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Hypoxanthine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923672/functional-characterization-of-two-novel-purine-transporters-from-the-basidiomycota-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#1
Mariana Barraco-Vega, Héctor Romero, Mariana Richero, María Pía Cerdeiras, Gianna Cecchetto
Purine transporters as substrate entry points in organisms, are involved in a number of cellular processes such as nitrogen source uptake, energy metabolism and synthesis of nucleic acids. In this study, two nucleobase transporter genes (phZ, phU) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were cloned, identified, and functionally characterized. Our results show that PhZ is a transporter of adenine and hypoxanthine, and a protein belonging to the AzgA-like family, whilst PhU belongs to the NAT/NCS2 family, transporting xanthine and uric acid...
December 3, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920633/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-models-theories-and-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Scott Bell, Ilaria Kolobova, Liam Crapper, Carl Ernst
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare X-linked disorder caused by mutations in HPRT1, an important enzyme in the purine salvage pathway. Symptoms of LNS include dystonia, gout, intellectual disability, and self-mutilation. Despite having been characterized over 50 years ago, it remains unclear precisely how deficits in hypoxanthine and guanine recycling can lead to such a profound neurological phenotype. Several studies have proposed different hypotheses regarding the etiology of this disease, and several treatments have been tried in patients, though none have led to a satisfactory explanation of the disease...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910976/the-first-example-of-palladium-catalyzed-cascade-amidine-arylation-intramolecular-ester-amidation-for-the-synthesis-of-hypoxanthines-application-to-the-synthesis-of-8-azanebularine-analogues
#3
Wu Yang, Haoran Ma, Qian Yang, Jingwen Wang, Yuan Liu, Qinghua Yang, Jie Wu, Chuanjun Song, Junbiao Chang
8-Azanebularine analogues display interesting antiviral, antitumour and biochemical activities. However, typical glycosylation of 8-azapurines always resulted in the desired products in low yields due to the lack of stereo- and regioselectivity of the glycosylation reaction. Herein, a concise synthetic route toward 8-azanebularine analogues has been developed. Key steps involve a copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a 1-β-azido sugar moiety with ethyl 3-bromopropiolate and a palladium-catalyzed cascade amidine arylation-intramolecular ester amidation reaction to build the hypoxanthine structural motif...
December 2, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909730/a-sensitive-and-specific-indirect-competitive-enzyme%C3%A2-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-detection-of-icariin
#4
Jinjun Cheng, Yue Zhang, Shuchen Liu, Baoping Qu, Meiling Zhang, Xiaoman Liu, Yan Zhao, Huihua Qu
In the present study, a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for icariin (ICA) was prepared and characterized. A hybridoma‑secreting MAb against icariin was produced by fusing splenocytes immunized with an ICA‑bovine serum albumin conjugate with a hypoxanthine‑aminopterin‑thymidine‑sensitive mouse myeloma SP2/0 cell line. The antibody showed high specificity for ICA with almost no cross‑reactivity against the majority of structurally‑related chemicals. Subsequently, an indirect competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for ICA was established and characterized...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906640/a-review-of-the-implication-of-hypoxanthine-excess-in-the-physiopathology-of-lesch-nyhan-disease
#5
R J Torres, C Prior, M G Garcia, J G Puig
Lesch-Nyhan disease is caused by HGprt deficiency, however, the mechanism by which enzyme deficiency leads to the severe neurological manifestations is still unknown. We hypothesized that hypoxanthine excess leads, directly or indirectly, through its action in adenosine transport, to aberrations in neuronal development. We found that hypoxanthine diminishes adenosine transport and enhances stimulation of adenosine receptors. These effects cause an imbalance between adenosine, dopamine, and serotonin receptors in HGprt deficient cells, and cells differentiated with hypoxanthine showed an increase in dopamine, adenosine and serotonin receptors expression...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906617/evaluation-of-cellular-purine-transport-and-metabolism-in-the-caco-2-cell-using-comprehensive-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method-for-analysis-of-purines
#6
T Fukuuchi, M Kobayashi, N Yamaoka, K Kaneko
Using Caco-2 cells and our previously developed high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of purine bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides, we evaluated cellular purine transport and uptake. The analytes were separated using YMC-Triart C18 column with gradient elution. We used Caco-2 cells as intestinal model cells and monitored purine transport across a monolayer for 2 h. The degree of change of purine concentrations in the permeate was very slight; however, it was possible to simultaneously determine these parameters for all purines because of our method's high sensitivity...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#7
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898091/restoring-ureagenesis-in-hepatocytes-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-genomic-addition-to-arginase-deficient-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Patrick C Lee, Brian Truong, Agustin Vega-Crespo, W Blake Gilmore, Kip Hermann, Stephanie Ak Angarita, Jonathan K Tang, Katherine M Chang, Austin E Wininger, Alex K Lam, Benjamen E Schoenberg, Stephen D Cederbaum, April D Pyle, James A Byrne, Gerald S Lipshutz
Urea cycle disorders are incurable enzymopathies that affect nitrogen metabolism and typically lead to hyperammonemia. Arginase deficiency results from a mutation in Arg1, the enzyme regulating the final step of ureagenesis and typically results in developmental disabilities, seizures, spastic diplegia, and sometimes death. Current medical treatments for urea cycle disorders are only marginally effective, and for proximal disorders, liver transplantation is effective but limited by graft availability. Advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell research has allowed for the genetic modification of stem cells for potential cellular replacement therapies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888108/hypoxanthine-causes-endothelial-dysfunction-through-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis
#9
You-Jin Kim, Hye-Myung Ryu, Ji-Young Choi, Jang-Hee Cho, Chan-Duck Kim, Sun-Hee Park, Yong-Lim Kim
Endothelial cell injury and dysfunction caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. ROS are generated and hypoxanthine is degraded by xanthine oxidase. Smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with an increased level of hypoxanthine. We aimed to study the direct role of hypoxanthine in endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hypoxanthine induced cell death and production of ROS. Furthermore, hypoxanthine induced apoptosis through regulation of protein expression related to apoptosis...
November 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874103/cordyceps-collected-from-bhutan-an-appropriate-alternative-of-cordyceps-sinensis
#10
Ding-Tao Wu, Guang-Ping Lv, Jian Zheng, Qian Li, Shuang-Cheng Ma, Shao-Ping Li, Jing Zhao
Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845778/identification-of-sex-specific-urinary-biomarkers-for-major-depressive-disorder-by-combined-application-of-nmr-and-gc-ms-based-metabonomics
#11
P Zheng, J-J Chen, C-J Zhou, L Zeng, K-W Li, L Sun, M-L Liu, D Zhu, Z-H Liang, P Xie
Women are more vulnerable to major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. However, molecular biomarkers of sex differences are limited. Here we combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)- and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to investigate sex differences of urinary metabolite markers in MDD, and further explore their potential of diagnosing MDD. Consequently, the metabolite signatures of women and men MDD subjects were significantly different from of that in their respective healthy controls (HCs)...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843869/skin-rash-eosinophilia-and-renal-impairment-in-a-patient-recently-started-on-allopurinol
#12
Ashraf Jmeian, Amer Hawatmeh, Razan Shamoon, Fayez Shamoon, Michael Guma
Allopurinol is a hypoxanthine analog which inhibits xanthine oxidase, it is a widely used medication for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. Allopurinol-induced drug-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is an infrequent, life-threatening adverse reaction of allopurinol therapy that is remarkable for the higher mortality rate with the use of allopurinol than with the use of another agent. We present a case of a 62-year-old male with a history of chronic kidney disease stage 3, hypertension and gout who developed skin rash, eosinophilia, and renal impairment 2 weeks after he was started on allopurinol therapy for gout...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843094/metabolomics-predicts-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-transient-ischemic-attack-patients
#13
Francisco Purroy, Serafi Cambray, Gerard Mauri-Capdevila, Mariona Jové, Jordi Sanahuja, Joan Farré, Ikram Benabdelhak, Jessica Molina-Seguin, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Robert Begue, M Isabel Gil, Reinald Pamplona, Manuel Portero-Otín
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA). The discovery of a plasmatic biomarker related to neuroimaging findings is of enormous interest because, despite its relevance, magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is not always available in all hospitals that attend to TIA patients. METHODS: Metabolomic analyses were performed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in order to establish the metabolomic patterns of positive DWI, DWI patterns and acute ischemic lesion volumes...
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834716/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-soil-isolate-lysinibacillus-fusiformis-m5-a-potential-hypoxanthine-producer
#14
Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Gergely Maróti, Balázs Bálint, Ákos T Kovács
Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain M5 is a potential hypoxanthine producer that was isolated from clay soil. Here, we present the draft genome sequence that was annotated in order to facilitate future studies of L. fusiformis M5.
November 10, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833236/self-injurious-behavior-in-a-young-child-with-lesch-nyhan-syndrome
#15
Satyakam Mohapatra, Alok Jyoti Sahoo
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase-1. Few reports on behavioral aspects especially self-injurious behavior in LNS patients are available. We report a case of LNS in an 8-year-old male child, who presented with characteristic self-injurious behavior.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826747/serum-compounds-of-energy-metabolism-impairment-are-related-to-disability-disease-course-and-neuroimaging-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Giacomo Lazzarino, Angela M Amorini, Axel Petzold, Claudio Gasperini, Serena Ruggieri, Maria Esmeralda Quartuccio, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Enrico Di Stasio, Barbara Tavazzi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by primary inflammation, demyelination, and progressive neurodegeneration. A biochemical MS feature is neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction, compensated by anaerobic metabolism increase, likely aggravating progression of neurodegeneration. Here, we characterized a pragmatic serum profile of compounds related to mitochondrial energy metabolism of potential clinical use. Blood samples of 518 well characterized (disability, disease course) MS patients and 167 healthy controls were analyzed for serum purines, pyrimidines, creatinine, and lactate...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810324/a-miniaturized-electrochemical-toxicity-biosensor-based-on-graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-carboxylated-carbon-nanotubes-for-assessment-of-priority-pollutants
#17
Xiaolin Zhu, Guanlan Wu, Nan Lu, Xing Yuan, Baikun Li
The study presented a sensitive and miniaturized cell-based electrochemical biosensor to assess the toxicity of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were used as the biological recognition agent to measure the changes of electrochemical signals and reflect the cell viability. The graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed in a facile and green way. Based on the hybrid composite modified pencil graphite electrode, the cell culture and detection vessel was miniaturized to a 96-well plate instead of the traditional culture dish...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805426/the-metabolomics-and-lipidomics-window-into-thyroid-cancer-research
#18
R Farrokhi Yekta, M Rezaie Tavirani, A Arefi Oskouie, M R Mohajeri-Tehrani, A R Soroush
CONTEXT: Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine system malignancy with a fast rising incidence in the last decade for unknown reasons. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, the gold standard in thyroid cancer (TC) screening has still its own challenges and in some cases needs a proceeding surgery. OBJECTIVE: This review highlights the role of the two most recent "omics" approaches, "metabolomics" and "lipidomics", in the field of TC research. METHODS: All the previous studies have been extracted from the literature and major concepts were detailed in the field of TC metabolomics and lipidomics...
November 15, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798228/xanthine-oxidoreductase-and-its-inhibitors-relevance-for-gout
#19
REVIEW
Richard O Day, Bishoy Kamel, Diluk R W Kannangara, Kenneth M Williams, Garry G Graham
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism and converts hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine into uric acid. When concentrations of uric acid exceed its biochemical saturation point, crystals of uric acid, in the form of monosodium urate, emerge and can predispose an individual to gout, the commonest form of inflammatory arthritis in men aged over 40 years. XOR inhibitors are primarily used in the treatment of gout, reducing the formation of uric acid and thereby, preventing the formation of monosodium urate crystals...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791173/prolactin-alters-blood-pressure-by-modulating-the-activity-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase
#20
Albert S Chang, Ruriko Grant, Hirofumi Tomita, Hyung-Suk Kim, Oliver Smithies, Masao Kakoki
Increased levels of a cleaved form of prolactin (molecular weight 16 kDa) have been associated with preeclampsia. To study the effects of prolactin on blood pressure (BP), we generated male mice with a single-copy transgene (Tg; inserted into the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus) that enables inducible hepatic production of prolactin and its cleavage product. The Tg is driven by the indole-3-carbinol (I3C)-inducible rat cytochrome P450 1A1 promoter. When the Tg mice were fed normal chow (NC), plasma prolactin concentrations were comparable to those in female WT mice in the last third of pregnancy, and BP was lower than in WT mice (∼95 mm Hg vs...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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