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Cardiovascular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538392/maculopapular-rash-after-intravitreal-injection-of-an-antivascular-endothelial-growth-factor-aflibercept-for-treating-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-case-report
#1
Norihiro Nagai, Mari Ibuki, Hajime Shinoda, Kaori Kameyama, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
RATIONALE: Aflibercept, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug, is used for treatment of colon cancer as well as retinal diseases, including wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is injected into the vitreous cavity of eyes for treatment of AMD. Although vascular suppression-including cardiovascular events-and local infection related to the injection procedure are well-known potential adverse events, pathological immune responses after intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) injection have not been described...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535533/malat1-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-downregulation-of-mir-145
#2
Yin Xiang, Yachen Zhang, Yong Tang, Qianhui Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays significant roles under various pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases, fibrosis, and cancer. EndMT of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contributes to neointimal hyperplasia following cell therapy Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that promotes metastasis and cancer. MicroRNA-145 (miR-145) is a tumor suppressor that has been reported to inhibit SMAD3-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535521/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-mineral-metabolism-and-beyond
#3
Alexander Grabner, Sandro Mazzaferro, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Stefanie Krick, Irene Capelli, Silverio Rotondi, Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna, Christian Faul
Patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a high risk of cardiovascular mortality that is poorly explained by traditional risk factors. There is a growing awareness about the role of derangement of mineral metabolism that is currently accepted as a trigger and sustainer of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients. The synthetic definition of CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) split the concept that the indexes of mineral metabolism extend their effects beyond the bone until the vascular wall and metabolic milieu of CKD patients through complex pathways...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535167/invited-commentary-heterogeneity-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-populations-recognition-and-seminal-explanations
#4
Aaron R Folsom
Kuller and Reisler's 1971 publication (Am J Epidemiol. 1971;93(1):1-9) was an important contribution to the understanding of the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases, particularly stroke. The authors synthesized pathological and risk-factor evidence to theorize why rates of various subtypes of arterial disease might vary across populations. Specifically, they suggested that different population levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose led to population differences in the location and extent of arterial disease...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533664/pancreaticoduodenectomy-in-patients-%C3%A2-75-years-of-age-are-there-any-differences-with-other-age-ranges-in-oncological-and-surgical-outcomes-results-from-a-tertiary-referral-center
#5
Salvatore Paiella, Matteo De Pastena, Tommaso Pollini, Giovanni Zancan, Debora Ciprani, Giulia De Marchi, Luca Landoni, Alessandro Esposito, Luca Casetti, Giuseppe Malleo, Giovanni Marchegiani, Massimiliano Tuveri, Enrico Marrano, Laura Maggino, Erica Secchettin, Deborah Bonamini, Claudio Bassi, Roberto Salvia
AIM: To compare surgical and oncological outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in patients ≥ 75 years of age with two younger cohorts of patients. METHODS: The prospectively maintained Institutional database of pancreatic resection was queried for patients aged ≥ 75 years (late elderly, LE) submitted to PD for any disease from January 2010 to June 2015. We compared clinical, demographic and pathological features and survival outcomes of LE patients with 2 exact matched cohorts of younger patients [≥ 40 to 64 years of age (adults, A) and ≥ 65 to 74 years of age (young elderly, YE)] submitted to PD, according to selected variables...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533176/the-mouse-thermoregulatory-system-its-impact-on-translating-biomedical-data-to-humans
#6
REVIEW
Christopher J Gordon
The laboratory mouse has become the predominant test species in biomedical research. The number of papers that translate or extrapolate data from mouse to human has grown exponentially since the year 2000. There are many physiological and anatomical factors to consider in the process of extrapolating data from one species to another. Body temperature is, of course, a critical determinant in extrapolation because it has a direct impact on metabolism, cardiovascular function, drug efficacy, pharmacokinetics of toxins and drugs, and many other effects...
May 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532817/-pro-renin-receptor-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Yuan Sun, A H Jan Danser, Xifeng Lu
The discovery of the (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] 15years ago stimulated ideas on prorenin being more than renin's inactive precursor. Indeed, binding of prorenin to the (P)RR induces a conformational change in the prorenin molecule, allowing it to display angiotensin-generating activity, and additionally results in intracellular signaling in an angiotensin-independent manner. However, the prorenin levels required to observe these angiotensin-dependent and -independent effects of the (P)RR are many orders above its in vivo concentrations, both under normal and pathological conditions...
May 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531131/the-role-of-interleukin-18-oxidative-stress-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Johanna O Ojala, Elina M Sutinen
The role of interleukins (ILs) and oxidative stress (OS) in precipitating neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), requires further clarification. In addition to neuropathological hallmarks-extracellular neuritic amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) containing hyperphosphorylated tau and neuronal loss-chronic inflammation, as well as oxidative and excitotoxic damage, are present in the AD brain. The pathological sequelae and the interaction of these events during the course of AD need further investigation...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530498/negative-consequences-of-low-energy-availability-in-natural-male-bodybuilding-a-review
#9
Petter Fagerberg
Energy availability (EA) is a scientific concept describing how much energy is available for basic metabolic functions such as reproduction, immunity and skeletal homeostasis. Carefully controlled studies on women have shown pathological effects of EA<30kcal/kg fat free mass (FFM) and this state has been labeled low EA (LEA). Bodybuilding is a sport in which athletes compete to show muscular definition, symmetry and low body fat. The process of contest preparation in bodybuilding includes months of underfeeding, thus increasing the risk of LEA and its negative health consequences...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530078/-athlete-s-heart-the-more-the-merrier
#10
REVIEW
Reut Shavit, Michael Glikson, Naama Constantini
Regular moderate exercise training is effective for the prevention and treatment of many common chronic diseases and improves cardiovascular health and life expectancy. However, long-term excessive endurance exercise may induce pathological structural remodeling of the heart. The athlete's heart is characterized by enlargement of cardiac chambers and eccentric hypertrophy with preserved myocardial function as normal physiological adaptations for prolonged and intense endurance physical stress. However, recent studies have demonstrated transient right ventricular dysfunction and elevation of cardiac biomarkers following intense endurance exercise...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529488/endothelial-extracellular-vesicles-promises-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Carina Hromada, Severin Mühleder, Johannes Grillari, Heinz Redl, Wolfgang Holnthoner
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microparticles, and apoptotic bodies, are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles that have once been considered as cell debris lacking biological functions. However, they have recently gained immense interest in the scientific community due to their role in intercellular communication, immunity, tissue regeneration as well as in the onset, and progression of various pathologic conditions. Extracellular vesicles of endothelial origin have been found to play a versatile role in the human body, since they are on the one hand known to contribute to cardiovascular diseases, but on the other hand have also been reported to promote endothelial cell survival...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529328/perivascular-adipose-tissue-epiphenomenon-or-local-risk-factor
#12
REVIEW
K Schäfer, I Drosos, S Konstantinides
Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying the link between increased body weight and vascular disease are incompletely understood. Over the past 15 years, perivascular adipose tissue has emerged as active component of the vessel wall involved in vascular homeostasis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can adopt detrimental properties under the influence of obesity and other factors and contribute actively to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, changes of the vessel wall may negatively affect perivascular adipose tissue qualities...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527930/outcomes-of-open-and-endovascular-lower-extremity-revascularization-in-active-smokers-with-advanced-peripheral-arterial-disease
#13
Samuel L Chen, Matthew D Whealon, Nii-Kabu Kabutey, Isabella J Kuo, Michael D Sgroi, Roy M Fujitani
OBJECTIVE: Concern over perioperative and long-term durability of lower extremity revascularizations among active smokers is a frequent deterrent for vascular surgeons to perform elective lower extremity revascularization. In this study, we examined perioperative outcomes of lower extremity endovascular (LEE) revascularization and open lower extremity bypass (LEB) in active smokers with intermittent claudication (IC) and critical limb ischemia (CLI). METHODS: Active smokers undergoing LEE or LEB from 2011 to 2014 were identified in the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) targeted vascular data set...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526540/sodium-dependent-glucose-transporters-sglt-in-human-ischemic-heart-a-new-potential-pharmacological-target
#14
Alessandra Di Franco, Giulia Cantini, Alessia Tani, Raffaele Coppini, Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini, Laura Raimondi, Michaela Luconi, Edoardo Mannucci
BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin is reported to reduce cardiovascular mortality and the rate of hospitalization for heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients with prior cardiovascular events. The mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of this sodium/glucose transporter 2 (SGT2) inhibitor have not yet been clarified, though a direct action of the drug on the cardiomyocytes could be hypothesized. The aim of the present study is to assess the relative expression of SGLT2 and SGLT1, the two most relevant members of the SGLT family being potentially responsive to empagliflozin, in normal, ischemic and hypertrophic human hearts...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522678/cigarette-smoking-associated-alterations-in-serotonin-adrenalin-signaling-pathways-of-platelets
#15
Curtis Lee Lowery, Clay Elliott, Anthonya Cooper, Coedy Hadden, Roberto N Sonon, Parastoo Azadi, D Keith Williams, James D Marsh, Donna S Woulfe, Fusun Kilic
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking plays a major role in cardiovascular diseases. The acute effects of cigarette smoking produce central nervous system-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The overactive sympathetic nervous system stimulates the secretion of serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamine into blood at supraphysiological levels. The correlation between these pathological conditions induced by smoking and the increased risk of thrombosis has not been thoroughly investigated...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522312/intravascular-imaging-in-cardiovascular-ageing
#16
REVIEW
Christos V Bourantas, Tom Crake, Yao-Jun Zhang, Mick Ozkor, Javed Ahmed, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Patrick W Serruys
Ageing is related to complex molecular, inflammatory and biochemical changes that affect coronary pathology and often lead to coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events. Intravascular imaging is considered as the ideal technique to study coronary plaque morphology and assess its burden. Over the recent years several studies have been performed that investigated the association between pathophysiological mechanisms that promote vascular ageing and plaque morphology. In addition, several reports have compared plaque pathology in different age groups and a few studies included serial intravascular imaging to assess changes in the atheroma burden and compositional characteristics of the plaque...
May 15, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522163/lncrna-malat1-sponges-mir-204-to-promote-osteoblast-differentiation-of-human-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-through-up-regulating-smad4
#17
Xiaoxiong Xiao, Tingwen Zhou, Shichao Guo, Chao Guo, Qiao Zhang, Nianguo Dong, Yongjun Wang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. The lncRNA MALAT1, a highly abundant and conserved imprinted gene, has been implicated in many cardiovascular diseases. However, the function of MALAT1 in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) remains unknown. This study sought to document the function and underlying mechanism of MALAT1 in regulating CAVD. METHODS: Protein level was determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522147/cardiovascular-risk-in-advanced-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-patients-starting-antiretroviral-therapy-comparison-of-three-different-regimens-prevaleat-ii-cohort
#18
Paolo Maggi, Chiara Bellacosa, Armando Leone, Anna Volpe, Elena Delfina Ricci, Nicoletta Ladisa, Stefania Cicalini, Elisabetta Grilli, Rosaria Viglietti, Antonio Chirianni, Lara Ines Bellazzi, Renato Maserati, Canio Martinelli, Paola Corsi, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Federica Sozio, Gioacchino Angarano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: PREVALEAT (PREmature VAscular LEsions and Antiretroviral Therapy) II is a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study aimed at the evaluation of cardiovascular risk among advanced HIV-positive, treatment-naïve patients starting their first therapy. We hypothesized that these patients, present a higher cardiovascular (CV) risk. METHODS: The study included all consecutive naïve patients with less than 200 CD4 cells/ml starting antiretroviral therapy...
May 5, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521681/effects-of-diets-on-adipose-tissue
#19
Silvia Ezquerro, Amaia Rodríguez, Piero Portincasa, Gema Frühbeck
Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems. In this sense, excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518223/low-shear-stress-induces-endothelial-reactive-oxygen-species-via-the-at1r-enos-no-pathway
#20
Yuelin Chao, Peng Ye, Linlin Zhu, Xiangquan Kong, Xinliang Qu, Junxia Zhang, Jie Luo, Hongfeng Yang, Shaoliang Chen
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to many aspects of physiological and pathological cardiovascular processes. However, the underlying mechanism of ROS induction by low shear stress (LSS) remains unclear. Accumulating evidence has shown that the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and ROS production. Our aim was to explore the role of AT1R in LSS-mediated ROS induction. We exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to LSS (3 dyne/cm(2) ) for different periods of time...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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