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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778188/national-surveillance-plan-for-infectious-bovine-rhinotracheitis-ibr-in-autochthonous-italian-cattle-breeds-results-of-first-year-of-activity
#1
Carmen Maresca, Eleonora Scoccia, Annalisa Dettori, Andrea Felici, Roberta Guarcini, Stefano Petrini, Andrea Quaglia, Giovanni Filippini
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777527/limiting-motor-skill-knowledge-via-incidental-training-protects-against-choking-under-pressure
#2
Taraz G Lee, Daniel E Acuña, Konrad P Kording, Scott T Grafton
The paradoxical harmful effects of motivation and incentives on skilled performance ("choking under pressure") are observed in a wide variety of motor tasks. Two theories of this phenomenon suggest that choking under pressure occurs due to maladaptive attention and top-down control, either through distraction away from the task or interference via an overreliance on controlled processing of a skilled task. A third theory, overmotivation (or overarousal), suggests that under pressure, "instinctive" or Pavlovian approach/withdrawal responses compete with the desired response...
May 18, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776786/increases-in-sugary-drink-marketing-during-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-benefit-issuance-in-new-york
#3
Alyssa J Moran, Aviva Musicus, Mary T Gorski Findling, Ian F Brissette, Ann A Lowenfels, S V Subramanian, Christina A Roberto
INTRODUCTION: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program, providing $67 billion in benefits to 44 million Americans. Some states distribute SNAP benefits over one or a few days each month, which may create an incentive for retailers to heavily promote top-selling products, like sugar-sweetened beverages, when benefits are disbursed. METHODS: A beverage environment scan assessing presence of displays, advertisements, and price promotions for sugar-sweetened, low-calorie, and unsweetened beverages was administered in a census of SNAP-authorized beverage retailers (n=630) in three cities in New York from November to September 2011...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776596/surgical-procedures-in-health-professional-shortage-areas-impact-of-a-surgical-incentive-payment-plan
#4
Adrian Diaz, Katiuscha Merath, Fabio Bagante, Qinyu Chen, Ozgur Akgul, Eliza Beal, Jay Idrees, Griffin Olsen, Faiz Gani, Timothy M Pawlik
INTRODUCTION: The Affordable Care Act established a Center for Medicare/Medicaid Services based 10% reimbursement bonus for general surgeons in Health Professional Shortage Areas. We sought to assess the impact of the Affordable Care Act Surgery Incentive Payment on surgical procedures performed in Health Professional Shortage Areas. METHODS: Hospital utilization data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2015, were used to categorize hospitals according to Health Professional Shortage Area location...
May 15, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775958/a-systematic-review-of-community-based-interventions-to-improve-oral-chronic-disease-medication-regimen-adherence-among-individuals-with-substance-use-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Karen M Clements, Tasmina Hydery, Mark A Tesell, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Angelini
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence has been shown to cause medical complications, death, and increased healthcare costs and may be of particular importance in patients with substance use disorder (SUD). Concerns regarding adherence in this population may influence a healthcare provider's decision to prescribe a medication requiring high adherence. Guidance defining best practices that promote adherence among individuals with SUD is lacking. METHODS: A review of English articles in Medline and PsycINFO databases, published between October 1, 1994 and October 31, 2017, was conducted in order to identify studies of interventions intended to improve adherence to oral chronic disease medication regimens among patients with SUD...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775799/exploding-asthma-and-adhd-caseloads-the-role-of-medicaid-managed-care
#6
Anna Chorniy, Janet Currie, Lyudmyla Sonchak
In the U.S., nearly 11% of school-age children have been diagnosed with ADHD, and approximately 10% of children suffer from asthma. In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with these conditions has inexplicably been on the rise. This increase has been concentrated in the Medicaid caseload nationwide. One of the most striking changes in Medicaid has been the transition from fee-for-service (FFS) reimbursement to Medicaid managed care (MMC), which had taken place in 80% of states by 2016. Using Medicaid claims from South Carolina, we show that this change contributed to the increase in asthma and ADHD caseloads...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774000/does-despotic-leadership-harm-employee-family-life-exploring-the-effects-of-emotional-exhaustion-and-anxiety
#7
Shazia Nauman, Tasneem Fatima, Inam Ul Haq
Research has not focused on the negative effects of despotic leadership on subordinates' life satisfaction and the interface between work and family. Drawing on the Conservation of Resources theory, this research investigates the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion through which despotic leadership transcends from the workplace to subordinates' personal lives, resulting in work-family conflict and decreased life satisfaction. The research also examines the moderating effect of subordinates' anxiety on the relationship of their perceptions of despotic leadership with work-family conflict and life satisfaction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772220/cue-awareness-in-avoiding-effortful-control
#8
Timothy L Dunn, Connor Gaspar, Evan F Risko
Based on a recent metacognitive account, cognitive effort is the result of an inferential evaluation made over explicitly available cues. Following from this account, we present here a pre-registered experiment that tested the specific hypothesis that explicit awareness of cues that are aligned with cognitive demand is a prerequisite in avoiding effortful lines of action. We attempted to modulate levels of effort avoidance behavior by introducing an incentive (between-subjects) to monitor two lines of action that, unbeknownst to individuals, varied in the probability of a task switch...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770445/cost-effectiveness-of-a-community-based-diabetes-prevention-program-with-participation-incentives-for-medicaid-beneficiaries
#9
Todd Gilmer, Patrick J O'Connor, Jeffrey S Schiff, Gretchen Taylor, Gabriela Vazquez-Benitez, Joyce E Garrett, Houa Vue-Her, Sarah Rinn, Julie Anderson, Jay Desai
OBJECTIVE: To examine the cost-effectiveness of a community-based Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) for Medicaid beneficiaries from the perspective of the health care sector. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A total of 847 Medicaid enrollees at high risk for type 2 diabetes participating in a community-based DPP. STUDY DESIGN: Pre- and post clinical outcome and cost data were used as inputs into a validated diabetes simulation model. The model was used to evaluate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and health care costs over a 40-year time horizon from the perspective of the health care sector...
May 16, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770443/the-impact-of-policy-incentives-on-long-term-care-insurance-and-medicaid-costs-does-underwriting-matter
#10
Portia Y Cornell, David C Grabwoski
OBJECTIVE: To test whether underwriting modifies the effect of state-based incentives on individuals' purchase of long-term care insurance. DATA SOURCE: Health and Retirement Study (HRS), 1996-2012. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated difference-in-difference regression models with an interaction of state policy indicators with individuals' probabilities of being approved for long-term care insurance. DATA EXTRACTION: We imputed probabilities of underwriting approval for respondents in the HRS using a model developed with underwriting decisions from two U...
May 16, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770325/linking-supply-chain-governance-and-biosecurity-in-the-context-of-hpai-control-in-western-java-a-value-chain-perspective
#11
Dikky Indrawan, Karl M Rich, Peter van Horne, Arief Daryanto, Henk Hogeveen
Despite extensive efforts to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), it remains endemic in Western Java, Indonesia. To understand the limited effectiveness of HPAI control measures, it is important to map the complex structure of the poultry sector. The governance of the poultry value chain in particular, could play a pivotal role, yet there is limited information on the different chain governance structures and their impacts on HPAI control. This article uses value chain analysis (VCA), focusing on an in-depth assessment of governance structures as well as transaction cost economics and quantitative estimates of the market power of different chain actors, to establish a theoretical framework to examine biosecurity and HPAI control in the Western Java poultry chain...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769285/the-broad-socioeconomic-benefits-of-vaccination
#12
REVIEW
David E Bloom, Victoria Y Fan, J P Sevilla
Evaluating vaccination programs according to their broad socioeconomic benefits, beyond their health benefits, will help to address the twin problems of vaccine underutilization and weak incentives for vaccine innovation.
May 16, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767835/strategic-leadership-will-be-essential-for-dietitian-ehealth-readiness-a-qualitative-study-exploring-dietitian-perspectives-of-ehealth-readiness
#13
Kirsty Maunder, Karen Walton, Peter Williams, Maree Ferguson, Eleanor Beck
AIM: To explore dietitians' perspectives on the eHealth readiness of Australian dietitians, and to identify strategies to improve eHealth readiness of the profession. METHODS: Dietitians who met the criteria for nutrition informatics experts participated in semi-structured interviews between June 2016 and March 2017. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis using coding was undertaken until consensus was reached by the researchers regarding key themes, topics and exemplar quotes...
May 16, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765295/incentives-for-blood-donation-a-discrete-choice-experiment-to-analyze-extrinsic-motivation
#14
Andrew Sadler, Ling Shi, Susanne Bethge, Axel Mühlbacher
Background: Demographic trends affect size and age structure of populations. One of the consequences will be an increasing need for blood products to treat age-related diseases. Donation services rely on voluntariness and charitable motivation. It might be questioned whether there will be sufficient blood supply with voluntary donation. The present study focused on elicitation of preferences for incentives and aimed to contribute to the discussion on how to increase donation rates. Methods: A self-administered discrete choice experiment (DCE) was applied...
April 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764795/mapping-of-crowdsourcing-in-health-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Perrine Créquit, Ghizlène Mansouri, Mehdi Benchoufi, Alexandre Vivot, Philippe Ravaud
BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing involves obtaining ideas, needed services, or content by soliciting Web-based contributions from a crowd. The 4 types of crowdsourced tasks (problem solving, data processing, surveillance or monitoring, and surveying) can be applied in the 3 categories of health (promotion, research, and care). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to map the different applications of crowdsourcing in health to assess the fields of health that are using crowdsourcing and the crowdsourced tasks used...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764767/a-systematic-review-of-mobile-produce-markets-facilitators-and-barriers-to-use-and-associations-with-reported-fruit-and-vegetable-intake
#16
Bi-Sek Hsiao, Lindiwe Sibeko, Lisa M Troy
BACKGROUND: Diet-related chronic diseases are a major public health burden. There is growing awareness that disparities in healthful food access contribute to disparities in health. Mobile produce markets (MPMs) have emerged as a strategy to improve fruit and vegetable access and consumption, particularly among low-income, minority, and other vulnerable populations (eg, older adults and children) in food desert neighborhoods. OBJECTIVE: This review examined research on MPMs in the United States and specifically aimed to assess the relationship between MPM use and fruit and/or vegetable intake, and facilitators and barriers related to MPM use within a social ecological framework...
May 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763610/sequential-interactions-in-which-one-player-plays-first-and-another-responds-promote-cooperation-in-evolutionary-dynamical-simulations-of-single-shot-prisoner-s-dilemma-and-snowdrift-games
#17
Robert A Laird
Cooperation is a central topic in evolutionary biology because (a) it is difficult to reconcile why individuals would act in a way that benefits others if such action is costly to themselves, and (b) it underpins many of the 'major transitions of evolution', making it essential for explaining the origins of successively higher levels of biological organization. Within evolutionary game theory, the Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift games are the main theoretical constructs used to study the evolution of cooperation in dyadic interactions...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761482/timing-of-onset-of-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-the-icu-protocol-for-a-preplanned-observational-study
#18
A Granholm, T Lange, C T Anthon, S Marker, M Krag, T S Meyhoff, M P Wise, M Borthwick, S Bendel, F Keus, A B Guttormsen, J C Schefold, J Wetterslev, A Perner, M H Møller
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, but clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. The majority of intensive care unit (ICU) patients receive stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP), despite uncertainty concerning the balance between benefit and harm. For approximately half of ICU patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, onset is early, ie within the first two days of the ICU stay. The aetiology of gastrointestinal bleeding and consequently the balance between benefit and harm of SUP may differ between patients with early vs late gastrointestinal bleeding...
May 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761060/loss-anticipation-and-outcome-during-the-monetary-incentive-delay-task-a-neuroimaging-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Jules R Dugré, Alexandre Dumais, Nathalie Bitar, Stéphane Potvin
Background: Reward seeking and avoidance of punishment are key motivational processes. Brain-imaging studies often use the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT) to evaluate motivational processes involved in maladaptive behavior. Although the bulk of research has been done on the MIDT reward events, little is known about the neural basis of avoidance of punishment. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain activations during anticipation and receipt of monetary losses in healthy controls...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757478/varying-the-rate-of-intravenous-cocaine-infusion-influences-the-temporal-dynamics-of-both-drug-and-dopamine-concentrations-in-the-striatum
#20
Ellie-Anna Minogianis, Waqqas M Shams, Omar S Mabrouk, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Wayne G Brake, Robert T Kennedy, Patrick du Souich, Anne-Noël Samaha
The faster drugs of abuse reach the brain, the greater is the risk of addiction. Even small differences in the rate of drug delivery can influence outcome. Infusing cocaine intravenously over 5 versus 90-100 seconds promotes sensitization to the psychomotor and incentive motivational effects of the drug and preferentially recruits mesocorticolimbic regions. It remains unclear whether these effects are due to differences in how fast and/or how much drug reaches the brain. Here, we predicted that varying the rate of intravenous cocaine infusion between 5-90 seconds produces different rates of rise of brain drug concentrations, while producing similar peak concentrations...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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