp1, Imp2, and Oct1 proteases are localized in Arabidopsis mitochondria. We characterized these components of the ATP-independent proteolytic system as well as the earlier identified protease, AtICP55, with an emphasis on their significance in plant growth and functionality in the OXPHOS system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935891/structural-properties-of-thin-film-ferromagnetic-topological-insulators
#5
C L Richardson, J M Devine-Stoneman, G Divitini, M E Vickers, C-Z Chang, M Amado, J S Moodera, J W A Robinson
We present a comprehensive study of the crystal structure of the thin-film, ferromagnetic topological insulator (Bi, Sb)2-x V x Te3. The dissipationless quantum anomalous Hall edge states it manifests are of particular interest for spintronics, as a natural spin filter or pure spin source, and as qubits for topological quantum computing. For ranges typically used in experiments, we investigate the effect of doping, substrate choice and film thickness on the (Bi, Sb)2Te3 unit cell using high-resolution X-ray diffractometry...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935861/correlation-profiling-of-brain-sub-cellular-proteomes-reveals-co-assembly-of-synaptic-proteins-and-subcellular-distribution
#6
Nikhil J Pandya, Frank Koopmans, Johan A Slotman, Iryna Paliukhovich, Adriaan B Houtsmuller, August B Smit, Ka Wan Li
Protein correlation profiling might assist in defining co-assembled proteins and subcellular distribution. Here, we quantified the proteomes of five biochemically isolated mouse brain cellular sub-fractions, with emphasis on synaptic compartments, from three brain regions, hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum. We demonstrated the expected co-fractionation of canonical synaptic proteins belonging to the same functional groups. The enrichment profiles also suggested the presence of many novel pre- and post-synaptic proteins...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935667/upregulation-of-herv-k-is-linked-to-immunity-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Toshie Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Shih-Yu Chen, Rasa Tamosiuniene, Lingli Wang, Orr Sharp, Erik Samayoa, Daisuke Harada, Jan-Renier A J Moonen, Aiqin Cao, Pin-I Chen, Jan K Hennigs, Mingxia Gu, Caiyun G Li, Ryan D Leib, Dan Li, Christopher M Adams, Patricia A Del Rosario, Matthew A Bill, Francois Haddad, Jose G Montoya, William Robinson, Wendy J Fantl, Garry P Nolan, Roham T Zamanian, Mark R Nicolls, Charles Y Chiu, Maria E Ariza, Marlene Rabinovitch
Background -Immune dysregulation has been linked to occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that is hereditary, idiopathic or associated with other conditions. Circulating autoantibodies, lung perivascular lymphoid tissue and elevated cytokines have been related to PAH pathogenesis but without clear understanding of how these abnormalities are initiated, perpetuated and connected in the progression of disease. We therefore set out to identify specific target antigens in PAH lung immune complexes as a starting point toward resolving these issues to better inform future application of immunomodulatory therapies...
September 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934631/picometer-scale-atom-position-analysis-in-annular-bright-field-stem-imaging
#8
Peng Gao, Akihito Kumamoto, Ryo Ishikawa, Nathan Lugg, Naoya Shibata, Yuichi Ikuhara
We study the effects of specimen mistilt on the picometer-scale measurement of local structure by combing experiment and simulation in annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ABF-STEM). A relative distance measurement method is proposed to separate the tilt effects from the scan noise and sample drift induced image distortion. We find that under a typical experimental condition a small specimen tilt (∼6 mrad) in 25 nm thick SrTiO3 along [001] causes 11.9 pm artificial displacement between O and Sr/TiO columns in ABF image, which is more than 3 times of scan noise and sample drift induced image distortion ∼3...
September 11, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934236/automated-computer-assisted-quantitative-analysis-of-intact-murine-lungs-at-the-alveolar-scale
#9
Goran Lovric, Ioannis Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Rajmund Mokso, Marco Stampanoni, Matthias Roth-Kleiner, Johannes C Schittny
Using state-of-the-art X-ray tomographic microscopy we can image lung tissue in three dimensions in intact animals down to a micrometer precision. The structural complexity and hierarchical branching scheme of the lung at this level of details, however, renders the extraction of biologically relevant quantities particularly challenging. We have developed a methodology for a detailed description of lung inflation patterns by measuring the size and the local curvature of the parenchymal airspaces. These quantitative tools for morphological and topological analyses were applied to high-resolution murine 3D lung image data, inflated at different pressure levels under immediate post mortem conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934222/endogenous-rgs14-is-a-cytoplasmic-nuclear-shuttling-protein-that-localizes-to-juxtanuclear-membranes-and-chromatin-rich-regions-of-the-nucleus
#10
Mary Rose Branch, John R Hepler
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and H-Ras/MAPkinase signaling pathways to regulate synaptic plasticity important for hippocampal learning and memory. However, to date, little is known about the subcellular distribution and roles of endogenous RGS14 in a neuronal cell line. Most of what is known about RGS14 cellular behavior is based on studies of tagged, recombinant RGS14 ectopically overexpressed in unnatural host cells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive assessment of the subcellular distribution and dynamic localization of endogenous RGS14 in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933990/influence-of-salinomycin-treatment-on-division-and-movement-of-individual-cancer-cells-cultured-in-normoxia-or-hypoxia-evaluated-with-time-lapse-digital-holographic-microscopy
#11
Sofia Kamlund, Daniel Strand, Birgit Janicke, Kersti Alm, Stina Oredsson
Most studies on new cancer drugs are based on population-derived data, where the absence of response of a small population may pass unnoticed. Thus, individual longitudinal tracking of cells is important for the future development of efficient cancer treatments. We have used digital holographic microscopy to track individual JIMT-1 human breast cancer cells and L929 mouse fibroblast cultivated in normoxia or hypoxia. In addition, JIMT-1 cells were treated with salinomycin, a cancer stem cell targeting compound...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932401/practical-approach-to-detection-and-management-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-patient
#12
REVIEW
Vahid Mohsenin
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This paper provides a critical review of the etiologies of AKI and a systematic approach toward its diagnosis and management with emphasis on fluid volume assessment and the use of urine biochemical profile and microscopy in identifying the nature and the site of kidney injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search of PubMed and selection of papers had employed observational designs or randomized control trials relevant to AKI...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931810/controlled-manipulation-of-oxygen-vacancies-using-nanoscale-flexoelectricity
#13
Saikat Das, Bo Wang, Ye Cao, Myung Rae Cho, Yeong Jae Shin, Sang Mo Yang, Lingfei Wang, Minu Kim, Sergei V Kalinin, Long-Qing Chen, Tae Won Noh
Oxygen vacancies, especially their distribution, are directly coupled to the electromagnetic properties of oxides and related emergent functionalities that have implications for device applications. Here using a homoepitaxial strontium titanate thin film, we demonstrate a controlled manipulation of the oxygen vacancy distribution using the mechanical force from a scanning probe microscope tip. By combining Kelvin probe force microscopy imaging and phase-field simulations, we show that oxygen vacancies can move under a stress-gradient-induced depolarisation field...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931601/local-cellular-neighbourhood-controls-proliferation-in-cell-competition
#14
Anna Bove, Daniel Gradeci, Yasuyuki Fujita, Shiladitya Banerjee, Guillaume Charras, Alan R Lowe
Cell competition is a quality control mechanism through which tissues eliminate unfit cells. Cell competition can result from short-range biochemical inductions or long-range mechanical cues. However, little is known about how cell-scale interactions give rise to population shifts in tissues, due to the lack of experimental and computational tools to efficiently characterise interactions at the single-cell level. Here, we address these challenges by combining long-term automated microscopy with deep learning image analysis to decipher how single-cell behaviour determines tissue make-up during competition...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930980/immunostaining-for-dna-modifications-computational-analysis-of-confocal-images
#15
Ashley H Ramsawhook, Lara C Lewis, Maria Eleftheriou, Abdulkadir Abakir, Paulina Durczak, Robert Markus, Seema Rajani, Nicholas R F Hannan, Beth Coyle, Alexey Ruzov
For several decades, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) has been thought to be the only DNA modification with a functional significance in metazoans. The discovery of enzymatic oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) as well as detection of N6-methyladenine (6mA) in the DNA of multicellular organisms provided additional degrees of complexity to the epigenetic research. According to a growing body of experimental evidence, these novel DNA modifications may play specific roles in different cellular and developmental processes...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930156/giant-strain-and-induced-ferroelectricity-in-amorphous-batio%C3%A2-films-under-poling
#16
Pegah Mirzadeh Vaghefi, Ali Baghizadeh, Armando A C S Lourenço, Vitor S Amaral, Andre L Kholkin
We report an effect of giant surface modification of a 5.6 nm thick BaTiO₃ film grown on Si (100) substrate under poling by conductive tip of a scanning probe microscope (SPM). The surface can be locally elevated by about 9 nm under -20 V applied during scanning, resulting in the maximum strain of 160%. The threshold voltage for the surface modification is about 12 V. The modified topography is stable enough with time and slowly decays after poling with the rate ~0.02 nm/min. Strong vertical piezoresponse after poling is observed, too...
September 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929966/-a-case-with-scalp-pruritus-caused-by-dermanysus-gallinae-order-mesostigmata
#17
Mustafa Şengül, Nida Kaçar, Mehmet Karaca, Sedef Zeliha Öner, Çağrı Ergin
Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the important hematophagous ectoparasite species of poultry like chicken, pigeon and wild bird species. These ectoparasites in the form of nymphs or adults who can not find their hosts are also seen in mammals and even in humans. For this reason, they are considered as important for public health. The ectoparasite causes a clinical condition named gamasoidosis among pet owners and people who live or work close to animal shelters, barns and chicken farms. Pruritus dermatitis is also caused by D...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928237/microtubule-structures-underlying-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-support-peripheral-coupling-sites-to-regulate-smooth-muscle-contractility
#18
Harry A T Pritchard, Albert L Gonzales, Paulo W Pires, Bernard T Drumm, Eun A Ko, Kenton M Sanders, Grant W Hennig, Scott Earley
Junctional membrane complexes facilitate excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells by forming subcellular invaginations that maintain close (≤20 nm) proximity of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane. In fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, junctional membrane complexes occur as distributed sites of peripheral coupling. We investigated the role of the cytoskeleton in maintaining peripheral coupling and associated Ca(2+) signaling networks within native smooth muscle cells of mouse and rat cerebral arteries...
September 19, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927422/proximity-to-vector-breeding-site-and-risk-of-plasmodium-vivax-infection-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-rural-ethiopia
#19
Alexander Nissen, Jackie Cook, Eskindir Loha, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: Despite falling incidence and mortality since the turn of the century, malaria remains an important global health challenge. In the future fight against malaria, greater emphasis will have to be placed on understanding and addressing malaria caused by the Plasmodium vivax parasite. Unfortunately, due to years of neglect and underfunding, there are currently many gaps in knowledge of P. vivax malaria. The aims of the present study were to explore the association between distance to vector breeding site and P...
September 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927159/diagnostic-value-of-inflammatory-cell-infiltrates-tumor-stroma-percentage-and-disease-free-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#20
Katarzyna Jakubowska, Wojciech Kisielewski, Luiza Kańczuga-Koda, Mariusz Koda, Waldemar Famulski
The anticancer immune defense mechanism involves humoral and cellular responses. The main effector mechanisms of antitumor responses involve the following: the activity of cytotoxic T cells; the activation of macrophages and neutrophils; the activity of cytokines secreted by T cells; and natural killer cell activity. Selected cell populations are responsible for the stimulation or suppression of the immune system against tumor cells. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the location, extent and composition of the cellular inflammatory infiltration of tumors in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC)...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
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