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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335497/ginsenoside-ppd-s-antitumor-effect-via-down-regulation-of-mtor-revealed-by-super-resolution-imaging
#1
Bo Teng, Junguang Jiang, Lijing Zhao, Jing Gao, Junyu Chen, Zhe Liu, Hongda Wang, Binfeng Lu
Derived from Panax ginseng, the natural product 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) has been reported for its cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. Here we show that PPD significantly inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in human laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cells). PPD also decreases the levels of proteins related to cell proliferation. Moreover, PPD-induced apoptosis is characterized by a dose-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax, and is accompanied by the activation of Caspase-3 as well...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334699/robust-cell-tracking-in-epithelial-tissues-through-identification-of-maximum-common-subgraphs
#2
Jochen Kursawe, Rémi Bardenet, Jeremiah J Zartman, Ruth E Baker, Alexander G Fletcher
Tracking of cells in live-imaging microscopy videos of epithelial sheets is a powerful tool for investigating fundamental processes in embryonic development. Characterizing cell growth, proliferation, intercalation and apoptosis in epithelia helps us to understand how morphogenetic processes such as tissue invagination and extension are locally regulated and controlled. Accurate cell tracking requires correctly resolving cells entering or leaving the field of view between frames, cell neighbour exchanges, cell removals and cell divisions...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334627/a-novel-versatile-microbiosensor-for-local-hydrogen-detection-by-means-of-scanning-photoelectrochemical-microscopy
#3
Fangyuan Zhao, Felipe Conzuelo, Volker Hartmann, Huaiguang Li, Stefanie Stapf, Marc M Nowaczyk, Matthias Rögner, Nicolas Plumeré, Wolfgang Lubitz, Wolfgang Schuhmann
The development of a versatile microbiosensor for hydrogen detection is reported. Carbon-based microelectrodes were modified with a [NiFe]-hydrogenase embedded in a viologen-modified redox hydrogel for the fabrication of a sensitive hydrogen biosensor By integrating the microbiosensor in a scanning photoelectrochemical microscope, it was capable of serving simultaneously as local light source to initiate photo(bio)electrochemical reactions while acting as sensitive biosensor for the detection of hydrogen. A hydrogen evolution biocatalyst based on photosystem 1-platinum nanoparticle biocomplexes embedded into a specifically designed redox polymer was used as a model for proving the capability of the developed hydrogen biosensor for the detection of hydrogen upon localized illumination...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334377/lrit3-differentially-affects-connectivity-and-synaptic-transmission-of-cones-to-on-and-off-bipolar-cells
#4
Marion Neuillé, Yan Cao, Romain Caplette, Debbie Guerrero-Given, Connon Thomas, Naomi Kamasawa, José-Alain Sahel, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Audo, Serge Picaud, Kirill A Martemyanov, Christina Zeitz
Purpose: Mutations in LRIT3 lead to complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB). Using a cCSNB mouse model lacking Lrit3 (nob6), we recently have shown that LRIT3 has a role in the correct localization of TRPM1 (transient receptor potential melastatin 1) to the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells (BCs), contacting both rod and cone photoreceptors. Furthermore, postsynaptic clustering of other mGluR6 cascade components is selectively eliminated at the dendritic tips of cone ON-BCs...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334208/morphologically-constrained-spectral-unmixing-by-dictionary-learning-for-multiplex-fluorescence-microscopy
#5
Murad Megjhani, Pedro Correa de Sampaio, Julienne Leigh Carstens, Raghu Kalluri, Badrinath Roysam
Motivation: Current spectral unmixing methods for multiplex fluorescence microscopy have a limited ability to cope with high spectral overlap as they only analyze spectral information over individual pixels. Here, we present adaptive Morphologically Constrained Spectral Unmixing (MCSU) algorithms that overcome this limitation by exploiting morphological differences between sub-cellular structures, and their local spatial context. Results: The proposed method was effective at improving spectral unmixing performance by exploiting: (i) a set of dictionary-based models for object morphologies learned from the image data; and (ii) models of spatial context learned from the image data using a total variation algorithm...
March 2, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334184/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-induces-structural-and-functional-disconnection-of-local-neocortical-inhibitory-networks-via-parvalbumin-interneuron-diffuse-axonal-injury
#6
Michal Vascak, Xiaotao Jin, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) plays a major role in cortical network dysfunction posited to cause excitatory/inhibitory imbalance after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Current thought holds that white matter (WM) is uniquely vulnerable to DAI. However, clinically diagnosed mTBI is not always associated with WM DAI. This suggests an undetected neocortical pathophysiology, implicating GABAergic interneurons. To evaluate this possibility, we used mild central fluid percussion injury to generate DAI in mice with Cre-driven tdTomato labeling of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons...
March 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333621/reconstructing-evolving-tree-structures-in-time-lapse-sequences-by-enforcing-time-consistency
#7
Przemyslaw Glowacki, Miguel Amavel Pinheiro, Agata Mosinska, Engin Turetken, Daniel Lebrecht, Anthony Holtmaat, Raphael Sznitman, Jan Kybic, Pascal Fua
We propose a novel approach to reconstructing curvilinear tree structures evolving over time, such as road networks in 2D aerial images or neural structures in 3D microscopy stacks acquired in vivo. To enforce temporal consistency, we simultaneously process all images in a sequence, as opposed to reconstructing structures of interest in each image independently. We formulate the problem as a Quadratic Mixed Integer Program and demonstrate the additional robustness that comes from using all available visual clues at once, instead of working frame by frame...
March 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333572/new-insights-on-complement-inhibitor-cd59-in-mouse-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularization-mislocalization-after-injury-and-targeted-delivery-for-protein-replacement
#8
Gloriane Schnabolk, Mee Keong Beon, Stephen Tomlinson, Bärbel Rohrer
PURPOSE: The membrane attack complex (MAC) in choriocapillaris (CC) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) increase with age and disease (age-related macular degeneration). MAC assembly can be inhibited by CD59, a membrane-bound regulator. Here we further investigated the role of CD59 in murine choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a model involving both CC and RPE, and tested whether CR2-CD59, a soluble targeted form of CD59, provides protection. METHODS: Laser-induced CNV was generated in wild type and CD59a-deficient mice (CD59(-/-))...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333241/dysmorphic-patterns-are-associated-with-cytoskeletal-alterations-in-human-oocytes
#9
Mariabeatrice Dal Canto, Maria Cristina Guglielmo, Mario Mignini Renzini, Rubens Fadini, Clarissa Moutier, Maria Merola, Elena De Ponti, Giovanni Coticchio
Study Question: Are specific morphological anomalies in human mature oocytes, as revealed by transmitted light microscopy, associated with intrinsic damage to the meiotic spindle and actin cytoskeleton? SUMMARY ANSWER: Aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and domains of centrally localized granular cytoplasm (GC) reflect intrinsic damage to the oocyte cytoskeleton, namely alterations in spindle size, chromosome misalignment and cortical actin disorganization...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332092/the-spectrum-of-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#10
Leila Chimelli, Adriana S O Melo, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Clayton A Wiley, Aline H S Camacho, Vania S Lopes, Heloisa N Machado, Cecilia V Andrade, Dione C A Dock, Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Patricia S Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Angela C G Carvalho, Odile N Ugarte, Alba G M Batista, Melania M R Amorim, Fabiana O Melo, Thales A Ferreira, Jacqueline R L Marinho, Girlene S Azevedo, Jeime I B F Leal, Rodrigo F Madeiro da Costa, Stevens Rehen, Monica B Arruda, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Rodrigo Delvechio, Renato S Aguiar, Amilcar Tanuri
A major concern associated with ZIKV infection is the increased incidence of microcephaly with frequent calcifications in infants born from infected mothers. To date, postmortem analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) in congenital infection is limited to individual reports or small series. We report a comprehensive neuropathological study in ten newborn babies infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, including the spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and also muscle, pituitaries, eye, systemic organs, and placentas...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331309/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-drug-release-and-antibacterial-properties-of-the-novel-vancomycin-loaded-bone-like-hydroxyapatite-poly-amino-acid-scaffold
#11
Zhidong Cao, Dianming Jiang, Ling Yan, Jun Wu
Antibiotic-loaded carriers were developed to fill cavities and locally deliver antibiotics following implantation. However, the most commonly used antibiotic carrier, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), has many disadvantages including that it does not promote bone regeneration or conduction. Vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid (V-BHA/PAA) was successfully fabricated by a homogeneous method, certified as biosafe and known to promote osteogenesis. To evaluate its drug-release features, the quantity of the vancomycin in the elution was obtained every 2 days after in vitro simulated body fluid immersion...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330510/an-integrated-environmental-improvement-of-marshlands-impact-on-control-and-elimination-of-schistosomiasis-in-marshland-regions-along-the-yangtze-river-china
#12
Le-Ping Sun, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Zuo, Zheng-Qiu Zhang, Qing-Biao Hong, Guo-Jing Yang, Hong-Ru Zhu, You-Sheng Liang, Hai-Tao Yang
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a global snail-transmitted infectious disease of poverty. Transmission control had been achieved in China in 2015 after the control efforts for over 60 years. Currently, the remaining core regions endemic for Schistosoma japonicum are mainly located in the marshland and lake regions along the Yangtze River basin. METHODS: During the period from 2001 through 2015, an integrated environmental improvement of the marshlands was carried out through the implementation of industrial, agricultural and resources development projects in Yizheng County along the Yangtze River...
March 22, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330488/cigarette-smoke-challenges-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-capacities-in-guinea-pig
#13
Olga Tura-Ceide, Borja Lobo, Tanja Paul, Raquel Puig-Pey, Núria Coll-Bonfill, Jéssica García-Lucio, Valérie Smolders, Isabel Blanco, Joan A Barberà, Víctor I Peinado
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with lower numbers of circulating stem cells and might severely affect their mobilization, trafficking and homing. Our study was designed to demonstrate in an animal model of CS exposure whether CS affects the homing and functional capabilities of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). METHODS: Guinea pigs (GP), exposed or sham-exposed to CS, were administered via tracheal instillation or by vascular administration with 2...
March 23, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329870/application-of-imaging-techniques-to-cases-of-drug-induced-crystal-nephropathy-in-preclinical-studies
#14
B Lenz, A Brink, M Siam, A De Paepe, S Bassett, A Eichinger-Chapelon, P Maliver, R Neff, U Niederhauser, B Steinhuber, R Zurbach, T Singer, C Funk, F Schuler, M Albassam, S Schadt
A number of drugs can cause precipitates within renal tubules leading to crystal nephropathy. Crystal nephropathy is usually an exposure-related finding and is not uncommon in preclinical studies, where high doses are tested. An understanding of the nature of precipitates is important for human risk assessment and further development. Our aim was to investigate the ability of various imaging techniques to detect the presence of drugs or metabolites in renal crystals. We applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) imaging, Raman and infrared microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) spectroscopy and standard histopathology to cases of drug-induced crystal nephropathy, induced in rodents and primates by four compounds...
February 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329009/the-expression-and-localization-of-rnase-and-rnase-inhibitor-in-blood-cells-and-vascular-endothelial-cells-in-homeostasis-of-the-vascular-system
#15
Ayaka Ohashi, Aya Murata, Yuichiro Cho, Shizuko Ichinose, Yuriko Sakamaki, Miwako Nishio, Osamu Hoshi, Silvia Fischer, Klaus T Preissner, Takatoshi Koyama
RNA may be released from vascular cells including endothelial cells in the event of injury and in vascular disease. Extracellular RNAs have been recognized as novel procoagulant and permeability-increasing factors. Extracellular RNA may function as inflammatory host alarm signals that serve to amplify the defense mechanism, but it may provide important links to thrombus formation. Extracellular RNA is degraded by RNase. We propose that RNase and its inhibitor RNase inhibitor (RI) act as modulators of homeostasis in the vasculature to control the functions of extracellular RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328541/molecular-engineering-of-two-photon-fluorescent-probes-for-bioimaging-applications
#16
Hong-Wen Liu, Yongchao Liu, Peng Wang, Xiao-Bing Zhang
During the past two decades, two-photon microscopy (TPM), which utilizes two near-infrared photons as the excitation source, has emerged as a novel, attractive imaging tool for biological research. Compared with one-photon microscopy, TPM offers several advantages, such as lowering background fluorescence in living cells and tissues, reducing photodamage to biosamples, and a photobleaching phenomenon, offering better 3D spatial localization, and increasing penetration depth. Small-molecule-based two-photon fluorescent probes have been well developed for the detection and imaging of various analytes in biological systems...
March 22, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328539/polarization-sensitive-localization-based-super-resolution-microscopy-with-a-birefringent-wedge
#17
József Sinkó, Tamás Gajdos, Elvira Czvik, Gábor Szabó, Miklós Erdélyi
A practical method has been presented for polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy using a birefringent dual wedge. The measurement of the polarization degree at the single molecule level can reveal the chemical and physical properties of the local environment of the fluorescent dye molecule and can hence provide information about the sub-diffraction sized structure of biological samples. Polarization sensitive STORM imaging of the F-Actins proved correlation between the orientation of fluorescent dipoles and the axis of the fibril...
March 22, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327667/genetic-and-functional-diversity-of-ubiquitous-dna-viruses-in-selected-chinese-agricultural-soils
#18
Li-Li Han, Dan-Ting Yu, Li-Mei Zhang, Ju-Pei Shen, Ji-Zheng He
Viral community structures in complex agricultural soils are largely unknown. Electron microscopy and viromic analyses were conducted on six typical Chinese agricultural soil samples. Tailed bacteriophages, spherical and filamentous viral particles were identified by the morphological analysis. Based on the metagenomic analysis, single-stranded DNA viruses represented the largest viral component in most of the soil habitats, while the double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Caudovirales order were predominanted in Jiangxi-maize soils...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327449/integrated-local-binary-pattern-texture-features-for-classification-of-breast-tissue-imaged-by-optical-coherence-microscopy
#19
Sunhua Wan, Hsiang-Chieh Lee, Xiaolei Huang, Ting Xu, Tao Xu, Xianxu Zeng, Zhan Zhang, Yuri Sheikine, James L Connolly, James G Fujimoto, Chao Zhou
This paper proposes a texture analysis technique that can effectively classify different types of human breast tissue imaged by Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM). OCM is an emerging imaging modality for rapid tissue screening and has the potential to provide high resolution microscopic images that approach those of histology. OCM images, acquired without tissue staining, however, pose unique challenges to image analysis and pattern classification. We examined multiple types of texture features and found Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features to perform better in classifying tissues imaged by OCM...
March 8, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326760/microscopic-evaluation-of-electrical-and-thermal-conduction-in-random-metal-wire-networks
#20
Ritu Gupta, Ankush Kumar, Sridhar Sadasivam, Sunil Walia, Giridhar U Kulkarni, Timothy S Fisher, Amy M Marconnet
Ideally, transparent heaters exhibit uniform temperature, fast response time, high achievable temperatures, low operating voltage, stability across a range of temperatures, and high optical transmittance. For metal network heaters, unlike for uniform thin film heaters, all of these parameters are directly or indirectly related to the network geometry.In the past, at equilibrium, the temperature distributions within metal networks have primarily been studied using either a physical temperature probe or direct infrared thermography, but there are limits to the spatial resolution of these cameras and probes and thus only average regional temperatures have typically been measured...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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