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Hypoxanthine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106786/sulfolobus-acidocaldarius-udg-can-remove-du-from-the-rna-backbone-insight-into-the-specific-recognition-of-uracil-linked-with-deoxyribose
#1
Gang-Shun Yi, Wei-Wei Wang, Wei-Guo Cao, Feng-Ping Wang, Xi-Peng Liu
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius encodes family 4 and 5 uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). Two recombinant S. acidocaldarius UDGs (SacUDG) were prepared and biochemically characterized using oligonucleotides carrying a deaminated base. Both SacUDGs can remove deoxyuracil (dU) base from both double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA. Interestingly, they can remove U linked with deoxyribose from single-stranded RNA backbone, suggesting that the riboses on the backbone have less effect on the recognition of dU and hydrolysis of the C-N glycosidic bond...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106735/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomic-and-lipidomic-analyses-of-the-effects-of-dietary-platycodon-grandiflorum-on-liver-and-serum-of-obese-mice-under-a-high-fat-diet
#2
Hye Min Park, Kab-Tae Park, Edmond Changkyun Park, Seung Ii Kim, Myung Sook Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Choong Hwan Lee
We aimed to identify metabolites involved in the anti-obesity effects of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice using mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic techniques. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: normal diet (ND)-fed mice, HFD-fed mice, HFD with 1% PG extract-fed mice (HPGL), and HFD with 5% PG extract-fed mice (HPGH). After 8 weeks, the HFD group gained more weight than the ND group, while dietary 5% PG extract attenuated this change. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) score plots showed a clear distinction between experimental groups in serum and liver markers...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095753/a-functional-endonuclease-q-exists-in-the-bacterial-domain-identification-and-characterization-of-endonuclease-q-from-bacillus-pumilus
#3
Miyako Shiraishi, Sonoko Ishino, Isaac Cann, Yoshizumi Ishino
DNA base deamination occurs spontaneously under physiological conditions and is promoted by high temperature. Therefore, hyperthermophiles are expected to have efficient repair systems of the deaminated bases in their genomes. Endonuclease Q (EndoQ) was originally identified from the hyperthermophlic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, as a hypoxanthine-specific endonuclease recently. Further biochemical analyses revealed that EndoQ also recognizes uracil, xanthine, and the AP site in DNA, and is probably involved in a specific repair process for damaged bases...
January 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089947/hepatic-xanthine-oxidase-activity-and-purine-nucleosides-levels-as-physiological-mediators-to-analyze-a-subcutaneous-treatment-with-phse-2-in-mice-infected-by-toxoplasma-gondii
#4
Pedro H Doleski, Daniela B R Leal, Vanessa Machado, Nathieli B Bottari, Emerson A Casali, Cesar E J Moritz, Giovana Camillo, Fernanda F Vogel, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of purine nucleosides and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the liver of mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii and treated with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2. For this experiment, forty Swiss mice were used. Twenty animals were orally infected by approximately 50 bradizoites of a cystogenic ME-49 strain of T. gondii, and the same number of uninfected mice was used as a control group. Ten infected and ten uninfected mice were subcutaneously treated twice (days 1 and 20 post-infection (PI)) with 5 μmol kg(-1) of (PhSe)2...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053928/synaptonemal-complex-protein-3-transcript-analysis-in-breast-cancer
#5
Maryam Beigom Mobasheri, Reza Shirkoohi, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Cancer/Testis antigens are immunogenic proteins ectopically expressed in human neoplasms. Synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) belongs to cancer/testis genes family involved in meiotic events and spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to express analysis of SYCP3 in breast cancer and validate it as a breast cancer biomarker. METHODS: Expression of SYCP3 transcripts in 47 breast tumors, 6 breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, SKBR3, T47D, BT474, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB 468), 5 normal breast and 2 testis tissues was studied by Real Time RT-PCR reaction...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049757/smug2-dna-glycosylase-from-pedobacter-heparinus-as-a-new-subfamily-in-udg-superfamily
#6
Panjiao Pang, Ye Yang, Jing Li, Zhong Wang, Weiguo Cao, Wei Xie
Base deamination is a common type of DNA damage that occurs in all organisms. DNA repair mechanisms are essential to maintain genome integrity, in which the base excision repair (BER) pathway plays a major role in the removal of base damage. In the BER pathway, the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily is responsible for excising the deaminated bases from DNA and generates apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified a family 3 SMUG1-like DNA glycoyslase from Pedobacter heparinus (named as Phe SMUG2), which display catalytic activities towards DNA containing uracil or hypoxanthine/xanthine...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045594/human-hprt1-gene-and-the-lesch-nyhan-disease-substitution-of-alanine-for-glycine-and-inversely-in-the-hgprt-enzyme-protein
#7
Khue Vu Nguyen, Robert K Naviaux, William L Nyhan
Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a rare X-linked inherited neurogenetic disorder of purine metabolism in which the enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt) is defective. The authors report three novel independent mutations in the coding region of the HPRT1 gene from genomic DNA of (a) a carrier sister of two male patients with LND: c.569G>C, p.G190A in exon 8; and (b) two LND affected male patients unrelated to her who had two mutations: c.648delC, p.Y216X, and c.653C>G, p.A218G in exon 9...
January 3, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043362/rutin-can-replace-the-use-of-three-other-antioxidants-in-the-culture-medium-maintaining-the-viability-of-sheep-isolated-secondary-follicles
#8
T L B G Lins, A Y P Cavalcante, J M S Santos, V G Menezes, V R P Barros, R S Barberino, M É S Bezerra, T J S Macedo, M H T Matos
The present study evaluated the effect of addition of rutin alone or combined with other antioxidants (transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid) present in the culture medium on the in vitro development of ovine isolated secondary follicles. After collection of the sheep ovaries, secondary follicles (200-230 μm) were isolated and cultured for 12 days in α-Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM) supplemented with BSA, insulin, glutamine and hypoxanthine (α-MEM: antioxidant free-medium) or in this medium also added by transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid (AO: base medium with antioxidants)...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031169/the-hypoxanthine-xanthine-oxidase-axis-is-not-involved-in-the-initial-phase-of-clinical-transplantation-related-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Leonie G M Wijermars, Jaap A Bakker, Dorottya K de Vries, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Jorgen Bierau, Sarantos Kostidis, Oleg A Mayboroda, Dimitrios Tsikas, Alexander F Schaapherder, Jan H N Lindeman
The hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (XO) axis is considered to be a key driver of transplantation related ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Whereas interference with this axis effectively quenches I/R injury in preclinical models, there is limited efficacy of XO inhibitors in clinical trials. In this context, we considered clinical evaluation of a role for the hypoxanthine-XO axis in human I/R to be relevant. Patients undergoing renal allograft transplantation were included (n=40) and classified based on duration of ischemia (short; intermediate; prolonged)...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012969/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-shows-that-disturbances-in-metabolism-of-tumor-cells-contribute-to-poor-survival-of-rcc-patients
#10
Piotr Popławski, Takayuki Tohge, Joanna Bogusławska, Beata Rybicka, Zbigniew Tański, Victor Treviño, Alisdair R Fernie, Agnieszka Piekiełko-Witkowska
PURPOSE: Cellular metabolism of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors is disturbed. The clinical significance of these alterations is weakly understood. We aimed to find if changes in metabolic pathways contribute to survival of RCC patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 35 RCC tumors and matched controls were used for metabolite profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and transcriptomic analysis with qPCR-arrays targeting the expression of 93 metabolic genes...
December 22, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974876/evaluation-of-housekeeping-genes-for-quantitative-gene-expression-analysis-in-the-equine-kidney
#11
Sara Azarpeykan, Keren E Dittmer
Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are used as internal controls for normalising and calculating the relative expression of target genes in RT-qPCR experiments. There is no unique universal HKG and HKGs vary among organisms and tissues, so this study aimed to determine the most stably expressed HKGs in the equine kidney. The evaluated HKGs included 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1)...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941912/quantitative-determination-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-2-4-dichlorophenol-using-poly-eosin-y-hydroxylated-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-modified-electrode
#12
Xiaolin Zhu, Kexin Zhang, Chengzhi Wang, Jiunian Guan, Xing Yuan, Baikun Li
This study aimed at developing simple, sensitive and rapid electrochemical approach to quantitatively determine and assess the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a priority pollutant and has potential risk to public health through a novel poly(eosin Y, EY)/hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite modified electrode (PEY/MWNTs-OH/GCE). The distinct feature of this easy-fabricated electrode was the synergistic coupling effect between EY and MWNTs-OH that enabled a high electrocatalytic activity to 2,4-DCP...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923672/functional-characterization-of-two-novel-purine-transporters-from-the-basidiomycota-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#13
Mariana Barraco-Vega, Héctor Romero, Mariana Richero, María Pía Cerdeiras, Gianna Cecchetto
Purine transporters as substrate entry points in organisms, are involved in a number of cellular processes such as nitrogen source uptake, energy metabolism and synthesis of nucleic acids. In this study, two nucleobase transporter genes (phZ, phU) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were cloned, identified, and functionally characterized. Our results show that PhZ is a transporter of adenine and hypoxanthine, and a protein belonging to the AzgA-like family, whilst PhU belongs to the NAT/NCS2 family, transporting xanthine and uric acid...
February 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920633/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-models-theories-and-therapies
#14
REVIEW
Scott Bell, Ilaria Kolobova, Liam Crapper, Carl Ernst
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a rare X-linked disorder caused by mutations in HPRT1, an important enzyme in the purine salvage pathway. Symptoms of LNS include dystonia, gout, intellectual disability, and self-mutilation. Despite having been characterized over 50 years ago, it remains unclear precisely how deficits in hypoxanthine and guanine recycling can lead to such a profound neurological phenotype. Several studies have proposed different hypotheses regarding the etiology of this disease, and several treatments have been tried in patients, though none have led to a satisfactory explanation of the disease...
November 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910976/the-first-example-of-palladium-catalyzed-cascade-amidine-arylation-intramolecular-ester-amidation-for-the-synthesis-of-hypoxanthines-application-to-the-synthesis-of-8-azanebularine-analogues
#15
Wu Yang, Haoran Ma, Qian Yang, Jingwen Wang, Yuan Liu, Qinghua Yang, Jie Wu, Chuanjun Song, Junbiao Chang
8-Azanebularine analogues display interesting antiviral, antitumour and biochemical activities. However, typical glycosylation of 8-azapurines always resulted in the desired products in low yields due to the lack of stereo- and regioselectivity of the glycosylation reaction. Herein, a concise synthetic route toward 8-azanebularine analogues has been developed. Key steps involve a copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a 1-β-azido sugar moiety with ethyl 3-bromopropiolate and a palladium-catalyzed cascade amidine arylation-intramolecular ester amidation reaction to build the hypoxanthine structural motif...
December 2, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909730/a-sensitive-and-specific-indirect-competitive-enzyme%C3%A2-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-detection-of-icariin
#16
Jinjun Cheng, Yue Zhang, Shuchen Liu, Baoping Qu, Meiling Zhang, Xiaoman Liu, Yan Zhao, Huihua Qu
In the present study, a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for icariin (ICA) was prepared and characterized. A hybridoma‑secreting MAb against icariin was produced by fusing splenocytes immunized with an ICA‑bovine serum albumin conjugate with a hypoxanthine‑aminopterin‑thymidine‑sensitive mouse myeloma SP2/0 cell line. The antibody showed high specificity for ICA with almost no cross‑reactivity against the majority of structurally‑related chemicals. Subsequently, an indirect competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for ICA was established and characterized...
January 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906640/a-review-of-the-implication-of-hypoxanthine-excess-in-the-physiopathology-of-lesch-nyhan-disease
#17
R J Torres, C Prior, M G Garcia, J G Puig
Lesch-Nyhan disease is caused by HGprt deficiency, however, the mechanism by which enzyme deficiency leads to the severe neurological manifestations is still unknown. We hypothesized that hypoxanthine excess leads, directly or indirectly, through its action in adenosine transport, to aberrations in neuronal development. We found that hypoxanthine diminishes adenosine transport and enhances stimulation of adenosine receptors. These effects cause an imbalance between adenosine, dopamine, and serotonin receptors in HGprt deficient cells, and cells differentiated with hypoxanthine showed an increase in dopamine, adenosine and serotonin receptors expression...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906617/evaluation-of-cellular-purine-transport-and-metabolism-in-the-caco-2-cell-using-comprehensive-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method-for-analysis-of-purines
#18
T Fukuuchi, M Kobayashi, N Yamaoka, K Kaneko
Using Caco-2 cells and our previously developed high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of purine bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides, we evaluated cellular purine transport and uptake. The analytes were separated using YMC-Triart C18 column with gradient elution. We used Caco-2 cells as intestinal model cells and monitored purine transport across a monolayer for 2 h. The degree of change of purine concentrations in the permeate was very slight; however, it was possible to simultaneously determine these parameters for all purines because of our method's high sensitivity...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#19
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898091/restoring-ureagenesis-in-hepatocytes-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-genomic-addition-to-arginase-deficient-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Patrick C Lee, Brian Truong, Agustin Vega-Crespo, W Blake Gilmore, Kip Hermann, Stephanie Ak Angarita, Jonathan K Tang, Katherine M Chang, Austin E Wininger, Alex K Lam, Benjamen E Schoenberg, Stephen D Cederbaum, April D Pyle, James A Byrne, Gerald S Lipshutz
Urea cycle disorders are incurable enzymopathies that affect nitrogen metabolism and typically lead to hyperammonemia. Arginase deficiency results from a mutation in Arg1, the enzyme regulating the final step of ureagenesis and typically results in developmental disabilities, seizures, spastic diplegia, and sometimes death. Current medical treatments for urea cycle disorders are only marginally effective, and for proximal disorders, liver transplantation is effective but limited by graft availability. Advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell research has allowed for the genetic modification of stem cells for potential cellular replacement therapies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
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