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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719860/liposome-modified-titanium-surface-a-strategy-to-locally-deliver-bioactive-molecules
#1
Vincenzo De Leo, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte, Maria Teresa Cimmarusti, Annamaria Panniello, Manuela Dicarlo, Francesco Milano, Angela Agostiano, Elvira De Giglio, Lucia Catucci
Titanium and its alloys are widely employed materials for implants in orthopedic or dental surgery due to their mechanical properties, resistance to corrosion and osseointegration capability. However adverse reactions at the tissue/implant interface may occur, which limit the success of the osseointegration process. Therefore, different strategies have to be used to overcome these drawbacks. In this work, we developed two different liposome-based coatings on titanium surfaces as drug or bioactive molecule deposits for dental/orthopedic implant applications...
July 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718475/nanoscale-chemical-imaging-of-the-additive-effects-on-the-interfaces-of-high-voltage-licoo2-composite-electrodes
#2
Jian Wang, Yajuan Ji, Narayana Appathurai, Jigang Zhou, Yong Yang
X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) of cycled LiCoO2 composite electrodes has revealed the interfaces of various components within the composite electrodes and their dependence on additives in the electrolyte and the interplay of multiple components in the electrodes. This study visualizes CoF2 distribution and Co-O bonding variation along with local component agglomeration and degradation. The obtained new insights will assist further development of long-life high-voltage LiCoO2/C batteries.
July 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717801/mimicking-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-3d-printed-microfluidic-in-vitro-vascular-model-based-on-computed-tomography-angiography-data
#3
Pedro F Costa, Hugo J Albers, John E A Linssen, Heleen H T Middelkamp, Linda van der Hout, Robert Passier, Albert van den Berg, Jos Malda, Andries D van der Meer
Arterial thrombosis is the main instigating factor of heart attacks and strokes, which result in over 14 million deaths worldwide every year. The mechanism of thrombosis involves factors from the blood and the vessel wall, and it also relies strongly on 3D vessel geometry and local blood flow patterns. Microfluidic chip-based vascular models allow controlled in vitro studies of the interaction between vessel wall and blood in thrombosis, but until now, they could not fully recapitulate the 3D geometry and blood flow patterns of real-life healthy or diseased arteries...
July 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717224/fibulin-4-deposition-requires-emilin-1-in-the-extracellular-matrix-of-osteoblasts
#4
Alvise Schiavinato, Douglas R Keene, Thomas Imhof, Roberto Doliana, Takako Sasaki, Gerhard Sengle
Tissue microenvironments formed by extracellular matrix networks play an important role in regulating tissue structure and function. Extracellular microfibrillar networks composed of fibrillins and their associated ligands such as LTBPs, fibulins, and EMILINs are of particular interest in this regard since they provide a specialized cellular microenvironment guiding proper morphology and functional behavior of specialized cell types. To understand how cellular microenvironments composed of intricate microfibrillar networks influence cell fate decisions in a contextual manner, more information about the spatiotemporal localization, deposition, and function of their components is required...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716765/sporadic-endolymphatic-sac-tumor-a-very-rare-cause-of-hearing-loss-tinnitus-and-dizziness
#5
Didde Trærup Schnack, Katalin Kiss, Søren Hansen, Hidemi Miyazaki, Birgitte Bech, Per Caye Thomasen
Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor is a very rare neoplasm. It is low malignant, locally destructive and expansive, but non-metastasizing. The tumor is very rare in the sporadic form, but more often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 65-year old man with left sided tinnitus and hearing loss for several months. Audiometry showed an asymmetrical sensory neural hearing loss on the left side up to 60 dB. The speech discrimination score was 46% and stapedial reflexes were absent. Several years earlier, he had suffered from periods of dizziness...
July 17, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716739/phototoxicity-in-a-laryngeal-cancer-cell-line-enhanced-by-a-targeting-amphiphilic-chlorin-photosensitizer
#6
Milene N O Moritz, Carlos Rossa, Kleber T de Oliveira, Marciana P Uliana, Janice R Perussi
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been established in several countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of various malignancies. This therapy involves the incorporation of a photosensitizer (PS) that is activated by visible light and form reactive oxygen species leading to target cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Previously, our group has demonstrated that CHL-T (semi-synthesized from chlorophyll a and containing a linked solubilizing group TRISMA(®)) presented a pronounced potential to induce death in HeLa cell line after PDT...
July 14, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716666/mouse-cardiac-mitochondria-do-not-separate-in-subsarcolemmal-and-interfibrillar-subpopulations
#7
Ulrike B Hendgen-Cotta, Sonja Esfeld, Holger Jastrow, Matthias Totzeck, Joachim Altschmied, Christine Goy, Judith Haendeler, Elke Winterhager, Tienush Rassaf
Cardiomyocytes consist of longitudinally oriented myofibril bundles with a misaligned composition caused by the uneven contours of the intercalated discs. The cytoplasmic space harbors the organelles, including mitochondria. This study investigated whether cardiomyocytes contain spatially and ultrastructurally discrete pools of mitochondria that can be separated for structurally and functionally appraisal in (patho)physiology. Transmission electron microscopy disclosed continuous transitions of mitochondria without attributable characteristics from beneath the sarcolemma directly into the barrier-free cytoplasmic space between myofibrils...
July 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715345/local-oxidation-and-reduction-of-graphene
#8
Yi-Zhe Hong, Wei-Huan Chiang, Hung-Chieh Tsai, Min-Chiang Chuang, Yen-Chien Kuo, Lo-Yueh Chang, Chia-Hao Chen, Jonathon David White, Wei-Yen Woon
Micrometer sized oxidation patterns were created in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene through scanning probe lithography (SPL) and then subsequently reduced by irradiation using a focused x-ray beam. Throughout the process, the films were characterized by lateral force microscopy (LFM), micro-Raman (µ-RS) and micro-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (µ-XPS). Firstly, the density of grain boundaries was found to be crucial in determining the maximum possible oxygen coverage with SPL. Secondly, the dominate factor in SPL oxidation was found to be the bias voltage...
July 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712725/dynamic-organization-of-chromatin-domains-revealed-by-super-resolution-live-cell-imaging
#9
Tadasu Nozaki, Ryosuke Imai, Mai Tanbo, Ryosuke Nagashima, Sachiko Tamura, Tomomi Tani, Yasumasa Joti, Masaru Tomita, Kayo Hibino, Masato T Kanemaki, Kerstin S Wendt, Yasushi Okada, Takeharu Nagai, Kazuhiro Maeshima
The eukaryotic genome is organized within cells as chromatin. For proper information output, higher-order chromatin structures can be regulated dynamically. How such structures form and behave in various cellular processes remains unclear. Here, by combining super-resolution imaging (photoactivated localization microscopy [PALM]) and single-nucleosome tracking, we developed a nuclear imaging system to visualize the higher-order structures along with their dynamics in live mammalian cells. We demonstrated that nucleosomes form compact domains with a peak diameter of ∼160 nm and move coherently in live cells...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711162/actin-cytoskeleton-stiffness-grades-metastatic-potential-of-ovarian-carcinoma-hey-a8-cells-via-nanoindentation-mapping
#10
Z L Zhou, X X Sun, J Ma, M H Tong, S K Y To, A S T Wong, A H W Ngan
Recent studies have indicated that the nanoindentation measured stiffness of carcinoma adherent cells is in general lower than normal cells, thus suggesting that cell stiffness may serve as a bio-marker for carcinoma. However, the proper establishment of such a conclusion would require biophysical understanding of the underlying mechanism of the cell stiffness. In this work, we compared the elastic moduli of the actin cytoskeletons of Hey A8 ovarian carcinoma cells with and without metastasis (HM and NM), as measured by 2D atomic force microscopy (AFM) with low-depth nanoindentation via a rate-jump method...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711067/pa-6-inhibits-inward-rectifier-currents-carried-by-v93i-and-d172n-gain-of-function-kir2-1-channels-but-increases-channel-protein-expression
#11
Yuan Ji, Marlieke G Veldhuis, Jantien Zandvoort, Fee L Romunde, Marien J C Houtman, Karen Duran, Gijs van Haaften, Eva-Maria Zangerl-Plessl, Hiroki Takanari, Anna Stary-Weinzinger, Marcel A G van der Heyden
BACKGROUND: The inward rectifier potassium current IK1 contributes to a stable resting membrane potential and phase 3 repolarization of the cardiac action potential. KCNJ2 gain-of-function mutations V93I and D172N associate with increased IK1, short QT syndrome type 3 and congenital atrial fibrillation. Pentamidine-Analogue 6 (PA-6) is an efficient (IC50 = 14 nM with inside-out patch clamp methodology) and specific IK1 inhibitor that interacts with the cytoplasmic pore region of the KIR2...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710839/enhanced-carbon-dioxide-electroreduction-to-carbon-monoxide-over-defect-rich-plasma-activated-silver-catalysts
#12
Hemma Mistry, Yong-Wook Choi, Alexander Bagger, Fabian Scholten, Cecile Bonifacio, Ilya Sinev, Nuria J Divins, Ioannis Zegkinoglou, Hyo Sang Jeon, Kim Kisslinger, Eric A Stach, Judith C Yang, Jan Rossmeisl, Beatriz Roldán Cuenya
Efficient, stable catalysts with high selectivity for a single product are essential to making the electroreduction of CO2 a viable route to the synthesis of industrial feedstocks and fuels. We reveal how a plasma oxidation pre-treatment can lead to an enhanced content of low-coordinated active sites which dramatically lower the overpotential and increase the activity of CO2 electroreduction to CO. At -0.6 V vs. RHE, more than 90% Faradaic efficiency towards CO could be achieved on a pre-oxidized silver foil...
July 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710483/near-infrared-induced-phase-shifted-icg-fe3o4-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-for-photothermal-tumor-ablation
#13
Chengcheng Niu, Yan Xu, Senbo An, Ming Zhang, Yihe Hu, Long Wang, Qinghai Peng
Near-infrared (NIR) laser-induced photothermal therapy (PTT) uses a photothermal agent to convert optical energy into thermal energy and has great potential as an effective local, minimally invasive treatment modality for killing cancer cells. To improve the efficacy of PTT, we developed poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4), indocyanine green (ICG), and perfluoropentane (PFP) as synergistic agents for NIR laser-induced PTT. We fabricated a novel type of phase-shifting fluorescent magnetic NPs, Fe3O4/ICG@PLGA/PFP NPs, that effectively produce heat in response to NIR laser irradiation for an enhanced thermal ablation effect and a phase-shift thermoelastic expansion effect, and thus, can be used as a photothermal agent...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710426/targeting-of-dopamine-transporter-to-filopodia-requires-an-outward-facing-conformation-of-the-transporter
#14
Shiqi Ma, Mary H Cheng, Daryl A Guthrie, Amy H Newman, Ivet Bahar, Alexander Sorkin
Dopamine transporter (DAT) has been shown to accumulate in filopodia in neurons and non-neuronal cells. To examine the mechanisms of DAT filopodial targeting, we used quantitative live-cell fluorescence microscopy, and compared the effects of the DAT inhibitor cocaine and its fluorescent analog JHC1-64 on the plasma membrane distribution of wild-type DAT and two non-functional DAT mutants, R60A and W63A, that do not accumulate in filopodia. W63A did not bind JHC1-64, whereas R60A did, although less efficiently compared to the wild-type DAT...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709857/remodeling-of-the-transverse-tubular-system-after-myocardial-infarction-in-rabbit-correlates-with-local-fibrosis-a-potential-role-of-biomechanics
#15
REVIEW
T Seidel, A C Sankarankutty, F B Sachse
The transverse tubular system (t-system) of ventricular cardiomyocytes is essential for efficient excitation-contraction coupling. In cardiac diseases, such as heart failure, remodeling of the t-system contributes to reduced cardiac contractility. However, mechanisms of t-system remodeling are incompletely understood. Prior studies suggested an association with altered cardiac biomechanics and gene expression in disease. Since fibrosis may alter tissue biomechanics, we investigated the local microscopic association of t-system remodeling with fibrosis in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction (MI)...
July 11, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708907/local-application-of-growth-hormone-to-enhance-osseointegration-in-osteoporotic-bones-a-morphometric-and-densitometric-study
#16
Elena Martin-Monge, Isabel F Tresguerres, Celia Clemente, Jesús Af Tresguerres
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local application of growth hormone on osseointegration of dental implants inserted in osteoporotic bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty female New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Ten were ovariectomized and fed a low-calcium diet for 6 weeks, and the others remained intact. A titanium implant was inserted into each tibia, in both groups. In half of the rabbits, 2 IU of growth hormone was placed into the ostectomy prior to the implant insertion...
July 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708385/chloroquine-modified-hydroxyethyl-starch-as-a-polymeric-drug-for-cancer-therapy
#17
Richard Sleightholm, Bin Yang, Fei Yu, Ying Xie, David Oupický
Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is a clinically used polysaccharide colloidal plasma volume expander. The goal of this study was to synthesize HES modified with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a novel polymeric drug with the ability to inhibit the invasive character of pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. HES was conjugated with HCQ using a simple carbonyldiimidazole coupling to prepare Chloroquine-modified HES (CQ-HES). CQ-HES with various degrees of HCQ substitution were synthesized and characterized. Atomic force microscopy was used to demonstrate a pH-dependent assembly of CQ-HES into well-defined nanoparticles...
July 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708371/exploring-new-mechanisms-for-effective-antimicrobial-materials-electric-contact-killing-based-on-multiple-schottky-barriers
#18
Eva De Lucas-Gil, Julián Jiménez Reinosa, Kerstin Neuhaus, Liliana Vera, Marisol S Martin-Gonzalez, Jose F Fernandez, Fernando Rubio-Marcos
The increasing threat of multidrug-resistance organisms is a cause for worldwide concern. Progressively microorganisms become resistant to commonly used antibiotics, which are a healthcare challenge. Thus, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents or new mechanisms different from those used is necessary. Here, we report an effective and selective antimicrobial activity of microstructured ZnO (Ms-ZnO) agent through the design of a novel star-shaped morphology, resulting in modulation of surface charge orientation...
July 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708098/combining-primed-photoconversion-and-uv-photoactivation-for-aberration-free-live-cell-compliant-multi-color-single-molecule-localization-microscopy-imaging
#19
David Virant, Bartosz Turkowyd, Alexander Balinovic, Ulrike Endesfelder
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy plays a major role in revealing the organization and dynamics of living cells. Nevertheless, single-molecule localization microscopy imaging of multiple targets is still limited by the availability of suitable fluorophore combinations. Here, we introduce a novel imaging strategy which combines primed photoconversion (PC) and UV-photoactivation for imaging different molecular species tagged by suitable fluorescent protein combinations. In this approach, the fluorescent proteins can be specifically photoactivated/-converted by different light wavelengths using PC and UV-activation modes but emit fluorescence in the same spectral emission channel...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707893/dislocations-in-algan-core-structure-atom-segregation-and-optical-properties
#20
Fabien C-P Massabuau, Sneha L Rhode, Matthew K Horton, Thomas J O'Hanlon, Andras Kovacs, Marcin S Zielinski, Menno J Kappers, Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski, Colin J Humphreys, Rachel A Oliver
We conducted a comprehensive investigation of dislocations in Al0.46Ga0.54N. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the atomic structure and atom distribution at the dislocation core have been examined. We report that the core configuration of dislocations in AlGaN is consistent with that of other materials in the III-Nitride system. However we observed that the dissociation of mixed-type dislocations is impeded by alloying GaN with AlN, which is confirmed by our experimental observation of Ga and Al atom segregation in the tensile and compressive parts of the dislocations, respectively...
July 14, 2017: Nano Letters
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