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Rosa Requena-Morales, Antonio Palazón-Bru, María Mercedes Rizo-Baeza, José Manuel Adsuar-Quesada, Vicente Francisco Gil-Guillén, Ernesto Cortés-Castell
AIMS: To determine out-of-hospital cardiac arrest mortality in the province of Alicante (Spain) and its associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study of all patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (n = 422) in the province of Alicante in 2013. To determine associated factors, a binary logistic regression model was constructed. Primary outcome: death before arriving at the hospital. Predictive variables: gender, age, artificial respiration, prior functional status, asystole, cardiogenic aetiology, bystander CPR, time from the cardiac arrest to the arrival of the EMS and location of cardiac arrest...
2017: PloS One
Richard Breeden, Heath Ford, Carey Chrisman, Charles Mascioli
An 84-year-old African American woman was admitted to the hospital secondary to severe abdominal pain accompanied by septic shock. She underwent exploratory laparotomy, which revealed extensive small bowel necrosis likely due to small bowel torsion. A small bowel resection was performed with primary anastomoses and the patient was subsequently transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). She recovered from shock but had a persistent gastroparesis interfering with enteral feeding, for which metoclopramide was prescribed...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
Hermann Körperich, Katja Müller, Peter Barth, Jürgen Gieseke, Nikolaus Haas, Ingram Schulze-Neick, Wolfgang Burchert, Deniz Kececioglu, Kai T Laser
PURPOSE: Progressive impairment of hemodynamics in patients with Fontan circulation is common, multifactorial, and associated with decreased quality of life and increased morbidity. We sought to assess hemodynamic differences between patients with preserved (preserved Fontans) and those with impaired circulation (impaired Fontans) after pulmonary vasodilation using oxygen and under forced breathing conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed using non-ECG triggered echo-planar imaging (temporal resolution=24 to 28 ms) in the ascending aorta (AAo) and superior vena cava (SVC)/inferior vena cava (IVC) on room air, after 100% oxygen inhalation (4 L/min; 10 min) and on forced breathing in 29 Fontan patients (17...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
David F Tolin, Patrick B McGrath, Lisa R Hale, Daniel N Weiner, Ralitza Gueorguieva
Panic disorder (PD) is associated with hyperventilation. The efficacy of a brief respiratory feedback program for PD has been established. The aim of the present study was to expand these results by testing a similar program with more clinically representative patients and settings. Sixty-nine adults with PD received 4 weeks of Capnometry Guided Respiratory Intervention (CGRI) using Freespira, which provides feedback of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) and respiration rate (RR), in four non-academic clinical settings...
March 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Keertan Dheda, Jason D Limberis, Elize Pietersen, Jody Phelan, Aliasgar Esmail, Maia Lesosky, Kevin P Fennelly, Julian Te Riele, Barbara Mastrapa, Elizabeth M Streicher, Tania Dolby, Abdallah M Abdallah, Fathia Ben-Rached, John Simpson, Liezel Smith, Tawanda Gumbo, Paul van Helden, Frederick A Sirgel, Ruth McNerney, Grant Theron, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark, Robin M Warren
BACKGROUND: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179)...
January 18, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Carina Grafetstätter, Martin Gaisberger, Johanna Prossegger, Markus Ritter, Predrag Kolarž, Christina Pichler, Josef Thalhamer, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: The specific microclimate of alpine waterfalls with high levels of ionized water aerosols has been suggested to trigger beneficial immunological and psychological effects. In the present three-armed randomized controlled clinical study, we focused on effects on (i) immunological reagibility, on (ii) physiological stress responses, and on (iii) stress-related psychological parameters. METHODS: People with moderate to high stress levels (n = 65) spent an active sojourn with daily hiking tours in the National Park Hohe Tauern (Großkirchheim, Austria)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Donald J Noble, Camden J MacDowell, Michael L McKinnon, Tamra I Neblett, William N Goolsby, Shawn Hochman
BACKGROUND: Numerous environmental and genetic factors can contribute significantly to behavioral and cardiorespiratory variability observed experimentally. Affordable technologies that allow for noninvasive home cage capture of physio-behavioral variables should enhance understanding of inter-animal variability including after experimental interventions. NEW METHOD: We assessed whether EPIC electric field sensors (Plessey Semiconductors) embedded within or attached externally to a rodent's home cage could accurately record respiration, heart rate, and motor behaviors...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Diana Ceballos, Catherine Beaucham, Elena Page
Many metals found in electronic scrap are known to cause serious health effects, including but not limited to cancer and respiratory, neurologic, renal, and reproductive damage. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed three health hazard evaluations at electronic scrap recycling facilities in the U.S. to characterize employee exposure to metals and recommend control strategies to reduce these exposures. We performed air, surface, and biological monitoring for metals...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Sumaira Nabi, Mazhar Badshah, Shahzad Ahmed, Ali Zohair Nomani
A 25-year-old Pakistani woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of rapidly progressive tetraplegia followed by sudden loss of consciousness. This was preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. On examination, she was deeply comatose with a GCS of 3/15 and intact brainstem reflexes. She was in respiratory distress, and an endotracheal tube had been passed. She had flaccid quadriplegia with depressed deep tendon reflexes and upgoing plantar response. Her MRI brain with contrast showed extensive brainstem involvement with haemorrhagic foci along with signal changes in the corpus callosum...
October 19, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Abimbola A Akintola, Vera van de Pol, Daniel Bimmel, Arie C Maan, Diana van Heemst
Background: The Equivital (EQ02) is a multi-parameter telemetric device offering both real-time and/or retrospective, synchronized monitoring of ECG, HR, and HRV, respiration, activity, and temperature. Unlike the Holter, which is the gold standard for continuous ECG measurement, EQO2 continuously monitors ECG via electrodes interwoven in the textile of a wearable belt. Objective: To compare EQ02 with the Holter for continuous home measurement of ECG, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Eighteen healthy participants wore, simultaneously for 24 h, the Holter and EQ02 monitors...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Su H Hwang, Yu J Lee, Do U Jeong, Kwang S Park
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to establish a sleep monitoring method that can classify sleep into four stages in an unconstrained manner using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor for continuous and accurate estimation of sleep stages. METHODS: The study participants consisted of 12 normal subjects and 13 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. The physiological signals of the subjects were unconstrainedly measured using the PVDF sensor during polysomnography...
December 7, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In 40 % of all ventilated patients weaning is problematic. Prolonged weaning is associated with an increased mortality. METHODS: For the first time, data on epidemiology and outcomes of 6899 patients with prolonged weaning from the WeanNet register are published in this study. RESULTS: Patients with prolonged weaning suffer from profound comorbidities (median 5 relevant comorbidities). The majority of patients (62.2 %) were successfully weaned from the ventilator and dischared from the weaning unit without invasive ventialtion after a median of 33 days...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Antriksh Luthra, Aruna Ravi, Sirui Li, Steven V Nystrom, Zechariah Thompson, James V Coe
This work characterizes collections of infrared spectra of individual dust particles of ∼4 µm size that were obtained from three very different environments: our lab air, a home air filter, and the 11 September 2001 World Trade Center event. Particle collection was done either directly from the air or by placing dust powder from various samples directly on the plasmonic mesh with 5 µm square holes as air is pumped through the mesh. This arrangement enables the recording of "scatter-free" infrared absorption spectra of individual particles of size comparable to the probing wavelengths whose vibrational signatures are otherwise dominated by scattering and dispersive line shape distortions...
September 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Marla K Perna, Amanda N Kokenge, Keila N Miles, Kenea C Udobi, Joseph F Clark, Gail J Pyne-Geithman, Zaza Khuchua, Matthew R Skelton
Creatine (Cr) is a guanidino compound required for rapid replenishment of ATP in cells with a high-energy demand. In humans, mutations in the Cr transporter (CRT;SLC6A8) prevent Cr entry into tissue and result in a significant intellectual impairment, epilepsy, and aphasia. The lack of Cr on both the whole body and cellular metabolism was evaluated in Crt knockout (Crt (-/y) ) mice, a high-fidelity model of human CRT deficiency. Crt (-/y) mice have reduced body mass and, however, show a twofold increase in body fat...
August 2016: Amino Acids
Pia Nerfeldt, Danielle Friberg
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare adherence and treatment effects with an oral appliance (OA) in patients with different types of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): those with mainly respiratory arousals ("arousers"), and those with oxygen desaturations ("desaturaters") at polysomnography (PSG). METHODS: A prospective intervention study on 72 "tired snorers" with "normal" home sleep study (HSS), but later diagnosed as OSA with PSG, who accepted OA treatment. They were offered evaluation with a follow-up PSG and questionnaires, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), general health (GH), satisfaction, and side effects...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Y Kim, S McGee, J K Czeczor, A J Walker, R P Kale, A Z Kouzani, K Walder, M Berk, S J Tye
Mitochondrial dysfunction has a critical role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and treatment response. To investigate this, we established an animal model exhibiting a state of antidepressant treatment resistance in male Wistar rats using 21 days of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration (100 μg per day). First, the effect of ACTH treatment on the efficacy of imipramine (10 mg kg(-1)) was investigated alongside its effect on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) mitochondrial function. Second, we examined the mood-regulatory actions of chronic (7 day) high-frequency nucleus accumbens (NAc) deep-brain stimulation (DBS; 130 Hz, 100 μA, 90 μS) and concomitant PFC mitochondrial function...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Steven Messina-Graham, Hal Broxmeyer
SDF-1/CXCL12 is a potent chemokine required for the homing and engraftment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Previous data from our group has shown that in an SDF-1/CXCL12 transgenic mouse model, lineage(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) (LSK) bone marrow cells have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential versus wild-type. These results suggested that SDF-1/CXCL12 may function to keep mitochondrial respiration low in immature blood cells in the bone marrow. Low mitochondrial metabolism helps to maintain low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can influence differentiation...
May 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Nicole R Bush, Zoe K Caron, Katherine S Blackburn, Abbey Alkon
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) consists of two branches, the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, and controls the function of internal organs (e.g., heart rate, respiration, digestion) and responds to everyday and adverse experiences (1). ANS measures in children have been found to be related to behavior problems, emotion regulation, and health (2-7). Therefore, understanding the factors that affect ANS development during early childhood is important. Both branches of the ANS affect young children's cardiovascular responses to stimuli and have been measured noninvasively, via external monitoring equipment, using valid and reliable measures of physiological change (8-11)...
February 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Preetam J Schramm, Ingo Zobel, Kathrin Mönch, Elisabeth Schramm, Johannes Michalak
OBJECTIVE: To capture any sleep quality changes associated with group psychotherapy. PATIENTS/METHODS: Physician-referred, chronically depressed patients (n = 25) were randomized to either eight group sessions of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, n = 9) plus Treatment As Usual (TAU), or the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP, n = 8) plus TAU, or to TAU only (control group, n = 8). Participants recorded their sleep at home...
January 2016: Sleep Medicine
Helané Wahbeh, Elena Goodrich, Elizabeth Goy, Barry S Oken
OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of two common components of meditation (mindfulness and slow breathing) on potential mechanistic pathways. METHODS: A total of 102 combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomized to (a) the body scan mindfulness meditation (MM), (b) slow breathing (SB) with a biofeedback device, (c) mindful awareness of the breath with an intention to slow the breath (MM+SB), or (d) sitting quietly (SQ)...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
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