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Morphometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332865/fibrillar-architecture-at-three-different-sites-of-the-bovine-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon
#1
Naoki Takahashi, Takuya Hirose, Jun A Minaguchi, Hiromi Ueda, Prasarn Tangkawattana, Kazushige Takehana
Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the bovine hindlimb originates from the caudolateral aspect of the distal femur and finally inserts onto the plantar aspect of the middle phalanges. In the present study, morphology and morphometry of the bovine SDFT at the muscle-tendon junction (MTJ), middle metatarsus (mM) and tendon-bone interface (TBI) were investigated. Cross-sectional morphology at the three regions of SDFT were oval, semioval and ring-formed, respectively. Significant difference in cross-sectional area was found only between MTJ-mM and mM-TBI (P<0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332257/kynurenic-acid-and-its-derivatives-are-able-to-modulate-the-adhesion-and-locomotion-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#2
Eszter Lajkó, Bernadett Tuka, Ferenc Fülöp, István Krizbai, József Toldi, Kálmán Magyar, László Vécsei, László Kőhidai
The neuroprotective actions of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its derivatives in several neurodegenerative disorders [characterized by damage to the cerebral endothelium and to the blood-brain barrier (BBB)] are well established. Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is supposedly involved in recovery of impaired cerebral endothelium integrity (endothelial repair). The present work aimed to investigate the effects of KYNA and its synthetic derivatives on cellular behaviour (e.g. adhesion and locomotion) and on morphology of the GP8 rat brain endothelial cell line, modeling the BBB endothelium...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331059/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-grit-growth-mindset-mediates-the-association-between-gray-matter-structure-and-trait-grit-in-late-adolescence
#3
Song Wang, Jing Dai, Jingguang Li, Xu Wang, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Manxi He, Qiyong Gong
There is a long-standing interest in exploring the factors related to student achievement. As a newly explored personality trait, grit is defined as a person's tendency to pursue long-term goals with continual perseverance and passion, and grit plays a critical role in student achievement. Increasing evidence has shown that growth mindset, the belief that one's basic abilities are malleable and can be developed through effort, is a potential factor for cultivating grit. However, less is known about the association between grit and the brain and the role of growth mindset in this association...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330136/white-matter-volume-loss-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-meta-analysis-of-voxel-based-morphometry-studies
#4
REVIEW
Guangxiang Chen, Baiwan Zhou, Hongyan Zhu, Weihong Kuang, Feng Bi, Hua Ai, Zhongwei Gu, Xiaoqi Huang, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong
Structural neuroimaging studies of white matter (WM) volume in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) have yielded inconsistent findings. This study aimed to perform a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis using effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) to establish a statistical consensus between published studies for WM volume alterations in ALS. The pooled meta-analysis revealed significant WM volume losses in the bilateral supplementary motor areas (SMAs), bilateral precentral gyri (PGs), left middle cerebellar peduncle and right cerebellum in patients with ALS, involving the corticospinal tract (CST), interhemispheric fibers, subcortical arcuate fibers, projection fibers to the striatum and cortico-ponto-cerebellar tract...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329765/usefulness-of-the-trabecular-bone-score-for-assessing-the-risk-of-osteoporotic-fracture
#5
L Redondo, E Puigoriol, J R Rodríguez, P Peris, E Kanterewicz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The trabecular bone score (TBS) is an imaging technique that assesses the condition of the trabecular microarchitecture. Preliminary results suggest that TBS, along with the bone mineral density assessment, could improve the calculation of the osteoporotic fracture risk. The aim of this study was to analyse TBS values and their relationship with the clinical characteristics, bone mineral density and history of fractures of a cohort of posmenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analysed 2,257 posmenopausal women from the FRODOS cohort, which was created to determine the risk factors for osteoporotic fracture through a clinical survey and bone densitometry with vertebral morphometry...
January 9, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329055/altered-brain-structure-in-women-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#6
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Ru Li, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Yichen Wei, Yong Pang, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional brain abnormalities have been noted in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, the brain structural alterations related to PMS remain unclear. This study aimed to identify possible abnormalities in gray matter (GM) volumes and structural covariance patterns among PMS patients. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 20 PMS patients and 20 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was applied to examine GM volumes changes between the two groups...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322584/effects-of-fixation-on-electrophysiology-and-structure-of-human-jejunal-villi
#7
Anna Casselbrant, Herbert F Helander
The villi of human jejunum vary in size and shape during different functional conditions. In the base the lamina propria is isotonic with blood, in the tip hyperosmotic. Here we study electrophysiological and morphological effects of incubation in hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic solutions, and to test various isotonic fixatives for microscopy. Samples of jejunal mucosae, obtained during surgery in obese patients, were studied in Ussing chambers where electrical parameters were registered during incubation in Krebs solution at various osmolarities, and during fixation in formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, or osmium tetroxide (OsO4 )...
January 11, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322320/is-there-a-relationship-between-the-load-distribution-on-the-tibial-plateau-and-hip-knee-ankle-angle-after-tka
#8
Takao Kaneko, Norihiko Kono, Yuta Mochizuki, Hiroyasu Ikegami, Yoshiro Musha
INTRODUCTION: This study asked whether differences in coronal alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) affect the load distribution on the tibial plateau. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between coronal alignment and the load distribution on the tibial plateau after TKA, using three-dimensional multi-detector-row-computed tomography (3D-MDCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we performed 84 cementless TKA with porous tantalum modular tibial component (PTMT) and divided into three groups based on post-operative hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle: varus alignment group (n = 22), (176° ≧) neutral alignment group (n = 45), (180° ± 3°), and valgus alignment group (n = 17) (184° ≦)...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322264/cerebral-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-chronic-migraine-correlations-with-clinical-features
#9
Gianluca Coppola, Barbara Petolicchio, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Valentina Calistri, Stefano Tardioli, Gaia Cartocci, Anna Ambrosini, Francesca Caramia, Vittorio Di Piero, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: To date, few MRI studies have been performed in patients affected by chronic migraine (CM), especially in those without medication overuse. Here, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume of the whole brain in patients affected by CM. Our aim was to investigate whether fluctuations in the GM volumes were related to the clinical features of CM. METHODS: Twenty untreated patients with CM without a past medical history of medication overuse underwent 3-Tesla MRI scans and were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321969/the-two-year-progression-of-structural-and-functional-cerebral-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
R A L Menke, M Proudfoot, K Talbot, M R Turner
MRI has emerged as one of several urgently needed candidate disease progression biomarkers for the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not least due to its unique ability to non-invasively assess structural and functional cerebral pathology. We sought to identify the extent of detectable change in cerebral MRI metrics over a more prolonged period. Analysis of multi-modal MRI data was performed in a cohort of sixteen patients (13 ALS and 3 with primary lateral sclerosis) in whom it was possible to acquire six-monthly images over two years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321625/cerebellar-grey-matter-modifications-in-lower-limb-amputees-not-using-prosthesis
#11
Antonella Di Vita, Maddalena Boccia, Liana Palermo, Federico Nemmi, Marco Traballesi, Stefano Brunelli, Roberto De Giorgi, Gaspare Galati, Cecilia Guariglia
Plastic brain changes following peripheral deafferentation, in particular those following limb amputations, are well-documented, with significant reduction of grey matter (GM) in the sensory-motor cerebral areas representing the amputated limb. However, few studies have investigated the role played by the use of a prosthesis in these structural brain modifications. Here we hypothesized that using a functional prosthesis that allows individuals to perform actions may reduce grey matter reduction. We investigated the brain structural reorganization following lower limb amputation by using a Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 right-handed individuals with lower limb amputation (LLA) fitted with prostheses (LLAwp), compared to 6 LLA who had never used a prosthesis (LLAnp)...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320524/patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-fatigue-present-with-depressive-symptoms-and-selected-cognitive-deficits-but-with-normal-attention-performance-and-brain-structure
#12
Roman Zenouzi, Janina von der Gablentz, Marcus Heldmann, Martin Göttlich, Christina Weiler-Normann, Marcial Sebode, Hanno Ehlken, Johannes Hartl, Anja Fellbrich, Susanne Siemonsen, Christoph Schramm, Thomas F Münte, Ansgar W Lohse
BACKGROUND: In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) fatigue is a major clinical challenge of unknown etiology. By demonstrating that fatigue in PBC is associated with an impaired cognitive performance, previous studies have pointed out the possibility of brain abnormalities underlying fatigue in PBC. Whether structural brain changes are present in PBC patients with fatigue, however, is unclear. To evaluate the role of structural brain abnormalities in PBC patients severely affected from fatigue we, therefore, performed a case-control cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) study and correlated changes of white and grey brain matter with the cognitive and attention performance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320500/brain-structural-changes-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-administered-with-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-a-longitudinal-voxel-based-morphometry-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#13
Hyeonseok S Jeong, Sang-Rae Lee, Jieun E Kim, In Kyoon Lyoo, Sujung Yoon, Eun Namgung, Kyu-Tae Chang, Bom Sahn Kim, Sejung Yang, Jooyeon J Im, Saerom Jeon, Ilhyang Kang, Jiyoung Ma, Yong-An Chung, Soo Mee Lim
In animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is one of the most widely used agents that damages the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. However, brain structural changes in response to MPTP remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate in vivo longitudinal changes in gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) microstructure in primate models administered with MPTP. In six cynomolgus monkeys, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were acquired 7 times over 32 weeks, and assessments of motor symptoms were conducted over 15 months, before and after the MPTP injection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319408/efficacy-and-safety-of-tremella-fuciformis-in-individuals-with-subjective-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Soonhyun Ban, Suji L Lee, Hyeonseok S Jeong, Soo Mee Lim, Shinwon Park, Young Sun Hong, Jieun E Kim
The efficacy and safety of Tremella fuciformis (TF) as a nutritional supplement were assessed in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). Seventy-five individuals with SCI were enrolled in an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of TF (600 mg/day, n = 30 or 1200 mg/day, n = 30) or placebo (n = 15). The primary outcome measure was changes in total scores of the subjective memory complaint questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures were changes in performance on short-term memory and executive functions, which were assessed using standardized cognitive tests...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319353/cut-off-values-for-normal-sperm-morphology-and-toxicology-for-automated-analysis-of-rat-sperm-morphology-and-morphometry
#15
G van der Horst, B Skosana, A Legendre, P Oyeyipo, S S du Plessis
We used automated sperm morphology analysis to investigate rat sperm morphometry and morphology in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats in three research centers to develop normal baseline values for sperm morphometry and to quantify the percentage of morphologically normal sperm in healthy rats. The participating centers were IRSN in Paris, France (Sprague-Dawley rats), University of the Western Cape, South Africa (Wistar rats) and Stellenbosch University (Wistar rats), South Africa. All three centers used identical sperm isolation techniques from the cauda epididymis, the same staining protocols, identical computer-aided sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA) software and microscopes with similar optics...
January 10, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318352/morphometry-of-the-hand-knob-region-and-motor-function-change-in-eloquent-area-glioma-patients
#16
Liang Jingshan, Fang Shengyu, Fan Xing, Wang Zheng, Zhang Chuanbao, Qian Zenghui, Liu Xing, Sun Lihua, Li Guanzhang, Yang Fuqiang, Jin Shuai, Wang Yinyan, Jiang Tao
PURPOSE: The hand knob area is the cortical representation of motor hand function. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of eloquent area gliomas on the morphometry of the hand motor cortex and preoperative hand motor function. METHODS: A retrospective study of 320 glioma patients was conducted. Seventy-eight patients with gliomas involving motor functional area were finally enrolled. Using axial T2-weight magnetic resonance images, the width and height of the hand knob were measured in both hemispheres, and differences were compared between the affected and unaffected hemispheres...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315984/default-mode-network-modifications-in-fabry-disease-a-resting-state-fmri-study-with-structural-correlations
#17
Sirio Cocozza, Giuseppe Pontillo, Mario Quarantelli, Francesco Saccà, Eleonora Riccio, Teresa Costabile, Gaia Olivo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Antonio Pisani, Arturo Brunetti, Enrico Tedeschi
Aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Default Mode Network (DMN) modifications in Fabry Disease (FD), and their possible correlations with structural alterations and neuropsychological scores. Thirty-two FD patients with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of classical FD (12 males, mean age 43.3 ± 12.2) were enrolled, along with 35 healthy controls (HC) of comparable age and sex (14 males, mean age 42.1 ± 14.5). Resting-State fMRI data were analyzed using a seed-based approach, with six different seeds sampling the main hubs of the DMN...
January 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313132/-rpe-morphometry-in-geographic-atrophy-due-to-amd
#18
A Wagner, A Mohi, M Ranjbar, S Grisanti, M Rudolf
BACKGROUND: The geographic atrophy (GA) junctional zone includes changes in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane complex that are still difficult to interpret even with clinical high-resolution imaging technologies. We measured and evaluated degenerative RPE cell changes in histological sections of GA eyes. METHODS: In this study seven GA eyes were evaluated by light microscopy. In three eye sections, zones of typical RPE alterations were graded (0 = normal; 1 = irregular cells but intact layer; 2 = rounded, enlarged, and/or heaped cells; 3 = migrating cells in retina; 4 = RPE absent)...
January 8, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304440/evaluation-of-an-insect-meal-of-the-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-as-soybean-substitute-intestinal-morphometry-enzymatic-and-microbial-activity-in-laying-hens
#19
Monica Isabella Cutrignelli, Maria Messina, Francesca Tulli, Basilio Randazzi, Ike Olivotto, Laura Gasco, Rosa Loponte, Fulvia Bovera
This research investigated the ileum morphometry and enzymatic activity, the caecal volatile fatty acid production and the apparent nutrient digestibility in laying hens fed a Hermetia illucens larvae meal (HILM) as a complete replacement of diet soybean meal (SBM). The hens fed HILM exhibited a lower live weight (P<0.05) and a higher incidence of the full digestive tract (P<0.05) than the SBM group. In the duodenum, the maltase exhibited a higher (P<0.05) activity in the HILM group while the intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) had a higher (P<0...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302917/meta-analysis-of-voxel-based-morphometry-studies-of-gray-matter-abnormalities-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis
#20
Liyun Zheng, Guo Bin, Hongwu Zeng, Dongfang Zou, Junling Gao, Jian Zhang, Bingsheng Huang
We aimed to perform a meta-analysis to systematically determine the most consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormality in patients of unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), and to reveal the difference of GMV abnormality between the patients with left-sided and right-sided MTLE-HS. A comprehensive and systematic search was performed in PubMed for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of MTLE-HS. A total of 12 MTLE-HS studies, including 9 left-sided MTLE-HS (LMTLE-HS) and 8 right-sided MTLE-HS (RMTLE-HS) studies were included...
January 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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