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Cardiovascular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458045/aldose-reductase-inhibitor-fidarestat-prevents-doxorubicin-induced-endothelial-cell-death-and-dysfunction
#1
Himangshu Sonowal, Pabitra Pal, Kirtikar Shukla, Ashish Saxena, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
Despite doxorubicin (Dox) being one of the most widely used chemotherapy agents for breast, blood and lung cancers, its use in colon cancer is limited due to increased drug resistance and severe cardiotoxic side effects that increase mortality associated with its use at high doses. Therefore, better adjuvant therapies are warranted to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy and to decrease cardiotoxicity. We have recently shown that aldose reductase inhibitor, fidarestat, increases the Dox-induced colon cancer cell death and reduces cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457788/scn5a-the-greatest-hits-collection
#2
David S Park, Glenn I Fishman
Heart failure (HF) has been referred to as the cardiovascular epidemic of our time. Understanding the molecular determinants of HF disease progression and mortality risk is of utmost importance. In this issue of the JCI, Zhang et al. uncover an important link between clinical HF mortality risk and a common variant that regulates SCN5A expression through microRNA-dependent (miR-dependent)mechanisms. They also demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of SCN5A is associated with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a genetically engineered murine model...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456380/moxibustion-artemisia-plant-at-acupuncture-point-as-alternative-therapy-in-hypertension-a-promising-approach
#3
Mohammad Jamshed Siddiqui, Mohamad Fadly Bin Kamarudin, Abdul Kareem Mohammed Al-Shami, Siti Zaiton Mat So'ad, Shazia Qasim Jamshed
Hypertension is a pathological condition in which the blood pressure is higher than under normal physiological conditions, i.e., 140/90 mmHg or higher. Blood pressure is measured as the force exerted by the blood pumped by the heart against the walls of arteries (aorta) and distributed throughout the body. Use of complementary and alternative medicine as a cure for hypertension is a common phenomenon because of the high risk of cardiovascular complications and kidney diseases caused by conventional Western medicine...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456246/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Josephine M Forbes, David R Thorburn
Globally, diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. Despite this burden, the factors that precipitate the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remain to be fully elucidated. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with kidney disease in nondiabetic contexts, and increasing evidence suggests that dysfunctional renal mitochondria are pathological mediators of DKD. These complex organelles have a broad range of functions, including the generation of ATP...
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455772/prenatal-diagnosis-of-congenital-heart-disease-a-review-of-current-knowledge
#5
REVIEW
Nathalie Jeanne Bravo-Valenzuela, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior
This article reviews important features to improve the diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) by applying ultrasound in prenatal cardiac screening. As low and high-risk pregnancies for CHD are subject to routine obstetric ultrasound, the diagnosis of structural heart defects represents a challenge that involves a team of specialists and subspecialists on fetal ultrasonography. In this review, the images highlight normal anatomy of the heart as well as pathologic cases consistent with cardiac malposition and isomerism, septal defects, pulmonary stenosis/atresia, aortic malformations, hypoplastic left ventricle, conotruncal anomalies, tricuspid dysplasia, and Ebstein's anomaly, and univentricular heart, among other congenital cardiovascular defects...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455365/gender-differences-in-glycemic-control-and-diabetes-related-factors-in-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-results-from-the-metro-study
#6
Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Ofelia Casciano, Michela Petrizzo, Maurizio Gicchino, Mariangela Caputo, Annalisa Sarnataro, Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
PURPOSE: To describe gender differences concerning glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, diabetic complications, concomitant pathologies, and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), in a population of young adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We collected data from 300 consecutively patients (168 males and 132 females), aged 18-30 years, among those admitted at Diabetes Unit of University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli" (Naples, Italy) from March 2012 to January 2017...
February 17, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453534/nanoparticles-caused-oxidative-imbalance
#7
Mariusz Zuberek, Agnieszka Grzelak
Application of nanomaterials in nearly every single branch of industry results in their accumulation in both abiotic environment and tissues of living organisms. Despite the common use of nanomaterials, we are not able to precisely define their toxicity towards humans and surrounding biota. Although we were able to determine final effects of chronic exposure to nanoparticles which consist of many pathologies such as respiratory diseases, allergies, diseases of cardiovascular system, disorders in embryonic life differentiation and growth disorders, toxic effects on the immune system and cancers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453251/a-novel-adipokine-fam19a5-inhibits-postinjury-neointima-formation-through-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2
#8
Yingbao Wang, Dixin Chen, Yan Zhang, Pingzhang Wang, Can Zheng, Songyang Zhang, Bing Yu, Lu Zhang, Guizhen Zhao, Baihui Ma, Zeyu Cai, Nan Xie, Shiyang Huang, Ziyi Liu, Xiaoning Mo, Youfei Guan, Xian Wang, Yi Fu, Dalong Ma, Ying Wang, Wei Kong
Background -Obesity plays crucial roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the mechanisms that link obesity and CVDs remain elusive. Compelling evidence indicates that adipokines play an important role in obesity-related CVDs. Here, we found a new adipokine named family with sequence similarity 19, member A5 (FAM19A5), a protein with unknown function that was predicted to be distantly related to the CC-chemokine family. We aimed to test whether adipose-derived FAM19A5 regulates vascular pathology upon injury...
February 16, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451687/gpcrs-in-context-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#9
REVIEW
Margaret A Mouat, James L J Coleman, Nicola J Smith
Cardiovascular disease remains the largest cause of mortality worldwide and there is a clear gender gap in disease occurrence: men are predisposed to earlier onset of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis and hypertension, than are women. Oestrogen may be a driving factor for female-specific cardioprotection, though androgens and sex chromosomes are also likely to contribute to sexual dimorphism in the cardiovascular system. Many G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated processes are involved in cardiovascular homeostasis and some exhibit clear sex-divergence...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451419/physical-exercise-nutrition-and-hormones-three-pillars-to-fight-sarcopenia
#10
Paolo Sgrò, Massimiliano Sansone, Andrea Sansone, Stefania Sabatini, Paolo Borrione, Francesco Romanelli, Luigi Di Luigi
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a pathophysiological condition diffused in elderly people; it represents a social issue due to the longer life expectancy and the growing aging population. It affects negatively quality of life and it represents a risk factor for other pathologies, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. No silver bullet exists to hinder sarcopenia, but it may be counteracted by physical exercise, nutrition, and a proper endocrine milieu. Indeed, we aim to analyze the scientific literature to give to clinician effective advices to counteract sarcopenia...
February 16, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448104/aim2-regulates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-in-atherosclerosis
#11
Jinyu Pan, Lu Lu, Xuyang Wang, Dian Liu, Jingjing Tian, Hui Liu, Mingjun Zhang, Fengqin Xu, Fengshuang An
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common pathological basis of various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Plaque formation is initiated and triggered by vascular smooth musclecells (VSMCs) migration in vascular wall, which gradually aggravates atherosclerosis progression. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), a member of HIN-200 family, plays an important role in activating inflammasome. However, the role of AIM2 in atherosclerotic plaque progression outside of the inflammasome has not yet been reported...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446717/activators-of-sirtuin-1-and-their-involvement-in-cardioprotection
#12
Carlotta Granchi, Filippo Minutolo
SIRT1 is a nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase, which removes acetyl groups from many target proteins, such as histone proteins, transcription factors and cofactors. SIRT1-catalyzed deacetylation of these factors modulates the activity of downstream proteins, thus influencing many biological processes. SIRT1 is involved in the regulation of metabolism, inflammation, and tumor growth. The activity of this enzyme is related to the beneficial health effects of calorie restriction, such as lifespan extension and, in particular, the activation of SIRT1 has a positive impact on the cardiovascular system...
February 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443878/skeletal-muscle-pathophysiology-the-emerging-role-of-spermine-oxidase-and-spermidine
#13
REVIEW
Manuela Cervelli, Alessia Leonetti, Guglielmo Duranti, Stefania Sabatini, Roberta Ceci, Paolo Mariottini
Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the total body mass. Preserving muscle health and function is essential for the entire body in order to counteract chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Prolonged physical inactivity, particularly among the elderly, causes muscle atrophy, a pathological state with adverse outcomes such as poor quality of life, physical disability, and high mortality. In murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, increased expression of the spermine oxidase (SMOX) enzyme has been found during cell differentiation...
February 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443761/haemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-infection-with-adenovirus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443739/effects-of-exercise-on-secretion-transport-inflammation-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-noncystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Daniele Oliveira Dos Santos, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, José Antônio Baddini-Martinez, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Ada Clarice Gastaldi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by pathological and irreversible bronchial dilatation caused by the inefficient mucus and microorganism clearance and progression of inflammatory processes. The most frequent characteristic is the increase in bronchial mucus production resulting in slower transport and damage to the mucociliary transport. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of exercise on mucus transport, inflammation, and resistance of the respiratory and autonomic nervous systems and subsequent effects on quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis who are enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443547/modeling-heart-failure-risk-in-diabetes-and-kidney-disease-limitations-and-potential-applications-of-transverse-aortic-constriction-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#16
Wei Sheng Tan, Thomas P Mullins, Melanie Flint, Sarah L Walton, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, David A Carter, Meera R Gandhi, Hayley R McDonald, Joan Li, Karen M Moritz, Melissa E Reichelt, Linda A Gallo
There is an increased incidence of heart failure in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). The co-existence of kidney disease in DM exacerbates the cardiovascular prognosis. Researchers have attempted to combine the critical features of heart failure, using transverse aortic constriction, with DM in mice but variable findings have been reported. Furthermore, kidney outcomes have not been assessed in this setting thus its utility as a model of heart failure in DM and kidney disease is unknown. We generated a mouse model of obesity, hyperglycemia and mild kidney pathology by feeding male C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet (HFD)...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441713/human-expression-patterns-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-thrombospondin-1-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#17
REVIEW
Chen Zhao, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Aleksander S Popel
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matricellular protein and one of the first endogenous anti-angiogenic molecules identified, has long been considered a potent modulator of human diseases. While the therapeutic effect of TSP-1 to suppress cancer was investigated in both research and clinical settings, the mechanisms of how TSP-1 is regulated in cancer remain elusive, and the scientific answers to the question of whether TSP-1 expressions can be utilized as diagnostic or prognostic marker for patients with cancer are largely inconsistent...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441193/insights-into-the-roles-of-lncrnas-in-skeletal-and-dental-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Yuyu Li, Jiawei Zhang, Jie Pan, Xu Feng, Peipei Duan, Xing Yin, Yang Xu, Xin Wang, Shujuan Zou
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding transcripts with the length longer than 200 nucleotides. Growing evidence suggests that lncRNAs, which were initially thought to be merely transcriptional "noise", participate in a wide repertoire of biological processes. It has been well established that lncRNAs not only play important roles in genomic regulation, transcription, posttranscriptional processes but are also implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440390/high-dietary-fat-and-sucrose-results-in-an-extensive-and-time-dependent-deterioration-in-health-of-multiple-physiological-systems-in-mice
#19
James G Burchfield, Melkam A Kebede, Christopher C Meoli, Jacqueline Stöckli, P Tess Whitworth, Amanda L Wright, Nolan J Hoffman, Annabel Y Minard, Xiuquan Ma, James R Krycer, Marin E Nelson, Shi-Xiong Tan, Belinda Yau, Kristen C Thomas, Natalie K Y Wee, Ee-Cheng Khor, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Bryce Vissel, Trevor J Biden, Paul A Baldock, Kyle L Hoehn, James Cantley, Gregory J Cooney, David E James, Daniel J Fazakerley
Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439675/screening-key-genes-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-based-on-gene-expression-omnibus-dataset
#20
Li Wan, Jingyong Huang, Haizhen Ni, Guanfeng Yu
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common cardiovascular system disease with high mortality. The aim of this study was to identify potential genes for diagnosis and therapy in AAA. METHODS: We searched and downloaded mRNA expression data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from AAA and normal individuals. Then, Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis, transcriptional factors (TFs) network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were used to explore the function of genes...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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