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Morphometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159580/low-left-amygdala-volume-is-associated-with-a-longer-duration-of-unipolar-depression
#1
Maxim Zavorotnyy, Rebecca Zöllner, L R Schulte-Güstenberg, L Wulff, S Schöning, U Dannlowski, H Kugel, V Arolt, C Konrad
The amygdala plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). While robust findings support a negative impact of illness duration on hippocampal volume in MDD, morphometric studies of the amygdala have yielded inhomogeneous results. Considering the methodical problems of automatic segmentation methods, a standardized segmentation protocol with proven inter- and intra-rater reliability was employed using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. To identify the effect of MDD on amygdala morphometry, 23 unipolar depressed patients who responded to antidepressant medication and 30 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159057/gray-matter-atrophy-patterns-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-10-year-source-based-morphometry-study
#2
Niels Bergsland, Dana Horakova, Michael G Dwyer, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Tyblova, Zdenek Seidl, Jan Krasensky, Eva Havrdova, Robert Zivadinov
Objectives: To investigate spatial patterns of gray matter (GM) atrophy and their association with disability progression in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in a longitudinal setting. Methods: Brain MRI and clinical neurological assessments were obtained in 152 MS patients at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. Patients were classified into those with confirmed disability progression (CDP) (n = 85) and those without CDP (n = 67) at the end of the study...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158175/changes-in-gray-and-white-matter-in-subgroups-within-the-tinnitus-population
#3
Sara A Schmidt, Benjamin Zimmerman, Richard O Bido Medina, Jake R Carpenter-Thompson, Fatima T Husain
In this study, we investigated gray and white matter changes in subgroups within the larger tinnitus population related to differences in severity or duration of tinnitus symptoms. Tinnitus is the illusory perception of sound in the absence of an external source, most often experienced as a chronic condition. The psychological reaction to the sound constitutes the severity, or degree of discomfort experienced, and the duration refers to the time since onset of chronic tinnitus. We used voxel- and surface-based morphometry to investigate gray matter changes and diffusion tensor imaging (using fractional anisotropy, or FA, metrics) to assess changes in orientation of white matter tracts, using both whole brain and region of interest analyses...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156835/indonesian-herbal-medicine-prevents-hypertension-induced-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-by-diminishing-nadph-oxidase-dependent-oxidative-stress
#4
Erna Sulistyowati, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Fang-Rong Chang, Ying-Fu Chen, Jwu-Lai Yeh
Indonesian herbal medicine Centella asiatica, Justicia gendarussa and Imperata cylindrica decoction (CJID) are known to be efficacious for hypertension. Oxidative stress plays an important role in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH). This study evaluated whether CJID inhibit cardiac remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) through mechanism of oxidative stress-related cardiac-NADPH oxidase (NOXs) pathway: NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4. Forty-weeks-old SHRs and normotensive-WKY rats, were both randomly divided into 2 groups: CJID and control...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156519/in-vivo-assessment-of-the-osteo-protective-effects-of-eugenol-in-alveolar-bone-tissues
#5
Hatem M Abuohashish, Dina A Khairy, Maha M Abdelsalam, Ahmed Alsayyah, Mohammed M Ahmed, Salim S Al-Rejaie
Estrogen deficiency following menopausal provokes alveolar bone loss, remodeling and inflammation. Eugenol is a phenolic compound with wide dental applications and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the potential protective role of eugenol against alveolar bone deformities was investigated in an ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. Two doses of eugenol (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/d) were administered to OVX animals for 12 weeks. In Serum, markers of bone metabolism and pro-inflammatory cytokines were estimated using ELISA...
November 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#6
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145754/cortical-and-subcortical-brain-morphometry-differences-between-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-individuals-across-the-lifespan-results-from-the-enigma-asd-working-group
#7
Daan van Rooij, Evdokia Anagnostou, Celso Arango, Guillaume Auzias, Marlene Behrmann, Geraldo F Busatto, Sara Calderoni, Eileen Daly, Christine Deruelle, Adriana Di Martino, Ilan Dinstein, Fabio Luis Souza Duran, Sarah Durston, Christine Ecker, Damien Fair, Jennifer Fedor, Jackie Fitzgerald, Christine M Freitag, Louise Gallagher, Ilaria Gori, Shlomi Haar, Liesbeth Hoekstra, Neda Jahanshad, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Joost Janssen, Jason Lerch, Beatriz Luna, Mauricio Moller Martinho, Jane McGrath, Filippo Muratori, Clodagh M Murphy, Declan G M Murphy, Kirsten O'Hearn, Bob Oranje, Mara Parellada, Alessandra Retico, Pedro Rossa, Katya Rubia, Devon Shook, Margot Taylor, Paul M Thompson, Michela Tosetti, Gregory L Wallace, Fengfeng Zhou, Jan K Buitelaar
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies show structural differences in both cortical and subcortical brain regions in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with healthy subjects. Findings are inconsistent, however, and it is unclear how differences develop across the lifespan. The authors investigated brain morphometry differences between individuals with ASD and healthy subjects, cross-sectionally across the lifespan, in a large multinational sample from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) ASD working group...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145149/sirt2-decreases-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-deficient-mice-by-modulating-macrophage-polarization
#8
BuChun Zhang, YanFeng Ma, ChuHan Xiang
Compelling evidence has demonstrated that the M1 macrophage phenotype is central to atherosclerotic lesion development. SIRT2, an NAD(+)-dependent sirtuin deacetylase, is involved in modulating macrophage polarization. However, the role of SIRT2 in atherosclerotic progression remains unknown. Female LDL receptor knockout (LDLr(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into four groups for treatment with saline, empty lentivirus, lentivirus-SIRT2, or shRNA-SIRT2 for 4 weeks. Thereafter, the mice were fed an atherogenic high-fat diet (HFD) for another 8 weeks...
November 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138314/imaging-and-quantifying-ganglion-cells-and-other-transparent-neurons-in-the-living-human-retina
#9
Zhuolin Liu, Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Furu Zhang, John J Lee, Donald T Miller
Ganglion cells (GCs) are fundamental to retinal neural circuitry, processing photoreceptor signals for transmission to the brain via their axons. However, much remains unknown about their role in vision and their vulnerability to disease leading to blindness. A major bottleneck has been our inability to observe GCs and their degeneration in the living human eye. Despite two decades of development of optical technologies to image cells in the living human retina, GCs remain elusive due to their high optical translucency...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136642/common-and-distinct-structural-features-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-the-european-network-on-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-cognitive-trajectory-enpact-study
#10
Eleonora Maggioni, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Igor Nenadic, Francesco Benedetti, Christian Gaser, Heinrich Sauer, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Sara Poletti, Veronica Marinelli, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV) using both voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a region of interest (ROI) approach. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC) and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132744/-morphometry-of-pulmonary-tissue-from-manual-to-high-throughput-automation
#11
C Sallon, D Soulet, Y Tremblay
Weibel's research has shown that any alteration of the pulmonary structure has effects on function. This demonstration required a quantitative analysis of lung structures called morphometry. This is possible thanks to stereology, a set of methods based on principles of geometry and statistics. His work has helped to better understand the morphological harmony of the lung, which is essential for its proper functioning. An imbalance leads to pathophysiology such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates...
November 10, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131999/hydropower-impacts-on-reservoir-fish-populations-are-modified-by-environmental-variation
#12
Antti P Eloranta, Anders G Finstad, Ingeborg P Helland, Ola Ugedal, Michael Power
Global transition towards renewable energy production has increased the demand for new and more flexible hydropower operations. Before management and stakeholders can make informed choices on potential mitigations, it is essential to understand how the hydropower reservoir ecosystems respond to water level regulation (WLR) impacts that are likely modified by the reservoirs' abiotic and biotic characteristics. Yet, most reservoir studies have been case-specific, which hampers large-scale planning, evaluation and mitigation actions across various reservoir ecosystems...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#13
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129723/neural-correlates-of-impaired-self-regulation-in-male-youths-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#14
Hsing-Chang Ni, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Yen-Nan Chiu, Yu-Yu Wu, Wen-Che Tsai, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Although recent studies revealed impaired self-regulation (dysregulation) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), neural correlates of dysregulation and its impacts on autistic neuroanatomy remain unclear. Voxel-based morphometry was applied on structural MRI images in 81 ASD and 61 typically developing (TD) boys aged 7-17years. Dysregulation was defined by the sum of T-scores of Attention, Aggression, and Anxiety/Depression subscales in the Child Behavior Checklist>180. There were 53 and 28 boys in the ASD+Dysregulation and ASD-Dysregulation groups, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129623/alterations-of-brain-volumes-in-women-with-early-life-maltreatment-and-their-associations-with-oxytocin
#15
Emilia L Mielke, Corinne Neukel, Katja Bertsch, Corinna Reck, Eva Möhler, Sabine C Herpertz
Early life maltreatment (ELM) is associated with different neurobiological alterations. Lower oxytocin and altered grey matter volumes (GMV) in brain regions associated with the central oxytocin system, such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, have been reported in women with ELM. However, the association between peripheral oxytocin and brain morphometry in women with ELM has not been studied yet. We therefore collected blood samples from 33 women with and 25 women without ELM, all without current mental disorders to measure and compare oxytocin levels between the two groups...
November 9, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129041/line-scanning-confocal-microendoscope-for-nuclear-morphometry-imaging
#16
Yubo Tang, Jennifer Carns, Rebecca R Richards-Kortum
Fiber-optic endomicroscopy is a minimally invasive method to image cellular morphology in vivo. Using a coherent fiber bundle as an image relay, it allows additional imaging optics to be placed at the distal end of the fiber outside the body. In this research, we use this approach to demonstrate a compact, low-cost line-scanning confocal fluorescence microendoscope that can be constructed for <$5000. Confocal imaging is enabled without the need for mechanical scanning by synchronizing a digital light projector with the rolling shutter of a CMOS camera...
November 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128955/right-brodmann-area-18-predicts-tremor-arrest-after-vim-radiosurgery-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#17
Constantin Tuleasca, Tatiana Witjas, Dimitri Van de Ville, Elena Najdenovska, Antoine Verger, Nadine Girard, Jerome Champoudry, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Eric Guedj, Jean Régis
INTRODUCTION: Drug-resistant essential tremor (ET) can benefit from open standard stereotactic procedures, such as deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy. Non-surgical candidates can be offered either high-focused ultrasound (HIFU) or radiosurgery (RS). All procedures aim to target the same thalamic site, the ventro-intermediate nucleus (e.g., Vim). The mechanisms by which tremor stops after Vim RS or HIFU remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data and assessed which anatomical site would best correlate with tremor arrest 1 year after Vim RS...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128164/grey-matter-volume-loss-is-associated-with-specific-clinical-motor-signs-in-huntington-s-disease
#18
Emma M Coppen, Milou Jacobs, Annette A van den Berg-Huysmans, Jeroen van der Grond, Raymund A C Roos
BACKGROUND: Motor disturbances are clinical hallmarks of Huntington's disease (HD) and involve chorea, dystonia, hypokinesia and visuomotor dysfunction. Investigating the association between specific motor signs and different regional volumes is important to understand the heterogeneity of HD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the motor phenotype of HD and associations with subcortical and cortical grey matter volume loss. METHODS: Structural T1-weighted MRI scans of 79 HD patients and 30 healthy controls were used to calculate volumes of seven subcortical structures including the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, pallidum and amygdala...
November 2, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125251/morphological-and-morphometric-analysis-of-scutella-of-six-species-and-two-subspecies-of-triatoma-hemiptera-reduviidae-in-mexico
#19
Nancy Rivas, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Alejandro D Camacho, Alejandro Córdoba-Aguilar, Ricardo Alejandre-Aguilar
Morphological characters can be used to distinguish the vast majority of triatomine species, but the existence of high levels of phenotypic plasticity and recently diverged species can lead to erroneous determinations. To approach this problem, we analyzed the male and female morphologies of the scutella of Triatoma barberi, T. dimidiata, T. lecticularia, T. mexicana, T. recurva, T. rubida, and two sub-species, T. protracta protracta and T. protracta nahuatlae. Scutellum samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy and subjected to morphological analysis and morphometric investigation using a canonical discriminant analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125019/the-loss-of-macular-ganglion-cells-begins-from-the-early-stages-of-disease-and-correlates-with-brain-atrophy-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#20
Anna M Pietroboni, Laura Dell'Arti, Michela Caprioli, Marta Scarioni, Tiziana Carandini, Andrea Arighi, Laura Ghezzi, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Milena A De Riz, Paola Basilico, Annalisa Colombi, Eleonora Benatti, Fabio Triulzi, Elio Scarpini, Francesco Viola, Daniela Galimberti
BACKGROUND: The importance of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasingly well recognized. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate retinal pathology using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to investigate possible associations between retinal layers' thickness and specific patterns of gray matter volume in patients with a new diagnosis of MS. METHODS: A total of 31 patients underwent OCT scans and brain magnetic resonance imaging. In total, 30 controls underwent the same OCT procedure...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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