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Cardiovascular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045589/standardization-of-adult-transthoracic-echocardiography-reporting-in-agreement-with-recent-chamber-quantification-diastolic-function-and-heart-valve-disease-recommendations-an-expert-consensus-document-of-the-european-association-of-cardiovascular-imaging
#1
Maurizio Galderisi, Bernard Cosyns, Thor Edvardsen, Nuno Cardim, Victoria Delgado, Giovanni Di Salvo, Erwan Donal, Leyla Elif Sade, Laura Ernande, Madalina Garbi, Julia Grapsa, Andreas Hagendorff, Otto Kamp, Julien Magne, Ciro Santoro, Alexandros Stefanidis, Patrizio Lancellotti, Bogdan Popescu, Gilbert Habib
Aims: This European Association Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Expert Consensus document aims at defining the main quantitative information on cardiac structure and function that needs to be included in standard echocardiographic report following recent ASE/EACVI chamber quantification, diastolic function, and heart valve disease recommendations. The document focuses on general reporting and specific pathological conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery and valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and systemic diseases...
October 17, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045335/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-and-renal-disease
#2
Vanessa R Williams, James W Scholey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a pivotal player in the physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular and renal systems. Discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), capable of cleaving RAS effector peptide angiotensin (Ang) II into biologically active Ang-(1-7), has increased the complexity of our knowledge of the RAS. ACE2 expression is abundant in the kidney and is thought to provide protection against injury. This review emphasizes current experimental and clinical findings that examine ACE2 in the context of kidney injury and its potential therapeutic impact for treatment of kidney disease...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039598/expression-of-key-enzymes-in-the-mevalonate-pathway-are-altered-in-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats
#3
Dongmei Jiang, Yu Chen, Yuxiang Zhu, Guosheng Fu, Shiming Xu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious pulmonary vascular disease. The changes in the structure, function and metabolism of endothelial cells are some of the important features of PAH. Previous studies have demonstrated that the mevalonate pathway is important in cardiovascular remodeling. However, whether the mevalonate pathway is involved in the development of PAH remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of mevalonate pathway-related enzymes in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039586/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-located-in-microrna-499a-causes-loss-of-function-resulting-in-increased-expression-of-osbpl1a-and-reduced-serum-hdl-level
#4
Li-Bo Chen, Hai-Kuo Zheng, Lei Zhang, Zhe An, Xin-Peng Wang, Rui-Ting Shan, Wen-Qi Zhang
Atherosclerosis is the main pathological process that induces CVD (cardiovascular diseases), and the objective of our study was explore whether miR‑499a rs3746444 polymorphism was associated with the HDL level, one of the risk factors of atherosclerosis. Online public miRNA database was utilized to predict the miR‑499a target, and luciferase assay was conducted to confirm that miR‑499a targeted osbpl1a, then western blot analysis and real-time PCR were performed to verify miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationship between miR‑499a and osbpl1a...
October 9, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039471/hydrogen-sulfide-alleviates-myocardial-fibrosis-in-mice-with-alcoholic-cardiomyopathy-by-downregulating-autophagy
#5
Biao Liang, Ting Xiao, Junrong Long, Maojun Liu, Zining Li, Shengquan Liu, Jun Yang
Myocardial fibrosis is one of the most important pathological features of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts protective effects in various types of cardiovascular disease, which has been demonstrated by many previous studies. However, there is a lack of adequate research on the effect of H2S on myocardial fibrosis in ACM. The present study aimed to investigate the etiopathogenic role of H2S in myocardial fibrosis induced by chronic alcohol intake. An ACM mouse model was induced by consumption of 4% ethanol solution in drinking water for 12 weeks...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037084/epr-measurements-of-reactive-oxygen-species-by-cyclic-hydroxylamine-spin-probes
#6
Sergey I Dikalov, Yuliya F Polienko, Igor A Kirilyuk
SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions such as development of cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. A variety of measurements of oxidative stress markers in biological systems have been developed, however, many of these methods are not specific, can produce artifacts and do not directly detect the free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a unique tool that allows direct measurements of free radical species...
October 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036907/a-functional-interplay-between-igf-1-and-adiponectin
#7
REVIEW
Stefania Orrù, Ersilia Nigro, Annalisa Mandola, Andreina Alfieri, Pasqualina Buono, Aurora Daniele, Annamaria Mancini, Esther Imperlini
A functional relationship is suggested between two well-known protein hormones, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adiponectin. In the last two decades in fact, different experimental evidence has indicated a non-random link between them. Here, we describe briefly the IGF-1 and adiponectin systems, and we then focus on their putative interplay in relation to several pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Although the existing studies are hardly comparable, they definitely indicate a functional connection between these two protein hormones...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035323/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-modulation-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#8
REVIEW
Natalie G Burford, Natalia A Webster, Diana Cruz-Topete
The collective of endocrine organs acting in homeostatic regulation-known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-comprises an integration of the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues. These organs respond to imminent or perceived threats that elicit a stress response, primarily culminating in the release of glucocorticoids into the systemic circulation by the adrenal glands. Although the secretion of glucocorticoids serves to protect and maintain homeostasis in the typical operation at baseline levels, inadequate regulation can lead to physiologic and psychologic pathologies...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035088/the-last-25-years-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-epidemiology-and-the-next-25
#9
Paul E Peppard, Erika W Hagen
Considerable new knowledge regarding the epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults arose from large-scale population-based epidemiologic investigations that initiated in the late 1980s to 1990s; these investigations have continued to produce relevant findings in recent years. In this Perspective, we briefly comment on the past 25 years of adult population-based OSA epidemiology and discuss selected ways in which the field can further progress over the coming decades. Population-based studies have shown that OSA is common in both men and women, and that prevalence is increasing...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034031/coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#10
REVIEW
Daijiro Hori, Atsushi Yamaguchi, Hideo Adachi
The number of patients requiring hemodialysis is continuously increasing around the world. Hemodialysis affects patient quality of life and it is also associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular events. In addition to traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, hemodialysis is associated with hyperphosphatemia, chronic inflammation, vascular calcification, and anemia which accelerate atherosclerosis, vascular stiffness, and cardiac ischemia. Treatment strategy for coronary revascularization in this progressive disease remains controversial...
June 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031783/antidiabetic-effect-of-achillea-millefollium-through-multitarget-interactions-%C3%AE-glucosidases-inhibition-insulin-sensitization-and-insulin-secretagogue-activities
#11
Fabiola Chávez-Silva, Litzia Cerón-Romero, Luis Arias-Durán, Gabriel Navarrete-Vázquez, Julio Almanza-Pérez, Rubén Román-Ramos, Guillermo Ramírez-Ávila, Irene Perea-Arango, Rafael Villalobos-Molina, Samuel Estrada-Soto
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb used in Mexican folk medicine for treatment of several pathologies, including inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal disorders, hepatobiliary complaints, overactive cardiovascular, respiratory ailments and diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the potential antidiabetic effect in vivo and to establish the potential mode of action through in vitro approaches of Achillea millefolium...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028824/the-association-between-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-a-cluster-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adolescents-the-champs-study-dk
#12
Natascha Holbæk Pedersen, Jakob Tarp, Lars Bo Andersen, Anne Kær Gejl, Tao Huang, Lone Peijs, Anna Bugge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028058/protein-protein-interaction-networks-as-a-new-perspective-to-evaluate-distinct-functional-roles-of-voltage-dependent-anion-channel-isoforms
#13
REVIEW
Marianna Caterino, Margherita Ruoppolo, Annalisa Mandola, Michele Costanzo, Stefania Orrù, Esther Imperlini
Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are a family of three mitochondrial porins and the most abundant integral membrane proteins of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). VDACs are known to be involved in metabolite/ion transport across the MOM and in many cellular processes ranging from mitochondria-mediated apoptosis to the control of energy metabolism, by interacting with cytosolic, mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins and other membrane channels. Despite redundancy and compensatory mechanisms among VDAC isoforms, they display not only different channel properties and protein expression levels, but also distinct protein partners...
October 13, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027807/annals-express-biochemistry-of-the-menopause
#14
John W Honour
The life of a human female is characterised from teenage years by monthly menstruation which ceases (the menopause) typically between the age of 40 and 60 years. The potential for reproduction declines and ceases as the ovaries become depleted of follicles. A transition period in mid-life, for 2 to 10 years, when menstruation is less regular is called the peri-menopause. The menopause is associated with a significant decline in plasma concentrations of sex hormones, an increase in the concentrations of the gonadotrophins and changes in other hormones such as the inhibins...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027531/-costal-cartilage-structural-and-functional-changes-in-children-with-a-funnel-or-keeled-chest
#15
A V Kurkov, A B Shekhter, V S Paukov
Congenital chest wall deformities (CCWDs) in children are severe diseases leading to cosmetic defects and diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The most common of these deformities are funnel-shaped (pectus excavatum, FD) and keeled (pectus carinatum, KD) ones. The pathogenesis of CCWDs and the role of costal cartilage structural and functional changes in their pathogenesis have now been not well studied, which makes it difficult to elaborate pathogenetic approaches to correcting these diseases...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027470/next-generation-sequencing-applications-for-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Samira Kalayinia, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad, Majid Maleki, Nejat Mahdieh
The Human Genome Project (HGP), as the primary sequencing of the human genome, lasted more than one decade to be completed using the traditional Sanger's method. At present, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology could provide the genome sequence data in hours. NGS has also decreased the expense of sequencing; therefore, nowadays it is possible to carry out both whole-genome (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) for the variations detection in patients with rare genetic diseases as well as complex disorders such as common cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025319/the-effects-of-salvia-przewalskii-total-phenolic-acid-extract-on-immune-complex-glomerulonephritis
#17
Yang Yang, Zhi-Peng Wang, Shou-Hong Gao, Hong-Qi Ren, Ren-Qian Zhong, Wan-Sheng Chen
CONTEXT: Salvia przewalskii Maxim. (Lamiaceae) is a Chinese herbal medicine that has long been used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of S. przewalskii total phenolic acid extract (SPE) on immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICG) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two Wistar rats were randomized into six groups. ICG was induced in all groups except normal control group...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024491/surgical-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-after-microvascular-reconstruction-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#18
Young-Hoon Joo, Kwang-Jae Cho, Jun-Ook Park, Sang-Yeon Kim, Min-Sik Kim
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the importance of clinical factors in the prediction of postoperative complications in patients with microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). DESIGN: A retrospective review of case notes was performed. SETTING: Patients treated at a single institute. PARTICIPANTS: The present study included 259 patients with HNSCC treated with radical surgery and microvascular reconstruction between 1993 and 2014...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023288/gut-microbiome-and-its-role-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#19
Shadi Ahmadmehrabi, W H Wilson Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, an interest in intestinal microbiota-host interactions has increased due to many findings about the impact of gut bacteria on human health and disease. Dysbiosis, a change in the composition of the gut microbiota, has been associated with much pathology, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This article will review normal functions of the gut microbiome, its link to CVD, and potential therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: The recently discovered contribution of gut microbiota-derived molecules in the development of heart disease and its risk factors has significantly increased attention towards the connection between our gut and heart...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022502/pathophysiological-role-of-mitochondrial-potassium-channels-and-their-modulation-by-drugs
#20
Valentina Citi, Vincenzo Calderone, Alma Martelli, Maria Cristina Breschi, Lara Testai
Mitochondria play a central role in ATP-generating processes. Indeed, in mammalian tissues, up to 90% of ATP is generated by mitochondria through the process of oxidative phosphorylation; furthermore, mitochondria are involved in multiple signal transduction pathways. A rapidly expanding body of literature has confirmed that mitochondria play a pivotal role in apoptosis, cardio- and neuro-protection, and various neurodegenerative disorders, ranging from Parkinson's to Alzheimer's disease. It is evident that mitochondria are also the targets of multiple drugs; some of these are exactly designed to influence mitochondrial function, while others have primary targets in other cellular locations but may interact with mitochondria because of the presence of numerous targets on this organelle...
October 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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