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David Kavaler, Vladimir Filkov
Stack Overflow is a popular crowdsourced question and answer website for programming-related issues. It is an invaluable resource for software developers; on average, questions posted there get answered in minutes to an hour. Questions about well established topics, e.g., the coercion operator in C++, or the difference between canonical and class names in Java, get asked often in one form or another, and answered very quickly. On the other hand, questions on previously unseen or niche topics take a while to get a good answer...
2018: PloS One
Hamish Low, Luigi Pistaferri
We provide a life-cycle framework for comparing insurance and disincentive effects of disability benefits. The risks that individuals face and the parameters of the Disability Insurance (DI ) program are estimated from consumption, health, disability insurance, and wage data. We characterize the effects of disability insurance and study how policy reforms impact behavior and welfare. DI features high rejection rates of disabled applicants and some acceptance of healthy applicants. Despite worse incentives, welfare increases as programs become less strict or generosity increases...
October 2018: American Economic Review
Ziv Bell, Tiffany Shader, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, M Jamila Reid, Theodore P Beauchaine
Abnormal patterns of sympathetic- and parasympathetic- linked cardiac activity and reactivity are observed among externalizing children, and mark deficiencies in central nervous system regulation of behavior and emotion. Although changes in these biomarkers have been observed following treatment, mechanisms remain unexplored. We used MEMORE-a new approach to analyzing intervening variable effects-to evaluate improvements in parenting as mediators of changes in SNS- and PNS-linked cardiac activity and reactivity among 99 preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treated using an empirically supported intervention...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
Ebele M Umeukeje, Marcus G Wild, Saugar Maripuri, Teresa Davidson, Margaret Rutherford, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Julia Lewis, Consuelo H Wilkins, Kerri Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of ESKD is three times higher in black Americans than in whites, and CKD prevalence continues to rise among black Americans. Community-based kidney disease screening may increase early identification and awareness of black Americans at risk, but it is challenging to implement. This study aimed to identify participants' perspectives of community kidney disease screening. The Health Belief Model provides a theoretic framework for conceptualization of these perspectives and optimization of community kidney disease screening activities...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
James A McClintic, Clifford L Snyder, Kimberly M Brown
OBJECTIVE: Although key clinical skills have been defined in the Core Entrustable Professional Activities, there is a need to improve medical school curricula with standardized training opportunities and assessments of these skills. Thus, we aimed to develop an innovative curriculum that emphasized critical thinking and clinical skills. We hypothesized that we would be able to observe measurable improvement on assessments of students' critical thinking and clinical skills after the implementation of the new curriculum...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Cordula Göke, Karsten Dahl, Christian Mohn
The development of offshore wind energy and other competing interests in sea space are a major incentive for designating marine and coastal areas for specific human activities. Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) considers human activities at sea in a more integrated way by analysing and designating spatial and temporal distributions of human activities based on ecological, economic and social targets. However, specific tools supporting spatial decisions at sea incorporating all relevant sectors are rarely adopted...
2018: PloS One
Eleni M Rettig, Carole Fakhry, Russell K Hales, Flora Kisuule, Harry Quon, Ana P Kiess, Linda X Yin, Yuehan Zhang, Amanda L Blackford, M Bradley Drummond, Christine G Gourin, Wayne M Koch, David W Eisele, Gypsyamber D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Smoking among patients with cancer is associated with poor outcomes, however, smoking cessation interventions have had limited success. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial compared a novel smoking cessation intervention ("intervention") with enhanced usual care ("control"). Participants were smokers with head and neck or thoracic malignancies undergoing radiation. Controls received brief counseling. Intervention participants received intensive counseling, pharmacotherapy, text-messaging, and financial incentives...
March 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Rajeev Seth, Ibukunoluwa Akinboyo, Ankur Chhabra, Yawar Qaiyum, Anita Shet, Nikhil Gupte, Ajay K Jain, Sanjay K Jain
OBJECTIVES: Young children in resource-poor settings remain inadequately immunized. We evaluated the role of compliance-linked incentives versus mobile phone messaging to improve childhood immunizations. METHODS: Children aged ≤24 months from a rural community in India were randomly assigned to either a control group or 1 of 2 study groups. A cloud-based, biometric-linked software platform was used for positive identification, record keeping for all groups, and delivery of automated mobile phone reminders with or without compliance-linked incentives (Indian rupee Rs30 or US dollar $0...
March 14, 2018: Pediatrics
Regina Wing Shan Sit, Keith Kwok Wai Chan, Benjamin Hon Kei Yip, Daisy Dexing Zhang, Kenneth Dean Reeves, Ying Ho Chan, Vincent Chi Ho Chung, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong
INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common, disabling and costly medical condition. The patellofemoral joint is a critical source of pain in individuals with KOA, and coexistence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (TFOA) is sometimes observed. The identification of subgroups with PFOA and customised interventions to correct underlying pathomechanics is beneficial for individuals with KOA. This study aims to evaluate whether a clinic-based patella mobilisation therapy (PMT) leads to significant improvement in pain, physical function and quality of life of individuals with KOA...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Karen E Joynt Maddox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Lisa B VanWagner, Fasiha Kanwal
With the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) followed by the physician payment reform, there is an urgent need to better understand the complex relationships between structure (including incentives), processes, and outcomes of health care and, based on this understanding, identify interventions that can ensure delivery of high value care to patients with liver disease. As hepatologists, how do we systematically address these issues and ensure that we provide high-value care to our patients? These factors combine in the burgeoning field of health services research...
March 14, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Mitesh S Patel, Kevin G Volpp, Roy Rosin, Scarlett L Bellamy, Dylan S Small, Jack Heuer, Susan Sproat, Chris Hyson, Nancy Haff, Samantha M Lee, Lisa Wesby, Karen Hoffer, David Shuttleworth, Devon H Taylor, Victoria Hilbert, Jingsan Zhu, Lin Yang, Xingmei Wang, David A Asch
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of lottery-based financial incentives in increasing physical activity. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: University of Pennsylvania Employees. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 209 adults with body mass index ≥27. INTERVENTIONS: All participants used smartphones to track activity, were given a goal of 7000 steps per day, and received daily feedback on performance for 26 weeks...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
John P A Ioannidis
Meta-research is the study of research itself: its methods, reporting, reproducibility, evaluation, and incentives. Given that science is the key driver of human progress, improving the efficiency of scientific investigation and yielding more credible and more useful research results can translate to major benefits. The research enterprise grows very fast. Both new opportunities for knowledge and innovation and new threats to validity and scientific integrity emerge. Old biases abound, and new ones continuously appear as novel disciplines emerge with different standards and challenges...
March 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
Allison K Ikeda, Paul Hong, Stacey L Ishman, Stephanie A Joe, Gregory W Randolph, Jennifer J Shin
In our previous installment, we introduced shared decision making (SDM) as a collaborative process in which patients, families, and clinicians develop a mutually optimized treatment plan when more than 1 reasonable treatment option exists. In this subsequent installment of our Evidence-Based Medicine in Otolaryngology Series, we expand on the topic of SDM, including the related current state of clinical decision making, the impact of SDM on health care utilization and patient satisfaction, the potential role of system and society changes, the experience with SDM as it relates to race and ethnicity, existing financial incentives, and the validated instruments that assess the extent to which SDM occurs...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Jacqueline Ho, Jhih-Shyang Shih, Lucija Muehlenbachs, Clayton Munnings, Alan Krupnick
Inactive oil and gas wells present an environmental hazard if not properly plugged. Upon drilling a well, operators are required to post a bond, which ensures both that the operator has an incentive to plug and abandon (P&A) at the end of the well's life, and that, if the state is left with the liability of managing "orphaned" wells, it can cover the cost of P&A. Using data from 13 state agencies on their expenditures to plug orphan wells, we provide new estimates of P&A costs in the United States and compare P&A costs to bonds...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Kristen Evans, Manuel R Guariguata, Pedro H S Brancalion
New, global initiatives to restore forest landscapes present an unparalleled opportunity to reverse deforestation and forest degradation. Participatory monitoring could play a crucial role in providing accountability, generating local buy in, and catalyzing learning in monitoring systems that need scalability and adaptability to a range of local sites. We synthesized current knowledge from literature searches and interviews to provide lessons for the development of a scalable, multisite participatory monitoring system...
March 13, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Stergios Vakalis, Carlo Caligiuri, Konstantinos Moustakas, Dimitris Malamis, Massimiliano Renzi, Marco Baratieri
There is a growing market demand for small-scale biomass gasifiers that is driven by the economic incentives and the legislative framework. Small-scale gasifiers produce a gaseous fuel, commonly referred to as producer gas, with relatively low heating value. Thus, the most common energy conversion systems that are coupled with small-scale gasifiers are internal combustion engines. In order to increase the electrical efficiency, the operators choose dual fuel engines and mix the producer gas with diesel. The Wiebe function has been a valuable tool for assessing the efficiency of dual fuel internal combustion engines...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rumina Hasan, Sadia Shakoor, Johanna Hanefeld, Mishal Khan
Many low- and middle-income countries facing high levels of antimicrobial resistance, and the associated morbidity from ineffective treatment, also have a high burden of tuberculosis. Over recent decades many countries have developed effective laboratory and information systems for tuberculosis control. In this paper we describe how existing tuberculosis laboratory systems can be expanded to accommodate antimicrobial resistance functions. We show how such expansion in services may benefit tuberculosis case-finding and laboratory capacity through integration of laboratory services...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Kay Dickersin, Evan Mayo-Wilson
We find standards useful in everyday life and in science, although we do not always follow them. Adopting new standards can be expensive, so there may be a strong incentive to maintain the status quo rather than adopt new standards. The scientific community has many standards encompassing both doing clinical research and reporting it, including standards for design and measurement. Although existing research standards have improved both research and its reporting, we need to unify existing standards and to fill the gaps between steps throughout the research process...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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