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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923379/-forensic-pathological-examination-on-73-medical-malpractice-cases-of-pediatrics
#1
Z W Zhang, Z Y Zheng, R Li, S Y Zhou, W Tang, J P Zhou, B Wang
OBJECTIVES: To analyse 73 medical malpractice cases of pediatrics for discussing the importance of forensic pathology in solving the issues such as medical malpractice of pediatrics. METHODS: From January 2002 to August 2016, 73 medical malpractice cases of pediatrics with age of death between 28 days old and 10 years old were collected from Institute of Judical Expertise of Nanjing Medical University. The relationship between causes of death and related medical institutions was retrospectively analysed...
April 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923181/surgery-in-space
#2
REVIEW
S S Panesar, K Ashkan
BACKGROUND: There has been renewed public interest in manned space exploration owing to novel initiatives by private and governmental bodies. Long-term goals include manned missions to, and potential colonization of, nearby planets. Travel distances and mission length required for these would render Earth-based treatment and telemedical solutions unfeasible. These issues present an anticipatory challenge to planners, and novel or adaptive medical technologies must therefore be devised to diagnose and treat the range of medical issues that future space travellers will encounter...
June 19, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922183/guinea-pig-as-a-model-to-study-the-carotid-body-mediated-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-effects
#3
Inmaculada Docio, Elena Olea, Jesus Prieto-LLoret, Teresa Gallego-Martin, Ana Obeso, Angela Gomez-Niño, Asuncion Rocher
Clinical and experimental evidence indicates a positive correlation between chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), increased carotid body (CB) chemosensitivity, enhanced sympatho-respiratory coupling and arterial hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Several groups have reported that both the afferent and efferent arms of the CB chemo-reflex are enhanced in CIH animal models through the oscillatory CB activation by recurrent hypoxia/reoxygenation episodes. Accordingly, CB ablation or denervation results in the reduction of these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922170/vesicle-mediated-control-of-cell-function-the-role-of-extracellular-matrix-and-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Gorjana Rackov, Noemi Garcia-Romero, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) - including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies - have received much scientific attention last decade as mediators of a newly discovered cell-to-cell communication system, acting at short and long distances. EVs carry biologically active molecules, thus providing signals that influence a spectrum of functions in recipient cells during various physiological and pathological processes. Recent findings point to EVs as very attractive immunomodulatory therapeutic agents, vehicles for drug delivery and diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in liquid biopsies...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921793/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-metabolic-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Rose Ghemrawi, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu, Carole Arnold
Metabolic disorders have become among the most serious threats to human health, leading to severe chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, despite the fact that each of these diseases has different physiological and clinical symptoms, they appear to share certain pathological traits such as intracellular stress and inflammation induced by metabolic disturbance stemmed from over nutrition frequently aggravated by a modern, sedentary life style...
June 19, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916429/hyperbaric-oxygen-with-cord-blood-transplants-filling-the-donor-gap
#6
Vineet Govinda Gupta, Sameer Bakhshi
Aljitawi OS, Paul S, Ganguly A, Lin TL, Ganguly S, Vielhauer G, Capitano ML, Cantilena A, Lipe B, Mahnken JD, Wise A, Berry A, Singh AK, Shune L, Lominska C, Abhyankar S, Allin D, Laughlin M, McGuirk JP, Broxmeyer HE. (Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy; Hematology and Transplantation Translational Research Laboratory ; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; Division of Hematology/Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York; Department of Urology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; Cleveland Cord Blood Center, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916025/short-term-weight-loss-reverses-obesity-induced-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#7
Tamas Csipo, Gabor A Fulop, Agnes Lipecz, Stefano Tarantini, Tamas Kiss, Priya Balasubramanian, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari, Andriy Yabluchanskiy
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and its prevalence is increasing in all age groups, with the biggest impact observed in middle-aged and older adults. A critical mechanism by which obesity promotes vascular pathologies in these patients involves impairment of endothelial function. While endothelial dysfunction in large vessels promotes atherogenesis, obesity-induced microvascular endothelial dysfunction impairs organ perfusion and thereby is causally related to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, intermittent claudication, exercise intolerance, and exacerbates cognitive decline in aging...
June 18, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914150/unanswered-questions-regarding-sex-and-bmp-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Tapan A Shah, Melissa B Rogers
Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic, whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912044/cardiac-immune-related-adverse-events-in-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-therapy
#9
Aaron D Brumbaugh, Roshni Narurkar, Kaushal Parikh, Michael Fanucchi, William H Frishman
Immune checkpoint inhibitors present clinicians with both an exciting step forward in cancer treatment and the unknown possibilities of an unshackled immune system. The latter phenomena, known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs), are of particular interest because they may affect any organ system with autoimmune-like pathologies, such as hepatitis and colitis. Within the cardiovascular system, irAEs associated with immune checkpoint blockade exist as a broad clinical spectrum, with autoimmune myocarditis being the best-characterized entity at this time...
June 14, 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911296/structural-modelling-of-the-cardiovascular-system
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin Owen, Nicholas Bojdo, Andrey Jivkov, Bernard Keavney, Alistair Revell
Computational modelling of the cardiovascular system offers much promise, but represents a truly interdisciplinary challenge, requiring knowledge of physiology, mechanics of materials, fluid dynamics and biochemistry. This paper aims to provide a summary of the recent advances in cardiovascular structural modelling, including the numerical methods, main constitutive models and modelling procedures developed to represent cardiovascular structures and pathologies across a broad range of length and timescales; serving as an accessible point of reference to newcomers to the field...
June 18, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910054/treatment-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-heart-failure-impacts-cardiac-remodeling-insights-from-the-cat-hf-trial
#11
Melissa A Daubert, David J Whellan, Holger Woehrle, Gudaye Tasissa, Kevin J Anstrom, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Adam Benjafield, Amy Blase, Naresh Punjabi, Mona Fiuzat, Olaf Oldenburg, Christopher M O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), including central and obstructive sleep apnea, is a marker of poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) and may worsen cardiac dysfunction over time. Treatment of SDB with adaptive servoventilation (ASV) may reverse pathologic cardiac remodeling in HF patients. METHODS: The Cardiovascular Improvements with Minute Ventilation-targeted Adaptive Servo-Ventilation Therapy in Heart Failure (CAT-HF) trial randomized patients with acute decompensated HF and confirmed SDB to either optimal medical therapy (OMT) or treatment with ASV and OMT...
July 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909774/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-assessment-of-acute-cardiovascular-effects-of-voluntary-apnoea-in-elite-divers
#12
L Eichhorn, J Doerner, J A Luetkens, J M Lunkenheimer, R C Dolscheid-Pommerich, F Erdfelder, R Fimmers, J Nadal, B Stoffel-Wagner, H H Schild, A Hoeft, B Zur, C P Naehle
BACKGROUND: Prolonged breath holding results in hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Compensatory mechanisms help maintain adequate oxygen supply to hypoxia sensitive organs, but burden the cardiovascular system. The aim was to investigate human compensatory mechanisms and their effects on the cardiovascular system with regard to cardiac function and morphology, blood flow redistribution, serum biomarkers of the adrenergic system and myocardial injury markers following prolonged apnoea. METHODS: Seventeen elite apnoea divers performed maximal breath-hold during cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909605/anemia-in-conventional-hemodialysis-finding-the-optimal-treatment-balance
#13
Takeshi Hasegawa, Fumihiko Koiwa, Tadao Akizawa
Renal anemia is a serious and common complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The introduction of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) has dramatically improved hemoglobin levels and outcomes. Several interventional studies reported that excessive correction of anemia and the massive use of ESA can trigger cardiovascular disease (CVD), and consequently may worsen the prognosis of patients undergoing HD. Therefore, it has been widely recognized that large doses of ESA should be used with caution. An effective use of iron preparations is required to yield the optimal effect of ESA...
June 17, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909504/anderson-fabry-disease-in-heart-failure
#14
REVIEW
M M Akhtar, P M Elliott
Anderson-Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene that result in deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. The worldwide incidence of Fabry's disease is reported to be in the range of 1 in 40,000-117,000, although this value may be a significant underestimate given under recognition of symptoms and delayed or missed diagnosis. Deficiency in alpha-galactosidase A causes an accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in lysosomes within various tissues including the vascular endothelium, kidneys, heart, eyes, skin and nervous system...
June 16, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906229/engineering-cardiac-microphysiological-systems-to-model-pathological-extracellular-matrix-remodeling
#15
Nethika Ruvini Ariyasinghe, Davi Marco Lyra-Leite, Megan L McCain
Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the myocardium. ECM remodeling is a complex, multi-factorial process that often contributes to declines in myocardial function and progression towards heart failure. However, the direct effects of the many forms of ECM remodeling on myocardial cell and tissue function remain elusive, in part because conventional model systems used to investigate these relationships lack robust experimental control over the ECM...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905551/-modern-aspects-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-heart-failure-as-a-manifestation-of-anthracycline-cardiotoxicity-review
#16
Kh Saganelidze, N Kavtaradze
This review is devoted to the urgent problem of cardiology and oncology - the cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy drugs - anthracyclines, which are considered to be one of the most cardiotoxic and cause a variety of cardiotoxic effects. The review also examines the diagnosis, treatment or preventive treatment of this pathology. The urgency of the problem is associated with the possibility of early or late manifestations of cardiotoxicity, manifestations of cardiotoxicity against the background of cross treatment, manifestations of cardiotoxicity against the background of various concomitant diseases...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903689/interplay-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
Olga Bornachea, Angela Vea, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in obese and diabetic patients. In these groups of patients, the alterations of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contribute to both vascular and myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, it is of clinical interest to determine the mechanisms by which EAT influences cardiovascular disease. Two key factors contribute to the tight intercommunication among EAT, coronary arteries and myocardium. One is the close anatomical proximity between these tissues. The other is the capacity of EAT to secrete cytokines and other molecules with paracrine and vasocrine effects on the cardiovascular system...
June 11, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898733/age-related-changes-of-right-atrial-morphology-and-inflow-pattern-assessed-using-4d-flow-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-results-of-a-population-based-study
#18
Thomas Wehrum, Thomas Lodemann, Paul Hagenlocher, Judith Stuplich, Ba Thanh Truc Ngo, Sebastian Grundmann, Anja Hennemuth, Jürgen Hennig, Andreas Harloff
BACKGROUND: To assess age-related changes of blood flow and geometry of the caval veins and right atrium (RA) using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data obtained in a population-based study. METHODS: An age-stratified sample (n = 126) of the population of the city of Freiburg, Germany, underwent transthoracic echocardiography and electrocardiogram-triggered and navigator-gated 4D flow CMR at 3 Tesla covering the caval veins and right heart...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892269/paracrine-effects-of-fgf23-on-the-heart
#19
REVIEW
Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Dieter Haffner
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is a phosphaturic hormone primarily secreted by osteocytes to maintain phosphate and mineral homeostasis. In patients with and without chronic kidney disease, enhanced circulating FGF23 levels associate with pathologic cardiac remodeling, i.e., left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and myocardial fibrosis and increased cardiovascular mortality. Experimental studies demonstrate that FGF23 promotes hypertrophic growth of cardiac myocytes via FGF receptor 4-dependent activation of phospholipase Cγ/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell signaling independent of its co-receptor klotho...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891569/erectile-dysfunction-as-an-independent-predictor-of-future-cardiovascular-events-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#20
S M Iftekhar Uddin, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, Zeina Dardari, David I Feldman, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Andrew P DeFilippis, Philip Greenland, Ron Blankstein, Kevin L Billups, Martin Miner, Khurram Nasir, Michael J Blaha
Vascular erectile dysfunction (ED) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share common risk factors including obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. ED and CVD also have common underlying pathological mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.1 Despite these close relationships, the evidence documenting ED as an independent predictor of future CVD events is limited.We therefore leveraged the MESA study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), an ethnically diverse, community-based, multisite prospective cohort study, to examine the value of self-reported ED for predicting incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and CVD in those free of these CVD events at baseline...
June 11, 2018: Circulation
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