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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342390/household-contact-investigation-for-detection-of-tuberculosis-in-vietnam
#1
Greg J Fox, Nguyen V Nhung, Dinh N Sy, Nghiem L P Hoa, Le T N Anh, Nguyen T Anh, Nguyen B Hoa, Nguyen H Dung, Tran N Buu, Nguyen T Loi, Le T Nhung, Nguyen V Hung, Phan T Lieu, Nguyen K Cuong, Pham D Cuong, Jessica Bestrashniy, Warwick J Britton, Guy B Marks
Background Active case finding is a top priority for the global control of tuberculosis, but robust evidence for its effectiveness in high-prevalence settings is lacking. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of household-contact investigation, as compared with standard, passive measures alone, in Vietnam. Methods We performed a cluster-randomized, controlled trial at clinics in 70 districts (local government areas with an average population of approximately 500,000 in urban areas and 100,000 in rural areas) in eight provinces of Vietnam...
January 18, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341769/defect-structure-of-localized-excitons-in-a-wse_-2-monolayer
#2
Shuai Zhang, Chen-Guang Wang, Ming-Yang Li, Di Huang, Lain-Jong Li, Wei Ji, Shiwei Wu
The atomic and electronic structure of intrinsic defects in a WSe_{2} monolayer grown on graphite was revealed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Instead of chalcogen vacancies that prevail in other transition metal dichalcogenide materials, intrinsic defects in WSe_{2} arise surprisingly from single tungsten vacancies, leading to the hole (p-type) doping. Furthermore, we found these defects to dominate the excitonic emission of the WSe_{2} monolayer at low temperature. Our work provided the first atomic-scale understanding of defect excitons and paved the way toward deciphering the defect structure of single quantum emitters previously discovered in the WSe_{2} monolayer...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341743/size-dependent-localization-in-polydisperse-colloidal-glasses
#3
D Heckendorf, K J Mutch, S U Egelhaaf, M Laurati
We have investigated concentrated suspensions of polydisperse hard spheres and have determined the dynamics and sizes of individual particles using confocal microscopy. With increasing concentration, the dynamics of the small and large particles start to differ. The large particles exhibit slower dynamics and stronger localization. Moreover, as the particle size increases, the local volume fraction ϕ_{loc} also increases. In the glass state, the localization length significantly decreases beyond ϕ_{loc}≈0...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341681/determining-quiescent-colloidal-suspension-viscosities-using-the-green-kubo-relation-and-image-based-stress-measurements
#4
Neil Y C Lin, Matthew Bierbaum, Itai Cohen
By combining confocal microscopy and stress assessment from local structural anisotropy, we directly measure stresses in 3D quiescent colloidal liquids. Our noninvasive and nonperturbative method allows us to measure forces ≲50  fN with a small and tunable probing volume, enabling us to resolve the stress fluctuations arising from particle thermal motions. We use the Green-Kubo relation to relate these measured stress fluctuations to the bulk Brownian viscosity at different volume fractions, comparing against simulations and conventional rheometry measurements...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341626/hierarchically-patterned-noncovalent-functionalization-of-2d-materials-by-controlled-langmuir-schaefer-conversion
#5
Tyson C Davis, Jae Jin Bang, Jacob T Brooks, David G McMillan, Shelley A Claridge
Noncovalent monolayer chemistries are often used to functionalize 2D materials. Nanoscopic ligand ordering has been widely demonstrated (e.g., lying-down lamellar phases of functional alkanes); however, combining this control with micro- and macroscopic patterning for practical applications remains a significant challenge. A few reports have demonstrated that standing phase Langmuir films on water can be converted into nanoscopic lying-down molecular domains on 2D substrates (e.g., graphite), using horizontal dipping (Langmuir-Schaefer, LS, transfer)...
January 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340650/colocalization-of-galectin-3-with-cd147-is-associated-with-increased-gelatinolytic-activity-in-ulcerating-human-corneas
#6
Andrea Cruzat, Miguel Gonzalez-Andrades, Jérôme Mauris, Dina B AbuSamra, Preethi Chidambaram, Kenneth R Kenyon, James Chodosh, Claes H Dohlman, Pablo Argüeso
Purpose: Galectin-3 is a carbohydrate-binding protein known to promote expression of matrix metalloproteinases, a hallmark of ulceration, through interaction with the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer CD147. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of galectin-3 in corneas of patients with ulcerative keratitis and to determine its relationship to CD147 and the presence of gelatinolytic activity. Methods: This was an observational case series involving donor tissue from 13 patients with active corneal ulceration and 6 control corneas...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340409/dynamics-of-3d-carcinoma-cell-invasion-into-aligned-collagen
#7
Arja Ray, Rachel K Morford, Nima Ghaderi, David J Odde, Paolo P Provenzano
Carcinoma cells frequently expand and invade from a confined lesion, or multicellular clusters, into and through the stroma on the path to metastasis, often with an efficiency dictated by the architecture and composition of the microenvironment. Specifically, in desmoplastic carcinomas such as those of the breast, aligned collagen tracks provide contact guidance cues for directed cancer cell invasion. Yet, the evolving dynamics of this process of invasion remains poorly understood, in part due to difficulties in continuously capturing both spatial and temporal heterogeneity and progression to invasion in experimental systems...
January 17, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340314/dnajb9-is-a-specific-immunohistochemical-marker-for-fibrillary-glomerulonephritis
#8
Samih H Nasr, Julie A Vrana, Surendra Dasari, Frank Bridoux, Mary E Fidler, Sihem Kaaki, Nathalie Quellard, Alexia Rinsant, Jean Michel Goujon, Sanjeev Sethi, Fernando C Fervenza, Lynn D Cornell, Samar M Said, Ellen D McPhail, Loren P Herrera Hernandez, Joseph P Grande, Marie C Hogan, John C Lieske, Nelson Leung, Paul J Kurtin, Mariam P Alexander
Introduction: Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN) is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis and a poor prognosis. Until now, the diagnosis of this disease has required demonstration of glomerular deposition of randomly oriented fibrils by electron microscopy that are Congo red negative and stain with antisera to Igs. We recently discovered a novel proteomic tissue biomarker for FGN, namely, DNAJB9. Methods: In this work, we developed DNAJB9 immunohistochemistry and tested its sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of FGN...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340303/highly-mobile-charge-transfer-excitons-in-two-dimensional-ws2-tetracene-heterostructures
#9
Tong Zhu, Long Yuan, Yan Zhao, Mingwei Zhou, Yan Wan, Jianguo Mei, Libai Huang
Charge-transfer (CT) excitons at heterointerfaces play a critical role in light to electricity conversion using organic and nanostructured materials. However, how CT excitons migrate at these interfaces is poorly understood. We investigate the formation and transport of CT excitons in two-dimensional WS2/tetracene van der Waals heterostructures. Electron and hole transfer occurs on the time scale of a few picoseconds, and emission of interlayer CT excitons with a binding energy of ~0.3 eV has been observed...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339661/a-novel-foxl2-mutation-implying-blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus-inversus-syndrome-type-i
#10
Fang Li, Peiwei Chai, Jiayan Fan, Xi Wang, Wenjuan Lu, Jin Li, Shengfang Ge, Renbing Jia, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by FOXL2 gene mutations, and it is clinically characterized by an eyelid malformation associated (type I) or not (type II) with premature ovarian failure (POF). Functional study of novel mutations is especially critical for female patients, as it may allow the prediction of infertility and early planning of an appropriate therapy. METHODS: A clinical and molecular genetic investigation was performed in all members of a Chinese family with BPES...
January 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338814/the-use-of-visual-examination-for-determining-the-presence-of-gluten-containing-grains-in-gluten-free-oats-and-other-grains-seeds-beans-pulses-and-legumes
#11
Laura K Allred, Cynthia Kupper, Channon Quinn
Obtaining representative test samples for antibody-based testing is challenging when analyzing whole grains for gluten. When whole grains are ground into flour for testing, confocal microscopy studies have shown that gluten tends to exist as aggregates within the starch background, making single-sample testing inaccurate and complicating the ability to arrive at an accurate average from multiple samples. In addition, whole-grain products present a unique risk to gluten free consumers, in that any contamination is localized to specific servings rather than being distributed across the product lot...
January 1, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338198/atomic-resolution-imaging-of-nanoscale-chemical-expansion-in-prxce1-xo2-%C3%AE-during-in-situ-heating
#12
Jessica G Swallow, Ja Kyung Lee, Thomas Defferriere, Gareth Martin Hughes, Shilpa N Raja, Harry L Tuller, Jamie H Warner, Krystyn J Van Vliet
Thin film non-stoichiometric oxides enable many high temperature applications including solid oxide fuel cells, actuators, and catalysis. Large concentrations of point defects (particularly, oxygen vacancies) enable fast ionic conductivity or gas exchange kinetics in these materials, but also manifest as coupling between lattice volume and chemical composition. This chemical expansion may be either detrimental or useful, especially in thin film devices that may exhibit enhanced performance through strain engineering or decreased operating temperatures...
January 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337622/isolation-of-avipoxvirus-from-tongue-of-canaries-serinus-canaria-show-severe-localized-proliferative-glossitis
#13
Salvatore Catania, Silvia Carnaccini, Marta Mainenti, Maria Luisa Moronato, Federica Gobbo, Terregino Calogero
Poxvirus was the causative agent of two unusual outbreaks of proliferative glossitis in canary ( Serinus canaria forma domestica) breeders in the Northern Italy. A total of 45, 7-9-mo-old canaries were submitted in fair postmortem conditions to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie at the beginning of November 2005 for diagnostic investigation. Birds belonged to two unrelated and geographically distant aviaries in northern Italy, herein identified as Aviary A and Aviary B. The two breeder flocks had both attended the same bird exposition held at the beginning of October and started experiencing an onset of high mortality 3 wk after the show...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335462/iron-related-toxicity-of-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-and-crocidolite-fibres-in-human-mesothelial-cells-investigated-by-synchrotron-xrf-microscopy
#14
Francesca Cammisuli, Silvia Giordani, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Clara Rizzardi, Lucia Radillo, Marina Zweyer, Tatiana Da Ros, Murielle Salomé, Mauro Melato, Lorella Pascolo
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising products in industry and medicine, but there are several human health concerns since their fibrous structure resembles asbestos. The presence of transition metals, mainly iron, in the fibres seems also implicated in the pathogenetic mechanisms. To unravel the role of iron at mesothelial level, we compared the chemical changes induced in MeT-5A cells by the exposure to asbestos (crocidolite) or CNTs at different content of iron impurities (raw-SWCNTs, purified- and highly purified-SWCNTs)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335000/molecular-characterization-of-babesia-microti-thioredoxin-bmtrx2-and-its-expression-patterns-induced-by-antiprotozoal-drugs
#15
Jingwei Huang, Kang Xiong, Houshuang Zhang, Yanzhen Zhao, Jie Cao, Haiyan Gong, Yongzhi Zhou, Jinlin Zhou
BACKGROUND: Human babesiosis is an infectious disease that is epidemic in various regions all over the world. The predominant causative pathogen of this disease is the intra-erythrocytic parasite Babesia microti. The thioredoxin system is one of the major weapons that is used in the resistance to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced by host immune system. In other intra-erythrocytic apicomplexans like the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, anti-oxidative proteins are promising targets for the development of anti-parasitic drugs...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334850/an-immunopathological-evaluation-of-the-porcine-cholecyst-matrix-as-a-muscle-repair-graft-in-a-male-rat-abdominal-wall-defect-model
#16
Dhanush Krishna Balakrishnan-Nair, Narayanan Divakaran Nair, Syam Kunnekkattu Venugopal, Vijayan Narayana Das, Sisilamma George, Mammen John Abraham, Saji Eassow, Malcolm Ronald Alison, Anoop Sainulabdeen, Thapasimuthu Vijayamma Anilkumar
With the increasing use of animal-based biomaterials for regenerative medical applications, the need for their safety assessment is paramount. A porcine cholecyst-derived scaffold (CDS), intended as a muscle repair graft, prepared by a nondetergent/enzymatic method was engrafted in a rat abdominal wall defect model. Host tissue-scaffold interface samples were collected 2, 8, and 16 weeks postimplantation and evaluated by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. The nature of the tissue reaction was compared with those induced by a jejunum-derived scaffold (JDS) prepared by the same method and a commercial-grade small intestinal submucosa (CSIS) scaffold...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334289/the-extracellular-matrix-degrading-protein-adamts5-is-expressed-in-the-nuclei-of-urothelial-cells-in-healthy-rats
#17
Dick Delbro, Lena Hallsberg, Ralph Peeker, Nikolai Scherbak, Magnus Fall, Rebecka Arnsrud Godtman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether protein expression of the extracellular matrix-degrading protease ADAMTS5 can be demonstrated in the urinary bladder of healthy rats, and, if so, to determine the localization of this enzyme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiments were conducted with eight inbred male Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of ADAMTS5 in the urinary bladder. Negative controls were established by either excluding the primary antibody or applying the antibody after it had been preabsorbed with its immunogenic peptide...
January 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334100/first-principles-simulation-of-local-response-in-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-under-electron-irradiation
#18
Anthony Yoshimura, Michael Lamparski, Neerav Kharche, Vincent Meunier
Electron beam irradiation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a common and effective method for post-synthesis defect engineering in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Combining density functional theory (DFT) with relativistic scattering theory, we simulate the generation of such defects in monolayer group-VI TMDs, MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, and WSe2, focusing on two fundamental TEM-induced atomic displacement processes: chalcogen sputtering and chalcogen vacancy migration. Our calculations show that the activation energies of chalcogen sputtering depend primarily on the chalcogen species, and are smaller in selenides than in sulfides...
January 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333608/the-synergistic-effect-of-pdt-and-oxacillin-on-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Natanel Iluz, Yasmin Maor, Natan Keller, Zvi Malik
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in clinical microbiology. It is known to cause infections at various body sites and can be life-threatening. The development of resistance to many well-established antibiotic treatments and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRAS) among hospital patients and the general community pose challenges in treating the pathogen. The antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been a subject of study for a long time and can offer new strategies for dealing with resistant strains...
January 15, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332401/proteomic-profiling-of-leishmania-donovani-promastigote-subcellular-organelles
#20
Armando Jardim, Darryl B Hardie, Jan Boitz, Christoph H Borchers
To facilitate a greater understanding of the biological processes in the medically important Leishmania donovani parasite, a combination of differential and density-gradient ultracentrifugation techniques were used to achieve a comprehensive subcellular fractionation of the promastigote stage. An in-depth label-free proteomic LC-MS/MS analysis of the density gradients resulted in the identification of ~50% of the Leishmania proteome (3883 proteins detected), which included ~645 integral membrane proteins and 1737 uncharacterized proteins...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
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