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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432611/comparison-of-human-erythrocyte-purine-nucleotide-metabolism-and-blood-purine-and-pyrimidine-degradation-product-concentrations-before-and-after-acute-exercise-in-trained-and-sedentary-subjects
#1
Wioleta Dudzinska, M Suska, A Lubkowska, K Jakubowska, M Olszewska, K Safranow, D Chlubek
This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of erythrocyte purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP) in trained and sedentary subjects before and after maximal physical exercise together with measuring the activity of purine metabolism enzymes as well as the concentration of purine (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid) and pyrimidine (uridine) degradation products in blood. The study included 15 male elite rowers [mean age 24.3 ± 2.56 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 52.8 ± 4.54 mL/kg/min; endurance and strength training 8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426879/acute-exposure-to-dehp-metabolite-mehp-cause-genotoxicity-mutagenesis-and-carcinogenicity-in-mammalian-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#2
Yu-Jung Chang, Chia-Yi Tseng, Pei-Ying Lin, Yu-Chen Chuang, Ming-Wei Chao
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the common plasticizer used in the production of polyvinyl chloride, can be converted to the more potent metabolite mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP). Epidemiological studies have shown an association with elevated induction of rat hepatic cancer and reproductive toxicity in response to MEHP exposure. However, the mechanism of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity induced by MEHP treatment remains unclear. As a means to elucidate the mechanisms of action, lethality and mutagenicity in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt+/-) gene induced in several CHO cell types by MEHP were assessed...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418590/control-of-biofouling-by-xanthine-oxidase-on-seawater-reverse-osmosis-membranes-from-a-desalination-plant-enzyme-production-and-screening-of-bacterial-isolates-from-the-full-scale-plant
#3
Veena Nagaraj, Lucy Skillman, Dan Li, Zhangwang Xie, Goen Ho
Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme...
April 18, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412223/bioengineered-robust-hybrid-hydrogels-enrich-the-stability-and-efficacy-of-biological-drugs
#4
Moon Soo Gil, Jinhwan Cho, Thavasyappan Thambi, V H Giang Phan, Inchan Kwon, Doo Sung Lee
Biological drugs are exquisitely tailored components offering the advantages of high specificity and efficacy that are considered safe for treating diseases. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of biological drugs is limited by their inherent short biological half-life and poor stability in vivo. Herein, we engineered a novel delivery platform based on hybrid injectable hydrogels, in which pH- and temperature-responsive biodegradable copolymers were site-specifically coupled to the sulfhydryl group of human serum albumin, which effectively enhances the stability and circulation half-life of the biological drug, recombinant uricase enzyme (Uox)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411106/mass-spectrometry-imaging-shows-major-derangements-in-neurogranin-and-in-purine-metabolism-in-the-triple-knockout-3%C3%A3-tg-alzheimer-mouse-model
#5
Clara Esteve, Emrys A Jones, Douglas B Kell, Hervé Boutin, Liam A McDonnell
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can simultaneously measure hundreds of biomolecules directly from tissue. Using different sample preparation strategies, proteins and metabolites have been profiled to study the molecular changes in a 3×Tg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In comparison with wild-type (WT) control mice MALDI-MSI revealed Alzheimer's disease-specific protein profiles, highlighting dramatic reductions of a protein with m/z 7560, which was assigned to neurogranin and validated by immunohistochemistry...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408844/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-lines-a549-and-nci-h460-express-hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase-on-the-plasma-membrane
#6
Michelle H Townsend, Michael D Anderson, Evita G Weagel, Edwin J Velazquez, K Scott Weber, Richard A Robison, Kim L O'Neill
In both males and females, lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide and accounts for >30% of cancer-related deaths. Despite advances in biomarker analysis and tumor characterization, there remains a need to find suitable biomarker antigen targets for treatment in late-stage lung cancer. Previous research on the salvage pathway enzyme TK1 shows a unique relationship with cancer patients as serum levels are raised according to cancer grade. To expand this analysis, the other salvage pathway enzymes were evaluated for possible upregulation within lung cancer...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403945/xanthine-oxidoreductase-activity-is-correlated-with-insulin-resistance-and-subclinical-inflammation-in-young-humans
#7
Kahori Watanabe Washio, Yoshiki Kusunoki, Takayo Murase, Takashi Nakamura, Keiko Osugi, Mana Ohigashi, Tadahiko Sukenaga, Fumihiro Ochi, Toshihiro Matsuo, Tomoyuki Katsuno, Yuji Moriwaki, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Mitsuyoshi Namba, Hidenori Koyama
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the formation of uric acid (UA) from hypoxanthine and xanthine, which in turn are products of purine metabolism starting from ribose-5-phosphate. Besides the synthesis of UA, basic research has suggested that XOR is involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species, adipogenesis, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). XOR activity has shown to be much lower in humans than in rodents, which makes its accurate measurement difficult...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391173/the-impact-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-the-human-blood-metabolome
#8
J J Vlaanderen, N A Janssen, G Hoek, P Keski-Rahkonen, D K Barupal, F R Cassee, I Gosens, M Strak, M Steenhof, Q Lan, B Brunekreef, A Scalbert, R C H Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Biological perturbations caused by air pollution might be reflected in the compounds present in blood originating from air pollutants and endogenous metabolites influenced by air pollution (defined here as part of the blood metabolome). We aimed to assess the perturbation of the blood metabolome in response to short term exposure to air pollution. METHODS: We exposed 31 healthy volunteers to ambient air pollution for 5h. We measured exposure to particulate matter, particle number concentrations, absorbance, elemental/organic carbon, trace metals, secondary inorganic components, endotoxin content, gaseous pollutants, and particulate matter oxidative potential...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373271/suppressors-of-dgtp-starvation-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Mark Itsko, Roel M Schaaper
dGTP starvation, a newly discovered phenomenon in which E. coli cells are starved specifically for the DNA precursor dGTP, leads to impaired growth and, ultimately, cell death. Phenomenologically, it represents an example of nutritionally-induced unbalanced growth: cell mass amplifies normally as dictated by the nutritional status of the medium, but DNA content growth is specifically impaired. The other known example of such a condition, Thymineless Death (TLD), involves starvation for the DNA precursor dTTP, which has found important chemotherapeutic applications...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370324/investigation-of-toxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-cold-atmospheric-argon-plasma
#10
T Maisch, A K Bosserhoff, P Unger, J Heider, T Shimizu, J L Zimmermann, G E Morfill, M Landthaler, S Karrer
Cold atmospheric argon plasma is recognized as a new contact free approach for the decrease of bacterial load on chronic wounds in patients. So far very limited data are available on its toxicity and mutagenicity on eukaryotic cells. Thus, the toxic/mutagenic potential of cold atmospheric argon plasma using the MicroPlaSter β(®) , which has been used efficiently in humans treating chronic and acute wounds, was investigated using the XTT assay in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and the HGPRT (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) assay with V79 Chinese hamster cells...
April 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357186/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-the-saga-of-metabolic-abnormalities-and-self-injurious-behavior
#11
Nitesh Tewari, Vijay Prakash Mathur, Divesh Sardana, Kalpana Bansal
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an X-linked recessive disorder of purine metabolism caused by a mutation in Xq26.2-q26.3 (OMIM 308000.0004). The presence of the diagnostic triad, i.e. signs of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and results of pedigree analysis and novel molecular biology & genetic testing, confirms the diagnosis of LNS. With a level of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1) enzyme activity < 2%, patients develop neurological, neurocognitive, and neuromotor symptoms along with SIB...
February 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355168/associations-of-plasma-uric-acid-and-purine-metabolites-with-blood-pressure-in-children-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#12
Lieke E J M Scheepers, Annelies Boonen, Wieke Pijnenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Jan A Staessen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Carel Thijs, Ilja C W Arts
OBJECTIVE: Elevated serum uric acid concentration has been associated with high blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. A putative underlying mechanism is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species when uric acid is generated by an increased enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase (XO). The aims of the present study were to investigate the associations between plasma uric acid concentration, purine metabolite ratios, as proxies for increased XO activity, and SBP and DBP in school-age children...
May 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336968/new-cofactors-and-inhibitors-for-a-dna-cleaving-dnazyme-superoxide-anion-and-hydrogen-peroxide-mediated-an-oxidative-cleavage-process
#13
Yanhong Sun, Rulong Ma, Shijin Wang, Guiying Li, Yongjie Sheng, Hongyue Rui, Jin Zhang, Jiacui Xu, Dazhi Jiang
Herein, we investigated the effects of new cofactors and inhibitors on an oxidative cleavage of DNA catalysis, known as a pistol-like DNAzyme (PLDz), to discuss its catalytic mechanism. PLDz performed its catalytic activity in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), in which Cu(2+) promoted, whereas Fe(2+) significantly inhibited the catalytic function. Since Fe(2+)/AA-generated hydroxyl radicals are efficient on DNA damage, implying that oxidative cleavage of PLDz had no relation with hydroxyl radical. Subsequently, we used Fe(2+)/H2O2 and Cu(2+)/H2O2 to identify the role of hydroxyl radicals in PLDz catalysis...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303227/analysis-of-cordyceps-by-multi-column-liquid-chromatography
#14
Zhengming Qian, Shaoping Li
Cordyceps is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used in China for hundreds of years. In the present study a multi-column liquid chromatography (MC-LC) system was developed for the qualitative analysis of macromolecules and micromolecules in Cordyceps. The MC-LC system includes a size exclusion pre-column, a size exclusion column (SEC) and a reversed phase column (RP) which were controlled by column-switching valves. The sample was separated by the size exclusion pre-column into two fractions (macromolecules and micromolecules)...
March 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300194/amniotic-fluid-metabolomics-and-biochemistry-analysis-provides-novel-insights-into-the-diet-regulated-foetal-growth-in-a-pig-model
#15
Jin Wan, Fei Jiang, Jiao Zhang, Qingsong Xu, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Yuheng Luo, Jun He
Foetal loss and intrauterine growth restriction are major problems in mammals, but there are few effective ways in preventing it. Intriguingly, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a biomaterial derived from chitosan, can promote foetal survival and growth. Therefore, we have investigated how COS affects foetal survival and growth in a pig model. Fifty-two sows were divided into two treatment groups (n = 26) and fed either solely a control diet or a control diet that includes 100 mg/kg COS. Amniotic fluid and foetus samples from six sows that were of average body weight in each group were collected on gestation day 35...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294336/adenosine-production-by-brain-cells
#16
Edwin K Jackson, Shawn E Kotermanski, Elizabeth V Menshikova, Raghvendra K Dubey, Travis C Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
The early release of adenosine following traumatic brain injury (TBI) suppresses seizures and brain inflammation; thus, it is important to elucidate the cellular sources of adenosine following injurious stimuli triggered by TBI so that therapeutics for enhancing the early adenosine-release response can be optimized. Using mass spectrometry with (13) C-labeled standards, we investigated in cultured rat neurons, astrocytes, and microglia the effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD; models energy failure), H2 O2 (produces oxidative stress), and glutamate (induces excitotoxicity) on intracellular and extracellular levels of 5'-AMP (adenosine precursor), adenosine, and inosine and hypoxanthine (adenosine metabolites)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292464/intracellular-acidification-increases-adenosine-transport-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#17
Natalia Celis, Joaquín Araos, Carlos Sanhueza, Fernando Toledo, Ana R Beltrán, Fabián Pardo, Andrea Leiva, Marco A Ramírez, Luis Sobrevia
INTRODUCTION: Adenosine is taken up via human equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 (hENT1) and 2 (hENT2) at a physiological extracellular pH (pHo ∼7.4) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Acidic pHo increases the uptake of adenosine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) via hENT4 in this cell type. However, modulation of hENT1 and hENT2 transport activity by the pHi is unknown. We investigated whether hENT1 and hENT2-adenosine transport was regulated by acidic pHi. METHODS: HUVECs loaded with a pH sensitive probe were subjected to 0...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282902/lactobacillus-gasseri-pa-3-uses-the-purines-imp-inosine-and-hypoxanthine-and-reduces-their-absorption-in-rats
#18
Naruomi Yamada, Chizuru Saito-Iwamoto, Marie Nakamura, Misato Soeda, Yoshika Chiba, Hiroshi Kano, Yukio Asami
Excessive intake of purine-rich foods elevates serum levels of uric acid. Animal and fish meats contain high amounts of inosine and its related purines, and the reduction of taking those purines is crucial for the improvement of serum uric acid levels. We previously showed that Lactobacillus gasseri PA-3 (PA-3) incorporates adenosine and its related purines and that oral treatment with PA-3 reduced adenosine absorption in rats. This study investigated whether PA-3 also incorporates IMP (inosine 5'-monophosphate), inosine, and hypoxanthine, and whether it reduces their absorption in rats...
March 8, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282408/the-renal-phenotype-of-allopurinol-treated-hprt-deficient-mouse
#19
Cristina Zennaro, Federica Tonon, Paola Zarattini, Milan Clai, Alessandro Corbelli, Michele Carraro, Marialaura Marchetti, Luca Ronda, Gianluca Paredi, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Riccardo Percudani
Excess of uric acid is mainly treated with xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, also called uricostatics because they block the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine into urate. Normally, accumulation of upstream metabolites is prevented by the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) enzyme. The recycling pathway, however, is impaired in the presence of HPRT deficiency, as observed in Lesch-Nyhan disease. To gain insights into the consequences of purine accumulation with HPRT deficiency, we investigated the effects of the XO inhibitor allopurinol in Hprt-lacking (HPRT-/-) mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273649/modeling-and-optimizing-inhibitory-activities-of-nelumbinis-folium-extract-on-xanthine-oxidase-using-response-surface-methodology
#20
Mangmang Sang, Guangyan Du, Jia Hao, Linlin Wang, Erwei Liu, Yi Zhang, Tao Wang, Xiumei Gao, Lifeng Han
Xanthine oxidase (XOD), which could oxidize hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid, is a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and also a well-known target for the drug development to treat gout. In our study, the total alkaloids of Nelumbinis folium markedly inhibited XOD activity, with IC50 value being 3.313μg/mL. UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and 3D docking analysis indicated that roemerine was a potential active ingredient. A response surface methodology combined with central composite design experiment was further developed and validated for the optimization of the reaction conditions between the total alkaloids of Nelumbinis folium and XOD, which could be considered as a meaningful research for the development of XOD inhibitor rapidly and sensitively...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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