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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546635/local-cryotherapy-minimally-impacts-the-metabolome-and-transcriptome-of-human-skeletal-muscle
#1
Dylan C Sarver, Kristoffer B Sugg, Nathaniel P Disser, Elizabeth R Sibilsky Enselman, Tariq M Awan, Christopher L Mendias
Cryotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of skeletal muscle injuries. However, the data to support the use of cryotherapy is inconclusive, and the biochemical etiology of cryotherapy in human skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. We therefore sought to determine how a clinically-relevant dose of cryotherapy would impact the transcriptome and metabolome of skeletal muscle. Eight healthy male subjects (age 24.7 ± 4.5 years, BMI 22.2 ± 1.6) received a 15 minute bout of local cryotherapy, delivered via ice cup massage over the anterolateral thigh...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545730/synthesis-and-characterisation-of-non-bonded-1-7%C3%AE-m-thin-shell-ts1-7-100nm-silica-particles-for-the-rapid-separation-and-analysis-of-uric-acid-and-creatinine-in-human-urine-by-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography
#2
Victor K Langsi, Benjamin A Ashu-Arrah, Niamh Ward, Jeremy D Glennon
A rapid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Cr) in human urine is described, using a non-bonded 1.7μm thin-shell (TS1.7-100nm) silica particle prepared by the seeded-growth approach. The new shell particle was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and BET analysis. TEM reveals 1.5μm solid core and 100nm shell thickness. DLS shows polydispersity index <0.2. Expanded pore size of 88Å and specific surface area of 78m(2)/g were determined by BET...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539642/combinatory-evaluation-of-transcriptome-and-metabolome-profiles-of-low-temperature-induced-resistant-ascites-syndrome-in-broiler-chickens
#3
Shourong Shi, Yiru Shen, Shan Zhang, Zhenhua Zhao, Zhuocheng Hou, Huaijun Zhou, Jianmin Zou, Yuming Guo
To select metabolic biomarkers and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with resistant-ascites syndrome (resistant-AS), we used innovative techniques such as metabolomics and transcriptomics to comparatively examine resistant-AS chickens and AS controls. Metabolomic evaluation of chicken serum using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/HSMS) showed significantly altered lysoPC(18:1), PE(18:3/16:0), PC(20:1/18:3), DG(24:1/22:6/0:0), PS(18:2/18:0), PI(16:0/16:0), PS(18:0/18:1), PS(14:1/14:0), dihydroxyacetone, ursodeoxycholic acid, tryptophan, L-valine, cycloserine, hypoxanthine, and 4-O-Methylmelleolide concentrations on day 21 and LysoPC(18:0), LysoPE(20:1/0:0), LysoPC(16:0), LysoPE(16:0/0:0), hypoxanthine, dihydroxyacetone, 4-O-Methylmelleolide, LysoPC(18:2), and PC(14:1/22:1) concentrations on day 35, between the susceptible and resistant groups...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524722/lesch-nyhan-disease-in-two-families-from-chilo%C3%A3-island-with-mutations-in-the-hprt1-gene
#4
Khue Vu Nguyen, Sebastian Silva, Monica Troncoso, Robert K Naviaux, William L Nyhan
Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a rare X-linked inherited neurogenetic disorder of purine metabolism in which the enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt) is defective. The authors report two independent point mutations leading to splicing errors: IVS 2 +1G>A, c.134 +1G>A, and IVS 3 +1G>A, c.318 +1G>A in the hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyltransferase1 (HPRT1) gene which result in exclusion of exon 2 and exon 3 respectively, in the HGprt enzyme protein from different members of two Chiloé Island families...
May 19, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509906/therapeutic-efficacy-of-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs-by-targeting-multiple-stress-related-metabolic-pathways
#5
H L Cai, P Jiang, Q Y Tan, R L Dang, M M Tang, Y Xue, Y Deng, B K Zhang, P F Fang, P Xu, D X Xiang, H D Li, J K Yao
Schizophrenia (SZ) is considered to be a multifactorial brain disorder with defects involving many biochemical pathways. Patients with SZ show variable responses to current pharmacological treatments of SZ because of the heterogeneity of this disorder. Stress has a significant role in the pathophysiological pathways and therapeutic responses of SZ. Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) can modulate the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and exert therapeutic effects on stress by targeting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus...
May 16, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508122/a-trivalent-enzymatic-system-for-uricolytic-therapy-of-hprt-deficiency-and-lesch-nyhan-disease
#6
Luca Ronda, Marialaura Marchetti, Riccardo Piano, Anastasia Liuzzi, Romina Corsini, Riccardo Percudani, Stefano Bettati
PURPOSE: Because of the evolutionary loss of the uricolytic pathway, humans accumulate poorly soluble urate as the final product of purine catabolism. Restoration of uricolysis through enzyme therapy is a promising treatment for severe hyperuricemia caused by deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). To this end, we studied the effect of PEG conjugation on the activity and stability of the enzymatic complement required for conversion of urate into the more soluble (S)-allantoin...
May 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454689/identification-of-appropriate-reference-genes-for-qpcr-analyses-of-placental-expression-of-slc7a3-and-induction-of-slc5a1-in-porcine-endometrium
#7
Chelsie B Steinhauser, Theodore T Wing, Haijun Gao, Xilong Li, Robert C Burghardt, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Greg A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Endometria and placentae undergo developmental changes that affect the stability of genes used as references for normalization of qPCR data. We identified genes that are stable within the porcine endometrium and placenta throughout pregnancy, and elucidated the temporal/spatial mRNA localization of the glucose and arginine transporters, solute carrier family (SLC) 5A1 and SLC7A3, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qPCR was performed for 10 genes within porcine endometria from Days 5, 11, and 15 of the estrous cycle and 11, 15, 25, 40, 60, and 85 of pregnancy; and chorioallantois from Days 30, 35, 45, 50, 60, and 85...
April 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445362/effect-of-human-fat-graft-on-breast-cancer-metastasis-in-a-murine-model
#8
Roberto Moltó-García, Virina González-Alonso, María Eloísa Villaverde-Doménech, Edurne Novella-Maestre
BACKGROUND: Isolated adipose stem cells have been reported to encourage migration and early metastasis of breast cancer. Mimicking a surgical situation, the authors developed a human breast cancer model to evaluate in vivo whether human adipose tissue promotes tumor growth and invasion. METHODS: Human adipose tissue was obtained from four patients. The MDA-MB-468 cell line was cultured with a lentiviral vector encoding a puromycin resistance gene and mCherry fluorescent protein...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432611/comparison-of-human-erythrocyte-purine-nucleotide-metabolism-and-blood-purine-and-pyrimidine-degradation-product-concentrations-before-and-after-acute-exercise-in-trained-and-sedentary-subjects
#9
Wioleta Dudzinska, M Suska, A Lubkowska, K Jakubowska, M Olszewska, K Safranow, D Chlubek
This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. The study included 15 male elite rowers [mean age 24.3 ± 2.56 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 52.8 ± 4.54 mL/kg/min; endurance and strength training 8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426879/acute-exposure-to-dehp-metabolite-mehp-cause-genotoxicity-mutagenesis-and-carcinogenicity-in-mammalian-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#10
Yu-Jung Chang, Chia-Yi Tseng, Pei-Ying Lin, Yu-Chen Chuang, Ming-Wei Chao
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the common plasticizer used in the production of polyvinyl chloride, can be converted to the more potent metabolite mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP). Epidemiological studies have shown an association with elevated induction of rat hepatic cancer and reproductive toxicity in response to MEHP exposure. However, the mechanism of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity induced by MEHP treatment remains unclear. As a means to elucidate the mechanisms of action, lethality and mutagenicity in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt+/-) gene induced in several CHO cell types by MEHP were assessed...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418590/control-of-biofouling-by-xanthine-oxidase-on-seawater-reverse-osmosis-membranes-from-a-desalination-plant-enzyme-production-and-screening-of-bacterial-isolates-from-the-full-scale-plant
#11
Veena Nagaraj, Lucy Skillman, Dan Li, Zhangwang Xie, Goen Ho
Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme...
April 18, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412223/bioengineered-robust-hybrid-hydrogels-enrich-the-stability-and-efficacy-of-biological-drugs
#12
Moon Soo Gil, Jinhwan Cho, Thavasyappan Thambi, V H Giang Phan, Inchan Kwon, Doo Sung Lee
Biological drugs are exquisitely tailored components offering the advantages of high specificity and efficacy that are considered safe for treating diseases. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of biological drugs is limited by their inherent short biological half-life and poor stability in vivo. Herein, we engineered a novel delivery platform based on hybrid injectable hydrogels, in which pH- and temperature-responsive biodegradable copolymers were site-specifically coupled to the sulfhydryl group of human serum albumin, which effectively enhances the stability and circulation half-life of the biological drug, recombinant uricase enzyme (Uox)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411106/mass-spectrometry-imaging-shows-major-derangements-in-neurogranin-and-in-purine-metabolism-in-the-triple-knockout-3%C3%A3-tg-alzheimer-mouse-model
#13
Clara Esteve, Emrys A Jones, Douglas B Kell, Hervé Boutin, Liam A McDonnell
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can simultaneously measure hundreds of biomolecules directly from tissue. Using different sample preparation strategies, proteins and metabolites have been profiled to study the molecular changes in a 3×Tg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In comparison with wild-type (WT) control mice MALDI-MSI revealed Alzheimer's disease-specific protein profiles, highlighting dramatic reductions of a protein with m/z 7560, which was assigned to neurogranin and validated by immunohistochemistry...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408844/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-lines-a549-and-nci-h460-express-hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase-on-the-plasma-membrane
#14
Michelle H Townsend, Michael D Anderson, Evita G Weagel, Edwin J Velazquez, K Scott Weber, Richard A Robison, Kim L O'Neill
In both males and females, lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide and accounts for >30% of cancer-related deaths. Despite advances in biomarker analysis and tumor characterization, there remains a need to find suitable biomarker antigen targets for treatment in late-stage lung cancer. Previous research on the salvage pathway enzyme TK1 shows a unique relationship with cancer patients as serum levels are raised according to cancer grade. To expand this analysis, the other salvage pathway enzymes were evaluated for possible upregulation within lung cancer...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403945/xanthine-oxidoreductase-activity-is-correlated-with-insulin-resistance-and-subclinical-inflammation-in-young-humans
#15
Kahori Watanabe Washio, Yoshiki Kusunoki, Takayo Murase, Takashi Nakamura, Keiko Osugi, Mana Ohigashi, Tadahiko Sukenaga, Fumihiro Ochi, Toshihiro Matsuo, Tomoyuki Katsuno, Yuji Moriwaki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Mitsuyoshi Namba, Hidenori Koyama
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the formation of uric acid (UA) from hypoxanthine and xanthine, which in turn are products of purine metabolism starting from ribose-5-phosphate. Besides the synthesis of UA, basic research has suggested that XOR is involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species, adipogenesis, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). XOR activity has shown to be much lower in humans than in rodents, which makes its accurate measurement difficult...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391173/the-impact-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-the-human-blood-metabolome
#16
J J Vlaanderen, N A Janssen, G Hoek, P Keski-Rahkonen, D K Barupal, F R Cassee, I Gosens, M Strak, M Steenhof, Q Lan, B Brunekreef, A Scalbert, R C H Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Biological perturbations caused by air pollution might be reflected in the compounds present in blood originating from air pollutants and endogenous metabolites influenced by air pollution (defined here as part of the blood metabolome). We aimed to assess the perturbation of the blood metabolome in response to short term exposure to air pollution. METHODS: We exposed 31 healthy volunteers to ambient air pollution for 5h. We measured exposure to particulate matter, particle number concentrations, absorbance, elemental/organic carbon, trace metals, secondary inorganic components, endotoxin content, gaseous pollutants, and particulate matter oxidative potential...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373271/suppressors-of-dgtp-starvation-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Mark Itsko, Roel M Schaaper
dGTP starvation, a newly discovered phenomenon in which E. coli cells are starved specifically for the DNA precursor dGTP, leads to impaired growth and, ultimately, cell death. Phenomenologically, it represents an example of nutritionally-induced unbalanced growth: cell mass amplifies normally as dictated by the nutritional status of the medium, but DNA content growth is specifically impaired. The other known example of such a condition, Thymineless Death (TLD), involves starvation for the DNA precursor dTTP, which has found important chemotherapeutic applications...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370324/investigation-of-toxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-cold-atmospheric-argon-plasma
#18
T Maisch, A K Bosserhoff, P Unger, J Heider, T Shimizu, J L Zimmermann, G E Morfill, M Landthaler, S Karrer
Cold atmospheric argon plasma is recognized as a new contact free approach for the decrease of bacterial load on chronic wounds in patients. So far very limited data are available on its toxicity and mutagenicity on eukaryotic cells. Thus, the toxic/mutagenic potential of cold atmospheric argon plasma using the MicroPlaSter β(®) , which has been used efficiently in humans treating chronic and acute wounds, was investigated using the XTT assay in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and the HGPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) assay with V79 Chinese hamster cells...
April 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357186/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-the-saga-of-metabolic-abnormalities-and-self-injurious-behavior
#19
Nitesh Tewari, Vijay Prakash Mathur, Divesh Sardana, Kalpana Bansal
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an X-linked recessive disorder of purine metabolism caused by a mutation in Xq26.2-q26.3 (OMIM 308000.0004). The presence of the diagnostic triad, i.e. signs of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and results of pedigree analysis and novel molecular biology & genetic testing, confirms the diagnosis of LNS. With a level of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1) enzyme activity < 2%, patients develop neurological, neurocognitive, and neuromotor symptoms along with SIB...
February 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355168/associations-of-plasma-uric-acid-and-purine-metabolites-with-blood-pressure-in-children-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#20
Lieke E J M Scheepers, Annelies Boonen, Wieke Pijnenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Jan A Staessen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Carel Thijs, Ilja C W Arts
OBJECTIVE: Elevated serum uric acid concentration has been associated with high blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. A putative underlying mechanism is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species when uric acid is generated by an increased enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase (XO). The aims of the present study were to investigate the associations between plasma uric acid concentration, purine metabolite ratios, as proxies for increased XO activity, and SBP and DBP in school-age children...
May 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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