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N D B Ehelepola, A N Abayagunawardana, T N Sudusinghe
BACKGROUND: Hemolysis can occur in people with G6PD deficiency under oxidative stress. Acalypha indica is a tropical plant used as a medicinal plant as well as a vegetable. There are a few reported cases of Acalypha indica ingestion induced hemolysis in G6PD deficient people. All except one of them are from Sri Lanka. The information available at present (2017) about G6PD deficiency prevalence and variants of the G6PD gene among Sri Lankans is very sparse. There are no past reports on hemolytic crisis in a G6PD deficient person presenting mimicking leptospirosis...
March 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Monique B Ewonkem, Sarina Grinberg
Based on ricinoleic acid, two asymmetric bolaamphiphiles with unsymmetrical hydrophobic skeletons and two different hydrophilic head groups were designed and synthesized. The first bola compound had acetylcholine (ACh) and maleimide (MAL) head groups while the second was derived from the first bolaamphiphile by thiol-ene conjugation of its maleimide moiety with l-glutathione and possessed ACh and l-glutathione-MAL head groups. Both synthetic bolaamphiphiles were characterized by common spectroscopic methods...
February 2, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Mascha Hansen
Elizabeth Carter suffered from severe headaches all her life. Her letters are peppered with references to fits of "head-ach" so bad they made her bold enough to demand her own room wherever she visited, and to cherish a preference for solitude contrary to the ideal of Bluestocking sociability. Following her friends and physicians, she bowed to fashionable diagnoses in considering these headaches the result of a nervous constitution, and she was prescribed the usual remedies, including sociable trips to fashionable watering places...
2017: Literature and Medicine
Gordana Glavan, Monika Kos, Janko Božič, Damjana Drobne, Jerica Sabotič, Anita Jemec Kokalj
Organophosphate pesticide diazinon is a specific inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is a common neurotoxicity biomarker in environmental studies. In honeybees, AChE exists in two forms having different physiological roles, one existing as a soluble form and the other as membrane-bound. In most studies AChE activity has been analysed without paying considerable attention to different forms of AChE. In this study, we exposed honeybees Apis mellifera carnica for 10days to diazinon via oral exposure and analysed the total AChE activities in salt soluble (SS) and detergent soluble (DS) fractions...
December 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Matthew M Hanks, JoEllen M Sefton, Gretchen D Oliver
BACKGROUND: Advanced combat helmets (ACH) coupled with night-vision goggles (NVG) are required for tactical athletes during training and service. Head and neck injuries due to head supported mass (HSM) are a common occurrence in military personnel. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of HSM on neck muscle fatigue that may lead to chronic stress and injury of the head and neck. METHODS: Subjects wore an ACH and were affixed with electromagnetic sensors to obtain kinematic data, as well as EMG electrodes to obtain muscle activations of bilateral sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and paraspinal muscles while running on a treadmill...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Márcia Rósula Poetini, Stífani Machado Araujo, Mariane Trindade de Paula, Vandreza Cardoso Bortolotto, Luana Barreto Meichtry, Francielli Polet de Almeida, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse, Simone Noremberg Kunz, Marina Prigol
This study has evaluated the action of flavonoid hesperidin on the neurotoxic effects caused by the intake of iron (Fe) in Drosophila melanogaster. Male adult flies, aged 1-3 days, have been divided into four groups of 50 each: (1) control, (2) Hsd 10 μM, (3) Fe 20 mM (4) Hsd 10 μM + Fe 20 mM. During the exposure protocol, the flies have been exposed to a diet containing Hsd and/or Fe for 48 h. The survival and behavioral analyses have been carried out in vivo, and ex vivo. The analyses involved acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Fe levels in the flies' heads and bodies and determination of dopaminergic levels, cellular and mitochondrial viability, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reactive species levels (RS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and contents of total thiols and non-proteic thiols (NPSH) in the flies' heads...
January 5, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Lena Stütz, Stefan C Weiss, Wolfgang Schulz, Wolfgang Schwack, Rudi Winzenbacher
There are thousands of organic trace substances in the environment that are not fully characterized, and evaluation of their relevance to the ecosystem is difficult. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a suitable tool to assess the effects of a substance via in-vitro bioassays, which can provide information about the relevance of the substance. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been shown to be a good method for fractionation. Environmental samples, however, often have high complexity, which is why the peak capacity of HPTLC is not sufficient...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Deividi C S Soares, José L R Portela, Daniel H Roos, Nathane R Rodrigues, Karen K Gomes, Giulianna E Macedo, Thais Posser, Jeferson L Franco, Waseem Hassan, Robson L Puntel
PTZ is a convulsive agent that acts via selective blockage of GABAA receptor channels, whereas 4-AP leads to a convulsive episode via blockage of K(+) channels. However, the mechanism(s) by which pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) cause toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster needs to be properly explored, once it will help in establishing an alternative model for development of proper therapeutic strategies and also to counteract the changes associated with exposure to both epileptic drugs. For the purpose, we investigated the effects of exposure (48 h) to PTZ (60 mM) and/or 4-AP (20 mM) on survival, locomotor performance, and biochemical markers in the body and/or head of flies...
October 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Mandarapu Surendra, Sree Bhushan Raju, Nimmagadda Sridhar, Bangillapati Vijay Kiran, Goli Rajesh, Golla Anvesh, Nallagasu Raju
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in end stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with increased mortality. Recently, numerous directly acting antiviral agents have been approved for the management of HCV. Ledipasvir along with Sofosbuvir has been approved for management of genotype 1 infection in patients with eGFR ≥30 mL/min. However, there is paucity of data regarding its role in the management of patients on dialysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a single center prospective open label observational study to assess the safety and efficacy of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir in hemodialysis (HD) patients who were diagnosed with HCV genotype 1 infection...
October 3, 2017: Hemodialysis International
D K L Tay, K P Pang
Clinical and radiographic characteristics of a subset of South East Asian temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with comorbid upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) were documented in a multi-center prospective series of 86 patients (26 men and 60 women / mean age 35.7 years). All had excessive daytime sleepiness, high arousal index and Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI) <5. The mean body mass index was 20·1, mean arousal index 16·2, mean respiratory disturbance index 19·6, mean AHI 3·9 while the mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale was 14·8...
January 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Qiqing Chen, Daqiang Yin, Yunlu Jia, Sabrina Schiwy, Jessica Legradi, Shouye Yang, Henner Hollert
Plastic particles have been proven to be abundant in the aquatic environment, raising concerns about their potential toxic effects. In the present study, we determined the bioaccumulation potential of bisphenol A (BPA) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) in the absence and presence of nano-sized plastic particles (nanoplastics, NPPs). Results show that BPA can accumulate in the viscera, gill, head and muscle of zebrafish with 85, 43, 20, and 3μg/g ww after 1d exposure. NPPs were also found to accumulate in different tissues of the fish...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xinhai Ye, Liwen Yang, David Stanley, Fei Li, Qi Fang
Among its other biological roles, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC, encoded by two ace in most insects, catalyses the breakdown of acetylcholine, thereby terminating synaptic transmission. ace1 encodes the synaptic enzyme and ace2 has other essential actions in many insect species, such as Chilo suppressalis and Plutella xylostella. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been domesticated for more than two thousand years and its aces have no history of pesticide exposure. Here, we investigated the functional differences between two ace genes, BmAce1 and BmAce2, in the silkworm...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Stefan Stadler, Dierk Endemann, Lars S Maier
Acute myocardial infarction is the second most common cause of mortality in Germany after chronic ischemic cardiac disease. It is essential to think of acute coronary syndrome also in patients who do not present with typical signs (pressure, tightness, pain, or a squeezing or aching sensation in the chest or arms that may spread to the neck, jaw or back) in the general practitioner's practice. Vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation) must be measured; an ECG should be recorded and analyzed within ten minutes of first medical contact...
July 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Ruchika Ravi Agrawal, Jyoti Dilip Bhavthankar, Mandakini Subhash Mandale, Purva Prakash Patil
INTRODUCTION: Osteosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor whose cancerous cells produce osteoid matrix. It is a common primary malignant bone tumor, representing 23% of total head and neck malignancies. Osteosarcomas of the jaws are rare lesions, representing only 4-7% of all osteosarcomas. This presentation discusses the clinical, radiographical, and histopathological features of a case of osteosarcoma of the mandible with unusual histopathological appearance. CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old male patient reported with a diffuse swelling of the right side of mandible with dull ache and increasing difficulties with eating and speech...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Wondimu Gudu
BACKGROUND: Eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Maternal catastrophe is made worse in developing countries by the high incidence coupled with delayed presentation of patients and health facility constraints in effective management of eclampsia and its complications. METHODS: A prospective study of all 93 eclamptic women admitted to a general hospital in Somali regional state, Ethiopia was conducted between May 1, 2014 and April 30, 2015 using a structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic data, antenatal visit status, distance of nearest maternal health facility, timing of convulsions, questions related to symptoms preceding seizures; health care seeking for the symptoms and time interval from prodromal symptoms to the diagnosis of eclampsia...
March 14, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
A Destina Yalçın, Hülya Ertaşoğlu Toydemir
PURPOSE: The aim was to identify the demographic, electroencephalographic findings, clinical features, especially ictal semiological symptoms of patients diagnosed with Panayiotopoulos Syndrome. METHOD: The semiologic and EEG findings of 42 patients were reviewed. Statistical analysis was used to determine the frequencies of semiologic features and to define the symptom clusters. RESULTS: The most common clinical features were nausea (54.8%), vomiting (50...
March 2017: Epilepsy Research
Yi-Ching Lee, I-Wen Song, Ya-Ju Pai, Sheng-De Chen, Yuan-Tsong Chen
Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common genetic dwarfism in human, is caused by a gain-of function mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Currently, there is no effective treatment for ACH. The development of an appropriate human-relevant model is important for testing potential therapeutic interventions before human clinical trials. Here, we have generated an ACH mouse model in which the endogenous mouse Fgfr3 gene was replaced with human FGFR3(G380R) (FGFR3(ACH)) cDNA, the most common mutation in human ACH...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sridhar Boppana, Natalie Kendall, Opeyemi Akinrinsola, Daniel White, Krushali Patel, Hakeem Lawal
Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) function is essential for organismal survival, mediating the packaging of acetylcholine (ACh) for exocytotic release. However, its expression pattern in the Drosophila brain has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the localization of VAChT, we developed an antibody against the C terminal region of the protein and we show that this antibody recognizes a 65KDa protein corresponding to VAChT on an immunoblot in both Drosophila head homogenates and in Schneider 2 cells...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Sumitra Arora, Sahil Balotra, Gunjan Pandey, Anu Kumar
Anticholinesterase insecticides such as organophosphorous (OP) and carbamates pesticides (CB); and synthetic pyrethroids (SP) pesticides commonly co-occur in the environment. This raises the possibility of antagonistic, additive, or synergistic neurotoxicity in exposed organisms. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition has been demonstrated to be useful as a biomarker for exposure to OP and CBs in many environments. This study investigated the response of housefly (Musca domestica) head AChE (HF-AChE) exposed to five OPs; chlorpyrifos (CPF), malathion (MLT), triazophos (TRZ), monocrotophos (MCP) and profenofos (PRF) and two CBs; carbaryl (CRB) and carbofuran (CBF) as individual compounds and as binary mixtures of OPs and CBs under in vitro conditions...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Guangning Nie, Hongyan Yang, Jian Liu, ChunMei Zhao, Xiaoyun Wang
OBJECTIVE: The Menopause-Specific Quality-of-Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was developed as a specific tool to measure the health-related quality-of-life of postmenopausal women. Thus far, the Chinese version questionnaire has not been subjected to psychometric assessment with a large sample. This study aims to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the MENQOL specific to postmenopausal women in China. METHODS: A total of 1,137 menopausal symptomatic and 491 menopausal asymptomatic women from eight cities in China were recruited using a convenience sampling method...
May 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
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