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Marcus Sonier, William Chu, Nafisha Lalani, Darby Erler, Patrick Cheung, Renee Korol
To develop a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning solution in the treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma and oligometastatic adrenal lesions with stereotactic body radiation therapy. Single-arc VMAT plans (n = 5) were compared with clinically delivered step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with planning target volume coverage normalized between techniques. Target volume conformity, organ-at-risk (OAR) dose, treatment time, and monitor units were compared. A VMAT planning solution, created from a combination of arc settings and optimization constraints, auto-generated treatment plans in a single optimization...
October 13, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Vaitheeswaran Ranganathan, K Joseph Maria Das
AIM: An empirical scheme called "anatomy-guided segment counting (AGSC)" is proposed for automatic selection of maximum number of segments (NOS) for direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). BACKGROUND: Direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) requires the user to define the maximum number of segments (NOS) in order to proceed with an optimization process. Till date there is no established approach to arrive at an optimal and case-specific maximum NOS in DMPO, and this step is largely left to the planner's experience...
November 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Y B He, L Bai, T Li, X W Ji, Aji Tuerganaili, Y Jiang, J M Zhao, Y M Shao, W Y Liu, H Wen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical value of three-dimensional(3D) visualization technology in pre-operative assessment and surgical planning for patients with hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. METHODS: Eighty-five hepatic alveolar echinococcosis patients received surgical treatment in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between May 2011 and May 2015.3D reconstruction and virtual surgeries were performed on diseased livers using a 3D visualization reconstruction system for liver, which based on the data set of 64-slice CT from those patients and indicated the feasibility and safety of liver resection...
September 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Qianglin Zeng, Dandan Li, Gui Huang, Jin Xia, Xiaoming Wang, Yamei Zhang, Wanping Tang, Hui Zhou
Short-term forecast of pertussis incidence is helpful for advanced warning and planning resource needs for future epidemics. By utilizing the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model and Exponential Smoothing (ETS) model as alterative models with R software, this paper analyzed data from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) between January 2005 and June 2016. The ARIMA (0,1,0)(1,1,1)12 model (AICc = 1342.2 BIC = 1350.3) was selected as the best performing ARIMA model and the ETS (M,N,M) model (AICc = 1678...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lisa Durrant, Maxwell Robinson, Maria A Hawkins, Frank Van den Heuvel, Rebecca Muirhead
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiotherapy requires all target areas to be treated by a single radiotherapy plan. In anal cancer, the pelvic nodes, inguinal nodes and primary tumour represent three different targets. We aim to calculate target-specific motion in anal cancer radiotherapy, when delivered using a single pelvic online auto-match. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients treated using IMRT at a single institution were studied...
August 28, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Leonard Fromer
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening condition, with at-risk individuals remaining at chronic high risk of recurrence. Anaphylaxis is frequently underrecognized and undertreated by healthcare providers. The first-line pharmacologic intervention for anaphylaxis is epinephrine, and guidelines uniformly agree that its prompt administration is vital to prevent progression, improve patient outcomes, and reduce hospitalizations and fatalities. Importantly, healthcare costs potentially associated with failure to provide epinephrine (hospitalizations and emergency department visits) generally exceed those of its provision...
August 20, 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Thomas J Povsic, Timothy D Henry, Jay H Traverse, F David Fortuin, Gary L Schaer, Dean J Kereiakes, Richard A Schatz, Andreas M Zeiher, Christopher J White, Duncan J Stewart, E Marc Jolicoeur, Theodore Bass, David A Henderson, Patricia Dignacco, Ziangoiong Gu, Hussein R Al-Khalidi, Candice Junge, Adel Nada, Andrea S Hunt, Douglas W Losordo
OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether intramyocardial (IM) administration of mobilized, purified autologous CD34(+) cells would improve total exercise time (TET) and angina frequency in patients with refractory angina. BACKGROUND: IM administration of autologous CD34(+) cells has been associated consistently with improvements in functional capacity and angina symptoms in early phase clinical trials. METHODS: RENEW (Efficacy and Safety of Targeted Intramyocardial Delivery of Auto CD34+ Stem Cells for Improving Exercise Capacity in Subjects With Refractory Angina) was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing IM CD34(+) administration with no intervention (open-label standard of care) or IM placebo injections (active control)...
August 8, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Philippe Lewalle, Sebastian Wittnebel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of high-risk classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) patients remains challenging, especially after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) failure. Moreover, the outcome of chemorefractory patients is still poor. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of novel targeted therapies has changed the therapeutic options for high-risk patients. To improve outcome, treatment algorithms should integrate up-front, newly established prognostic markers. Tandem ASCT instead of single ASCT has been proposed as an option to improve outcome for high-risk patients...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
Shaoqi Tian, Yuanhe Wang, Bin Wang, Lun Liu, Chengzhi Ha, Qicai Li, Kang Sun
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcome of anatomic double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with a hamstring tendon autograft versus fresh-frozen allograft. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2011, in a prospective randomized study, we included 157 patients who were planned to receive anatomic DB ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon autograft or fresh-frozen allograft. All surgeries were performed by the same senior surgeon with the DB reconstruction technique...
June 8, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Sofia F Garcia, Sheetal M Kircher, Megan Oden, Aubri Veneruso, June M McKoy, Timothy Pearman, Frank J Penedo
Cancer survivorship care plans (SCPs) have been recommended to improve clinical care and patient outcomes. Research is needed to establish their efficacy and identify best practices. Starting in 2015, centers accredited by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer must deliver SCPs to patients completing primary cancer treatment with curative intent. We describe how we established routine SCP delivery at the Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center in Chicago, Illinois, using the Quality Implementation Framework...
May 2016: Journal of Community and Supportive Oncology
Alexander Bischoff
BACKGROUND: In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO) nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. DESIGN: This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals...
2016: Global Health Action
Jose Dolz, Nacim Betrouni, Mathilde Quidet, Dris Kharroubi, Henri A Leroy, Nicolas Reyns, Laurent Massoptier, Maximilien Vermandel
Delineation of organs at risk (OARs) is a crucial step in surgical and treatment planning in brain cancer, where precise OARs volume delineation is required. However, this task is still often manually performed, which is time-consuming and prone to observer variability. To tackle these issues a deep learning approach based on stacking denoising auto-encoders has been proposed to segment the brainstem on magnetic resonance images in brain cancer context. Additionally to classical features used in machine learning to segment brain structures, two new features are suggested...
September 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Vaitheeswaran Ranganathan, K J Maria Das
This paper aims to introduce an algorithm called "sensitivity-based beam number selection (SBBNS)" for fully automated and case-specific determination of an optimal number of equispaced beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). We tested the algorithm in five head and neck cases of varying complexity. We used direct machine parameter optimization method coupled with Auto Plan feature available in Pinnacle TPS (Version 9.10.0) for optimization. The Pearson correlation test shows a correlation of 0.88 between predicted and actual optimal number of beams, which indicates that SBBNS method is capable of predicting optimal number of beams for head and neck cases with reasonable accuracy...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
E Dieu, J Vandevoorde, A Hirschelmann
OBJECTIVES: The proposed criminological hypothesis is that the restorative justice approach would allow offenders to recognize the victims with more empathic feelings, assuming a decreasing effect on the needs and risks of recidivism (Griffiths and Murdoch, 2007). Authors of aggravated robbery raise several psychological issues (i.e. incomprehension of the causes of their act, euphemistic labelling and moral disengagement, lack of empathy) that the restorative program proposes to work through scriptwriting of personal histories, better comprehension of the conflict in the past and exchanges focused on the personal and social consequences of the acts (emotional chain)...
May 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
Kirsten Beyer, Bodo Niggemann
IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary...
June 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Justine Shanti Alexander, Arjun M Gopalaswamy, Kun Shi, Joelene Hughes, Philip Riordan
Human population growth and concomitant increases in demand for natural resources pose threats to many wildlife populations. The landscapes used by the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and their prey is increasingly subject to major changes in land use. We aimed to assess the influence of 1) key human activities, as indicated by the presence of mining and livestock herding, and 2) the presence of a key prey species, the blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), on probability of snow leopard site use across the landscape...
2016: PloS One
Shupeng Chen, Hong Quan, An Qin, Seonghwan Yee, Di Yan
The purpose of this study was to propose and evaluate a method of creating a synthetic CT (S-CT) from MRI simulation for dose calculation and daily CBCT localization. A pair of MR and CT images was obtained in the same day from each of 10 prostate patients. The pair of MR and CT images was preregistered using the deformable image registration (DIR). Using the corresponding displacement vector field (atlas-DVF), the CT image was deformed to the MR image to create an atlas MR-CT pair. Regions of interest (ROI) on the atlas MR-CT pair were delineated and used to create atlas-ROI masks...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
P Minale, D Bignardi, C Troise, S Voltolini, P Dignetti
Allergic diseases are under-diagnosed and undertreated despite their wide prevalence, and particularly anaphylaxis is often under-estimated. Evidence-based anaphylaxis guidelines developed by principal allergy organizations agree on increased prevalence of anaphylaxis, especially in patients younger than 18 years (18-27,30): this trend highlights the need for actions on anaphylaxis management and prevention (3,4). Lack of prompt connection between emergency department and allergy unit after discharge, and of a dedicated ICD-9th identification code (18-26), can delay diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis (28,29)...
May 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
N Wen, K C Snyder, S G Scheib, P Schmelzer, Y Qin, H Li, M S Siddiqui, I J Chetty
PURPOSE: To evaluate the total systematic accuracy of a frameless, image guided stereotactic radiosurgery system. METHODS: The localization accuracy and intermodality difference was determined by delivering radiation to an end-to-end prototype phantom, in which the targets were localized using optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), electromagnetic beacon-based tracking (Calypso®), cone-beam CT, "snap-shot" planar x-ray imaging, and a robotic couch. Six IMRT plans with jaw tracking and a flattening filter free beam were used to study the dosimetric accuracy for intracranial and spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment...
May 2016: Medical Physics
Afzal Ahmad, M S Rukmini, Charu Yadav, Ashish Agarwal, Poornima A Manjrekar, Anupama Hegde
OBJECTIVE: According to the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, intrauterine malnutrition has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. This study was planned to determine the early alterations in indices of glucose homeostasis (glucose, insulin, and cortisol) in term and preterm newborns and the correlations of glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels with insulin resistance indices. METHODS: A descriptive study comprising 35 term and 35 preterm newborns was carried out from December 2013 to June 2015...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
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