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Cardiovascular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319834/molecular-mechanisms-in-the-pathogenesis-of-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey E Saffitz
The article is based on work presented in the Distinguished Achievement Award lecture at the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology meeting in Seattle, WA, in March 2016. It reviews our current understanding of mechanisms responsible for a highly arrhythmogenic, nonischemic cardiomyopathy. It highlights the armamentarium of powerful methods available to the experimental pathologist in efforts to define how complex cardiovascular diseases work. It concludes with acknowledgment of the need for a far more detailed approach as to how we categorize human disease, a task for which pathologists are especially well positioned...
February 27, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319545/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-is-associated-with-increased-adverse-postoperative-renal-outcomes-and-mortality-a-historical-cohort-study-using-administrative-health-data
#2
Rovnat Babazade, Huseyin Oguz Yilmaz, Steve M Leung, Nicole M Zimmerman, Alparslan Turan
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common autoimmune connective tissue disease that mainly harms kidneys, heart, lungs, and nervous system. Effects of surgical stimulus and anesthesia combined with SLE-related pathologies may increase morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association between SLE (versus none) and postoperative renal, cardiac, and in-hospital mortality complications among patients undergoing major surgeries. METHODS: We obtained censuses of 2009 to 2011 inpatient hospital discharges across 7 states and conducted a retrospective cohort study by using International Classification of Diseases and Injuries, Version 9, diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and present-on-admission indicators...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318632/endovascular-aneurysm-repair-evar-and-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-tavr-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#3
REVIEW
Kenar D Jhaveri, Athanasios N Saratzis, Rimda J Wanchoo, Pantelis A Sarafidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after surgery or intervention is an important complication that may impact mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Endovascular procedures are now performed routinely for a variety of pathologies that were traditionally treated with open surgery because randomized trials comparing endovascular and open surgery have shown at least equally good results and reduced complication and hospitalization rates with endovascular techniques. However, endovascular procedures have been associated with an increased risk for postoperative AKI, predominantly owing to contrast nephrotoxicity...
March 16, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#4
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317819/-correlation-of-chronic-periodontal-disease-and-cardiovascular-disease
#5
A I Grudyanov, O N Tkacheva, T V Avraamova
The aim of the study was to assess correlative risk of progression of inflammatory periodontal lesions, the development of a systemic inflammatory reaction and cardiovascular diseases. The study involved 89 patients with chronic periodontal disease (CPD) of varying degrees. High cardiovascular disease risk was revealed in 8.8% of patients with moderate and 13.3% of patients with severe periodontal disease. It is proved that an additional factor contributing to the pathogenic relationship between periodontal inflammatory changes and the development of cardiovascular disease is systemic inflammatory response with increased hrC-reactive protein >3...
2017: Stomatologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317480/novel-insights-into-complex-cardiovascular-pathologies-using-4d-flow-analysis-by-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Adam James Lewandowski, Betty Raman, Rajarshi Banerjee, Matteo Milanesi
BACKGROUND: It is essential that we are able to assess variations in blood flow in order to fully understand cardiovascular function in disease pathologies and for identification of individuals at long-term risk of cardiovascular disease development. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of blood flow by imaging modalities have been limited, and much of the accurate quantification has relied on invasive measures. METHODS: This review discusses how four-dimensional velocity cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D flow CMR) offers increasing potential for the non-invasive assessment of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels such as the aorta...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316327/obstructive-primary-cardiac-t-cell-lymphoma-a-case-report-from-senegal
#7
Simon Antoine Sarr, Abdou Majib Gaye, Fatou Aw, Jean de Dieu Nzambaza, Malick Bodian, Kana Babaka, Mouhamadou Bamba Ndiaye, Adama Kane, Maboury Diao, Serigne Abdou Ba
BACKGROUND Cardiac lymphoma is a rare entity, defined by the non-extra cardiac location at diagnosis. CASE REPORT Our patient was a 32-year-old female with no particular medical history, who presented with right heart failure with recurrent ascites and pleural effusion. There was a progressive worsening exertional dyspnea. On admission, examination revealed an irregular tachycardia at 170 beats per minute (bpm) and congestive heart failure. The electrocardiogram scored full tachyarrhythmia by atrial fibrillation with an average ventricular rate of 179 cycles per minute...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315460/classification-and-characterization-of-periventricular-and-deep-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-a-study-in-older-adults
#8
REVIEW
Ludovica Griffanti, Mark Jenkinson, Sana Suri, X X, Abda Mahmood, Nicola Filippini, Claire E Sexton, Anya Topiwala, Charlotte Allan, Mika Kivimäki, Archana Singh-Manoux, Klaus P Ebmeier, Clare E Mackay, Giovanna Zamboni
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are frequently divided into periventricular (PWMH) and deep (DWMH), and the two classes have been associated with different cognitive, microstructural, and clinical correlates. However, although this distinction is widely used in visual ratings scales, how to best anatomically define the two classes is still disputed. In fact, the methods used to define PWMH and DWMH vary significantly between studies, making results difficult to compare. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to compare four current criteria used to define PWMH and DWMH in a cohort of healthy older adults (mean age: 69...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315200/radiation-induced-cardiovascular-disease
#9
REVIEW
Deepa Raghunathan, Misha Iftikhar Khilji, Saamir A Hassan, Syed Wamique Yusuf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Thoracic radiation therapy is an effective treatment for several malignancies, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. Over the years, however, the incidence of cardiovascular events has increased in these patients, notably in younger survivors who do not have traditional risk factors. This review summarizes the pathology, incidence, clinical presentation, and management of cardiac events after radiation therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Mediastinal radiation therapy accelerates the atherosclerosis process, resulting in early onset coronary artery disease...
May 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314892/abnormal-kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-catabolism-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Ping Song, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Huan Wang, Ming-Hui Zou
Kynurenine pathway (KP) is the primary path of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in most mammalian cells. The KP generates several bioactive catabolites, such as kynurenine (Kyn), kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), xanthurenic acid (XA), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA). Increased catabolite concentrations in serum are associated with several cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, as well as their risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and aging...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306664/kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factors-in-endothelial-cell-biology
#11
Eugene Chang, Lalitha Nayak, Mukesh K Jain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate integral functions of endothelial cells including inflammation, proliferation, growth, apoptosis, cell differentiation and plasticity, and migration. This review will focus on the role of KLFs in physiological activity and their loss in vascular pathology. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have pointed at the role of microRNAs as repressors of KLFs in atherosclerotic areas providing another level of signaling regulation of KLFs...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306174/the-cardiac-l-type-calcium-channel-alpha-subunit-is-a-target-for-direct-redox-modification-during-oxidative-stress-the-role-of-cysteine-residues-in-the-alpha-interacting-domain
#12
Padmapriya Muralidharan, Henrietta Cserne Szappanos, Evan Ingley, Livia C Hool
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Western world. The incidence of cardiovascular disease is predicted to further rise with the increase in obesity and diabetes and with the ageing population. Even though the survival rate from ischemic heart disease has improved over the past 30 years, many patients progress to a chronic pathological condition, known as cardiac hypertrophy that is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium play an essential role in mediating cardiac hypertrophy...
March 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303275/modeling-pathological-hemodynamic-responses-to-the-valsalva-maneuver
#13
Leszek Pstras, Karl Thomaseth, Jacek Waniewski, Italo Balzani, Federico Bellavere
The Valsalva maneuver consisting in a forced expiration against closed airways is one of the most popular clinical tests of the autonomic nervous system function. When properly performed by a healthy subject, it features four characteristic phases of arterial blood pressure and heart rate variations, based on the magnitude of which the autonomic function may be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In patients with some disorders or in healthy patients subject to specific conditions, the pattern of blood pressure and heart rate changes during the execution of the Valsalva maneuver may, however, differ from the typical sinusoidal-like pattern...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303136/expansions-of-cytotoxic-cd4-cd28-t-cells-drive-excess-cardiovascular-mortality-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-other-chronic-inflammatory-conditions-and-are-triggered-by-cmv-infection
#14
REVIEW
Iain Broadley, Alejandra Pera, George Morrow, Kevin A Davies, Florian Kern
A large proportion of cardiovascular (CV) pathology results from immune-mediated damage, including systemic inflammation and cellular proliferation, which cause a narrowing of the blood vessels. Expansions of cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells characterized by loss of CD28 ("CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells" or "CD4(+)CD28(null) cells") are closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), in particular coronary artery damage. Direct involvement of these cells in damaging the vasculature has been demonstrated repeatedly. Moreover, CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells are significantly increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302065/lamivudine-dolutegravir-dual-therapy-in-hiv-infected-virologically-suppressed-patients
#15
Franco Maggiolo, Roberto Gulminetti, Layla Pagnucco, Margherita Digaetano, Simone Benatti, Daniela Valenti, Annapaola Callegaro, Diego Ripamonti, Cristina Mussini
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the applicability of dual treatments based on integrase inhibitors. We explored the combination of lamivudine + dolutegravir as an option when switching from standard cART in virologically suppressed patients. METHODS: In this prospective cohort we enrolled patients previously switched to 3TC + DTG who were 18 years or older, with no previous resistance mutations to the used drugs, having a HIV-RNA <50 copies/ml for 6 months or longer, negative for HBsAg and on a stable (>6 months) cART...
March 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302027/in-silico-design-and-admet-studies-of-natural-compounds-as-inhibitors-of-xanthine-oxidase-xo-enzyme
#16
Neelam Malik, Priyanka Dhiman, Anurag Khatkar
BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidase a ubiquitous enzyme has been found to be involved in various pathological disorders including gout, hyperuricemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Inhibitors of xanthine oxidase thus find a crucial role in the therapeutic treatment of these deadly diseases. OBJECTIVE: Considering the side effects of today's treatment regimen here we choose nature based compounds to act as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. In the present work, we performed in-silico docking of natural compounds to reveal the underlying mechanism of inhibition of xanthine oxidase...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298189/high-serum-resistin-levels-are-associated-with-peripheral-artery-disease-in-the-hypertensive-patients
#17
Bang-Gee Hsu, Chung-Jen Lee, Chiu-Fen Yang, Yu-Chih Chen, Ji-Hung Wang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Subjects with PAD are at increased risk of future cardiovascular (CV) events. Resistin is involved in the pathological processes of CV diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether resistin level is correlated with PAD in hypertensive patients. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four hypertensive patients were enrolled in this study. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) values were measured using the automated oscillometric method...
March 15, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298172/potential-prognostic-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-fetal-macrosomia-the-impact-of-gestational-diabetes
#18
Despina D Briana, Κleopatra Germanou, Μaria Boutsikou, Theodora Boutsikou, Νikolaos Athanasopoulos, Αntonios Μarmarinos, Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Αriadne Malamitsi-Puchner
OBJECTIVE: Fetal macrosomia is associated with cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiovascular risk. Cardiac biomarkers may play diagnostic/prognostic role in cardiovascular disease. We tested whether cardiac biomarkers are differentially expressed in cord blood samples of full-term singleton large-for-gestational-age (LGA), as compared to appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) pregnancies. METHODS: Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), Titin, pentraxin (PTX-3) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) concentrations were determined in 80 cord blood samples from a) LGA pregnancies due to maternal diabetes (n = 8), overweight/obese (n = 11), excessive weight gain (n = 7), without specific pathology (n = 14), b) AGA normal pregnancies (controls, n = 40)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297729/the-role-of-abo-blood-type-in-thrombosis-scoring-systems
#19
Massimo Franchini, Giuseppe Marano, Stefania Vaglio, Liviana Catalano, Simonetta Pupella, Giancarlo Maria Liumbruno
In addition to their major role in transfusion medicine, there is increasing evidence that ABO blood group antigens (complex carbohydrate molecules widely expressed on the surface of red blood cells and several other cell types) are implicated in the development of a wide array of pathologic conditions. In particular, intense research has been dedicated over the last 50 years to the study of the association between non-O blood type and the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Several pathways have been hypothesized to explain this relationship, the most reasonable implying the influence of the ABO blood group on circulating plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, factor VIII, and several inflammatory cytokines...
March 15, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296388/degradable-semiconducting-oligomer-amphiphile-for-ratiometric-photoacoustic-imaging-of-hypochlorite
#20
Chao Yin, Xu Zhen, Quli Fan, Wei Huang, Kanyi Pu
Upregulation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hypochlorite (ClO-) is associated with many pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases, neuron degeneration, lung injury and cancer. However, real-time imaging of ClO- is limited to the probes generally relying on fluorescence with shallow tissue-penetration depth. We here propose a self-assembly approach to develop activatable and degradable photoacoustic (PA) nanoprobes for in vivo imaging of ClO-. A near-infrared (NIR) absorbing amphiphilic oligomer was synthesized to undergo degradation in the presence of a specific ROS (ClO-), which integrates a π-conjugated but ClO- oxidizable backbone with hydrophilic PEG side chains...
March 15, 2017: ACS Nano
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