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Boston marathon bombing

Nickolas M Jones, Dana Rose Garfin, E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a representative national U.S. sample (n = 2888), with representative oversamples from metropolitan Boston (n = 845) and New York City (n = 941). Respondents completed an Internet-based survey 2-4 weeks post-BMB. Use of traditional media was correlated with older age, prior indirect media-based exposure to collective traumas, and direct BMB exposure...
September 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
Arvind von Keudell, Katherine Koh, Sejal B Shah, Mitchel B Harris, Malcolm Smith, Edward K Rodriguez, George Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Tommy Chou, Aubrey L Carpenter, Caroline E Kerns, R Meredith Elkins, Jennifer Greif Green, Jonathan S Comer
The DSM-5 includes a revised definition of the experiences that qualify as potentially traumatic events. This revised definition now offers a clearer and more exclusive definition of what qualifies as a traumatic exposure, but little is known about the revision's applicability to youth populations. The present study evaluated the predictive utility of the revised DSM definitional boundaries of traumatic exposure in a sample of youth exposed to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and related events METHODS: Caregivers (N = 460) completed surveys 2 to 6 months postbombing about youth experiences during the events and youth posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms RESULTS: Experiencing DSM-5 qualifying traumatic events (DSM-5 QTEs) significantly predicted child PTS symptoms (PTSS), whereas DSM-5 nonqualifying stressful experiences (DSM-5 non-QSEs) did not after accounting for DSM-5 QTEs...
July 19, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Dayong Wang, Charles Otto, Anil K Jain
rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network...
June 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Ryan R Konwinski, Ajay Singh, Jorge Soto
The goal of this study is to describe the imaging features of lower extremity blast injuries in patients encountered in the radiology departments from the Boston Marathon bombings. A total of 115 patients presented to four acute care hospitals on April 15, 2013, 43 of whom presented with lower extremity injuries and were included in this study. The imaging findings of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries were evaluated. Forty-one of 43 patients sustained secondary blast injuries to the lower extremities with 31 patients (70 %) having retained shrapnel, seven patients (16 %) having soft tissue lacerations without retained shrapnel, and ten patients (23 %) having lower extremity amputation (7 % double amputees)...
October 2016: Emergency Radiology
Emilie Côté, Russell Hearn
OBJECTIVES: To explore the differences in perception of the medical response to the victims of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings between laypeople and healthcare professionals. METHODS: Commentary accessible and available on Internet discussion websites by non-medically trained persons and in the academic literature by healthcare professionals was analysed qualitatively. RESULTS: Major themes were found relating to both the pre-hospital and hospital-based phases of the medical response to the disaster...
May 9, 2016: Perspectives in Public Health
Elie Ramly, Gem Runyan, David Richard King
BACKGROUND: After the Sandy Hook shootings and the resulting Hartford Consensus, as well as the recent Boston Marathon bombing, the need for a uniform, detailed, and aggressive prehospital extremity exsanguination control protocol became clear. We hypothesized that most states within the United States lack a detailed uniform protocol. METHODS: We performed a systematic nationwide assessment of emergency medical services (EMS) prehospital extremity exsanguination control protocols...
May 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ajay K Singh, Noah G Ditkofsky, John D York, Hani H Abujudeh, Laura A Avery, John F Brunner, Aaron D Sodickson, Michael H Lev
Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns...
January 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Jonathan Jong, Harvey Whitehouse, Christopher Kavanagh, Justin Lane
Across three studies, we examined the role of shared negative experiences in the formation of strong social bonds--identity fusion--previously associated with individuals' willingness to self-sacrifice for the sake of their groups. Studies 1 and 2 were correlational studies conducted on two different populations. In Study 1, we found that the extent to which Northern Irish Republicans and Unionists experienced shared negative experiences was associated with levels of identity fusion, and that this relationship was mediated by their reflection on these experiences...
2015: PloS One
Robert Osgood, Courtney Scanlon, Rohan Jotwani, Daniel Rodkey, Maria Arshanskiy, Deeb Salem
Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings...
January 0: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
Kathleen I Crum, Danielle Cornacchio, Stefany Coxe, Jennifer Greif Green, Jonathan S Comer
A large body of work documents the heavy mental health burden of youth exposure to disasters, but the majority of this research has focused on posttraumatic stress and internalizing symptoms. Less is known about associations between disaster exposure and children's conduct problems (CPs), or variables that may moderate such relationships. Given well-documented links between CPs and children's exposure to community violence, youth with greater prior community violence exposure through residence in high-crime areas may be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of disaster exposure on CPs...
December 2, 2015: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Aubrey L Carpenter, R Meredith Elkins, Caroline Kerns, Tommy Chou, Jennifer Greif Green, Jonathan S Comer
Despite research documenting the scope of disaster-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) in youth, less is known about how family processes immediately postdisaster might associate with child outcomes. The 2013 Boston Marathon bombing affords a unique opportunity to assess links between immediate family discussions about community trauma and child mental health outcomes. The present study examined associations between attack-related household discussions and child PTS among Boston-area youth ages 4 to 19 following the Marathon bombing (N = 460)...
November 4, 2015: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Ajay K Singh, Aaron Sodickson, Hani Abujudeh
The aim of this study is to describe the imaging findings of abdominal and pelvic injuries in victims of the Boston Marathon bombing. A retrospective review of 87 patients following the Boston Marathon bombing was performed to evaluate for abdominal and pelvic injuries on plain radiography or CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis. Imaging exams were evaluated for shrapnel, soft tissue injury, visceral damage, vascular disruption, and fractures. The injuries were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries...
February 2016: Emergency Radiology
Daniel Tobert, Arvind von Keudell, Edward K Rodriguez
The 2013 Boston Marathon bombing resulted in a mass casualty event that tested the limits of Boston-area trauma centers. The explosions, 12 seconds apart, led to the rapid influx of 124 patients with primarily lower extremity injuries in 5 different adult level 1 trauma centers. This study aimed to examine the existing hospital systems in place for disaster scenarios at the time of the event and identify areas for improvement. Preparation before the Boston Marathon bombing included coordinating the delivery of patients to area facilities and creating a framework for response at an institutional level...
October 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Pablo Barberá, John T Jost, Jonathan Nagler, Joshua A Tucker, Richard Bonneau
We estimated ideological preferences of 3.8 million Twitter users and, using a data set of nearly 150 million tweets concerning 12 political and nonpolitical issues, explored whether online communication resembles an "echo chamber" (as a result of selective exposure and ideological segregation) or a "national conversation." We observed that information was exchanged primarily among individuals with similar ideological preferences in the case of political issues (e.g., 2012 presidential election, 2013 government shutdown) but not many other current events (e...
October 2015: Psychological Science
Jeannette Sutton, C Ben Gibson, Emma S Spiro, Cedar League, Sean M Fitzhugh, Carter T Butts
Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not) perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013...
2015: PloS One
Linda Piwowarczyk, Dana Rous, Anna Mancuso, Kathleen Flinton, Erica Hastings, Leigh Forbush, Amy Shepherd
On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath...
August 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Matthew P Altamirano, John F Kragh, James K Aden, Michael A Dubick
BACKGROUND: In emergencies when commercially designed tourniquets are unavailable, hemorrhage may need to be controlled with improvised tourniquets. In the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombing, no improvised strap-and-windlass tourniquets were used to treat casualties; tourniquets without windlasses were used. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of improvised tourniquets with and without a windlass to better understand the role of the windlass in tightening the tourniquet strap...
2015: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Nour Kteily, Emile Bruneau, Adam Waytz, Sarah Cotterill
Dehumanization is a central concept in the study of intergroup relations. Yet although theoretical and methodological advances in subtle, "everyday" dehumanization have progressed rapidly, blatant dehumanization remains understudied. The present research attempts to refocus theoretical and empirical attention on blatant dehumanization, examining when and why it provides explanatory power beyond subtle dehumanization. To accomplish this, we introduce and validate a blatant measure of dehumanization based on the popular depiction of evolutionary progress in the "Ascent of Man...
November 2015: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Eric Goralnick, Pinchas Halpern, Stephanie Loo, Jonathan Gates, Paul Biddinger, John Fisher, George Velmahos, Sarita Chung, David Mooney, Calvin Brown, Brien Barnewolt, Peter Burke, Alok Gupta, Andrew Ulrich, Horacio Hojman, Eric McNulty, Barry Dorn, Leonard Marcus, Kobi Peleg
OBJECTIVE: On April 15, 2013, two improvised explosive devices (IEDs) exploded at the Boston Marathon and 264 patients were treated at 26 hospitals in the aftermath. Despite the extent of injuries sustained by victims, there was no subsequent mortality for those treated in hospitals. Leadership decisions and actions in major trauma centers were a critical factor in this response. METHODS: The objective of this investigation was to describe and characterize organizational dynamics and leadership themes immediately after the bombings by utilizing a novel structured sequential qualitative approach consisting of a focus group followed by subsequent detailed interviews and combined expert analysis...
October 2015: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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