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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782369/neuroimaging-in-epilepsy
#1
Meneka Kaur Sidhu, John S Duncan, Josemir W Sander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy neuroimaging is important for detecting the seizure onset zone, predicting and preventing deficits from surgery and illuminating mechanisms of epileptogenesis. An aspiration is to integrate imaging and genetic biomarkers to enable personalized epilepsy treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The ability to detect lesions, particularly focal cortical dysplasia and hippocampal sclerosis, is increased using ultra high-field imaging and postprocessing techniques such as automated volumetry, T2 relaxometry, voxel-based morphometry and surface-based techniques...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781539/intermittent-resistance-exercise-and-obesity-considered-separately-or-combined-impair-spermatic-parameters-in-adult-male-wistar-rats
#2
Ana Paula Franco Punhagui, Giovana Rampazzo Teixeira, Marcelo Conrado de Freitas, Patricia Monteiro Seraphim, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves Fernandes
Obesity and absence of physical exercise are global problems that affect concentration and sperm quality in the male reproductive system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of obesity and resistance training, considered separately or in association, on testicular function and reproductive capacity. Twenty pubertal male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C) and exercise (E) groups that received standard rat chow; and obese (O) and obese with exercise (OE) groups that received a high-fat diet...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778275/quantifying-the-effects-of-16p11-2-copy-number-variants-on-brain-structure-a-multisite-genetic-first-study
#3
Sandra Martin-Brevet, Borja Rodríguez-Herreros, Jared A Nielsen, Clara Moreau, Claudia Modenato, Anne M Maillard, Aurélie Pain, Sonia Richetin, Aia E Jønch, Abid Y Qureshi, Nicole R Zürcher, Philippe Conus, Wendy K Chung, Elliott H Sherr, John E Spiro, Ferath Kherif, Jacques S Beckmann, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Alexandre Reymond, Randy L Buckner, Bogdan Draganski, Sébastien Jacquemont
BACKGROUND: 16p11.2 breakpoint 4 to 5 copy number variants (CNVs) increase the risk for developing autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and language and cognitive impairment. In this multisite study, we aimed to quantify the effect of 16p11.2 CNVs on brain structure. METHODS: Using voxel- and surface-based brain morphometric methods, we analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging collected at seven sites from 78 individuals with a deletion, 71 individuals with a duplication, and 212 individuals without a CNV...
March 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777918/sex-differences-in-the-spatial-distribution-of-bone-in-relation-to-incident-hip-fracture-findings-from-the-ages-reykjavik-study
#4
Elisa A Marques, Julio Carballido-Gamio, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Thor Aspelund, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Lenore Launer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Thomas Lang, Tamara B Harris
In this case-cohort study, we used data-driven computational anatomy approaches to assess within and between sex spatial differences in proximal femoral bone characteristics in relation to incident hip fracture. One hundred male and 234 female incident hip fracture cases, and 1047 randomly selected noncase subcohort participants (562 female) were chosen from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik study (mean age of 77 years). The baseline -i.e. before hip fracture- hip quantitative computed tomography scans of these subjects were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry, tensor-based morphometry, and surface-based statistical parametric mapping to assess the spatial distribution of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), internal structure, and cortical bone properties (thickness, vBMD and trabecular vBMD adjacent to the endosteal surface) of the proximal femur, respectively, in relation to incident hip fracture...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777221/chemokines-and-integrins-independently-tune-actin-flow-and-substrate-friction-during-intranodal-migration-of-t-cells
#5
Miroslav Hons, Aglaja Kopf, Robert Hauschild, Alexander Leithner, Florian Gaertner, Jun Abe, Jörg Renkawitz, Jens V Stein, Michael Sixt
Although much is known about the physiological framework of T cell motility, and numerous rate-limiting molecules have been identified through loss-of-function approaches, an integrated functional concept of T cell motility is lacking. Here, we used in vivo precision morphometry together with analysis of cytoskeletal dynamics in vitro to deconstruct the basic mechanisms of T cell migration within lymphatic organs. We show that the contributions of the integrin LFA-1 and the chemokine receptor CCR7 are complementary rather than positioned in a linear pathway, as they are during leukocyte extravasation from the blood vasculature...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776018/voxel-based-morphometry-in-creative-writers-gray-matter-increase-in-a-prefronto-thalamic-cerebellar-network
#6
Nicola Neumann, Martin Domin, Katharina Erhard, Martin Lotze
Continuous practice modulates those features of brain anatomy specifically associated with requirements of the respective training task. The current study aimed to highlight brain structural changes going along with long-term experience in creative writing. To this end, we investigated the gray-matter volume of 23 expert writers with voxel-based morphometry and compared it to 28 matched non-expert controls. Expert writers had higher gray-matter volume in the right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri (BA 9,10) as well as left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9, 10, 46), the bilateral medial dorsal nuclei of the thalamus and left posterior cerebellum...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773998/larger-gray-matter-volume-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-heavy-cannabis-users-detected-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-subcortical-volumetric-analysis
#7
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Begoña Gonzalvo, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Laura Blanco, Diana Bachiller, Anna Romaguera, Gemma C Monté-Rubio, Carlos Roncero, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772120/eosinophilic-esophagitis-relevance-of-mast-cell-infiltration
#8
Daniel S Strasser, Shanon Seger, Christian Bussmann, Gabin M Pierlot, Peter M A Groenen, Anna K Stalder, Alex Straumann
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE...
May 17, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769754/detection-of-bone-loss-via-subchondral-bone-analysis
#9
Jean-Baptiste Vimort, Antonio Ruellas, Jack Prothero, J S Marron, Matthew McCormick, Lucia Cevidanes, Erika Benavides, Beatriz Paniagua
To date, there is no single sign, symptom, or test that can clearly diagnose early stages of Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis (TMJ OA). However, it has been observed that changes in the bone occur in early stages of this disease, involving structural changes both in the texture and morphometry of the bone marrow and the subchondral cortical plate. In this paper we present a tool to detect and highlight subtle variations in subchondral bone structure obtained from high resolution Cone Beam Computed Tomography (hr-CBCT) in order to help with detecting early TMJ OA...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767109/nutrient-density-of-prestarter-diets-from-1-to-10-days-of-age-affects-intestinal-morphometry-enzyme-activity-serum-indices-and-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#10
Ficinine V Ivanovich, Ocmanyan A Karlovich, Reza Mahdavi, Egorov I Afanasyevich
A total of 480 day-old Cobb 500 broilers were used to investigate the effects of different levels of digestible amino acids (DAA; 100%, 107% and 114% of Cobb recommendations) and ME (3,000 or 2,900 kcal/kg) of prestarter diet on mixed sex broilers performance, enzyme activity, small intestine morphology, and serum metabolites. Broilers were randomly allotted to 6 treatments, where each treatment applied to 4 pens with 20 birds in each. The birds were subjected to their respective treatment diets from 1 to 10 days of age...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765215/in-vivo-investigation-on-the-chronic-hepatotoxicity-induced-by-intraperitoneal-administration-of-10-nm-silicon-dioxide-nanoparticles
#11
Mansour Almansour, Saud Alarifi, Bashir Jarrar
Background: Silicon dioxide (silica) nanoparticles (SDNPs) are widely used in nanotechnology and medicine, but these nanomaterials may carry a high risk for human health while little is known about their toxicity. Methods: We investigated the alterations in morphometry, biochemistry, hematology, histology of liver tissue and gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes induced by 10-nm SDNPs. Healthy male Wistar albino rats were exposed to 20, 35 and 50 repeated injections of SDNPs (2 mg/kg body weight)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762889/endothelial-cell-density-and-characterization-of-corneal-endothelial-cells-in-the-tawny-owl-strix-aluco-using-specular-microscopy
#12
Natàlia Coyo, Marta Leiva, Daniel Costa, Rafael Molina, Olga Nicolás, Jose Ríos, Maria Teresa Peña
OBJECTIVE: To determine endothelial cell density (ECD) and morphology and morphometry of corneal endothelial cells in the tawny owl (Strix aluco), as well as to report the effects of aging on these parameters. ANIMAL STUDY AND PROCEDURES: Twenty tawny owls were included in the study and classified into 2 groups according to their age: fledglings (<1 year old) and adults (>1 year old). Central corneal endothelium was studied by means of noncontact specular microscopy (Specular Microscope SP-2000P; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan), and results for ECD (cells/mm2 ), mean cell area ((MCA (μm2 )), polymegathism (CV), and pleomorphism (% hexagonal cells) were obtained...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762113/cervicothoracic-pedicle-morphometry-using-an-osteological-collection-to-characterize-trends-in-pedicle-size
#13
Mhamad Faour, Charles C Yu, Navkirat Bajwa, Jason O Toy, Uri M Ahn, Nicholas U Ahn
Pedicle screws are a common treatment option for spinal instability. Despite their popularity, pedicle screws carry the risk of transpedicular violation with subsequent neural and vascular damage. This study measured the pedicle dimensions of 500 dry specimens in an osteological collection. The data provide the orthopedic spine surgeon with an accurate measure of pedicle morphometry in light of previously limited and contradictory results. The study demonstrates that pedicle height at the cervicothoracic junction tends to increase with body height, particularly for females...
2018: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756356/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-individuals-exhibiting-parkinson-s-disease-risk-markers
#14
Marcus Heldmann, Janna Heeren, Christine Klein, Linus Rauch, Johann Hagenah, Thomas F Münte, Meike Kasten, Norbert Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: The concept of prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) involves variable combinations of nonmotor features and subtle motor abnormalities as a result of ongoing neurodegeneration in the brain stem including substantia nigra (SN) and abnormal findings upon transcranial sonography and nuclear imaging. Except for nuclear imaging, the predictive value of risk markers for the conversion to overt PD is low. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether PD risk markers are associated with changes in brain structure and to what extent cognitive changes are risk markers for PD...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756341/identifying-sagittal-otoliths-of-mediterranean-sea-gobies-variability-among-phylogenetic-lineages
#15
A Lombarte, M Miletić, M Kovačić, J L Otero-Ferrer, V M Tuset
In this study, we describe and analyse the morphology of the sagitta, the largest otolith, of 25 species of Gobiidae inhabiting the Adriatic and north-western Mediterranean seas. Our goal was to test the usefulness and efficiency of sagittal otoliths for species identification. Our analysis of otolith contours was based on mathematical descriptors called wavelets, which are related to multi-scale decompositions of contours. Two methods of classification were used: an iterative system based on 10 wavelets that searches the Anàlisi de Formes d'Otòlits (AFORO) database and a discriminant method based only on the fifth wavelet...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755611/morphological-biomarker-differentiating-mci-converters-from-nonconverters-longitudinal-evidence-based-on-hemispheric-asymmetry
#16
Xiaojing Long, Chunxiang Jiang, Lijuan Zhang
Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who may probably progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for better understanding the disease mechanisms and facilitating early treatments. In addition to the direct volumetric and thickness measurement based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hemispheric asymmetry could be a potential index to detect morphological variations in MCI patients with a high risk of conversion to AD. The present study collected a set of longitudinal MRI data from 53 MCI converters and nonconverters and investigated the asymmetry differences between groups...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755373/bidirectional-causal-connectivity-in-the-cortico-limbic-cerebellar-circuit-related-to-structural-alterations-in-first-episode-drug-naive-somatization-disorder
#17
Ranran Li, Feng Liu, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Jin Zhao, Ying Wang, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Background: Anatomical and functional deficits in the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit are involved in the neurobiology of somatization disorder (SD). The present study was performed to examine causal connectivity of the cortico-limbic-cerebellar circuit related to structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD at rest. Methods: A total of 25 first-episode, drug-naive patients with SD and 28 healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis (GCA) were used to analyze the data...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754151/a-voxel-based-magnetic-resonance-imaging-morphometric-study-of-cerebral-and-cerebellar-gray-matter-in-patients-under-65-years-with-essential-tremor
#18
Hongmei Cao, Rong Wang, Xue Luo, Xianjun Li, Mark Hallett, Johanna Thompson-Westra, Jian Yang, Qiumin Qu, Xiaobo Yang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the morphological changes in cerebral and cerebellar gray matter in patients with essential tremor under 60-years-of-age, with age-matched and gender-matched normal healthy volunteer control subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective, controlled, comparative clinical study included 17 patients with essential tremor, <60 years-of-age, and 17 age-matched and gender-matched healthy volunteer control subjects, recruited between June 2010-July 2012...
May 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750339/pre-and-postsurgical-cognitive-trajectories-and-quantitative-mri-changes-in-rasmussen-syndrome
#19
Sarah R Rudebeck, Sara Shavel-Jessop, Sophia Varadkar, Tamsin Owen, J Helen Cross, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Torsten Baldeweg
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the longitudinal cognitive trajectory, before and after surgery, of Rasmussen syndrome (RS), a rare disease characterized by focal epilepsy and progressive atrophy of one cerebral hemisphere. METHOD: Thirty-two patients (mean age = 6.7 years; 17 male, 16 left hemispheres affected) were identified from hospital records. The changes in intelligence scores during 2 important phases in the patients' journey to treatment were investigated: (1) during the preoperative period (n = 28, mean follow-up 3...
May 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748773/preliminary-evidence-of-altered-gray-matter-volume-in-subjects-with-internet-gaming-disorder-associations-with-history-of-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms
#20
Deokjong Lee, Kee Namkoong, Junghan Lee, Young-Chul Jung
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly comorbid with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Although childhood ADHD symptoms may decline during late brain maturation, structural alterations in some brain areas may persist into adulthood. This study investigated whether young adults with IGD and a history of childhood ADHD symptoms had gray matter volume (GMV) alterations that were distinct from subjects without a history of childhood ADHD. As an exploratory investigation, we conducted a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm and applied an uncorrected threshold at the voxel level for multiple comparisons...
May 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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