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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208866/fatal-toxic-megacolon-in-a-child-of-hirschsprung-disease
#1
Shiwani R Garg, Pragati A Sathe, Annapurna C Taware, Ketaki M Surve
Hirschsprung disease (HD) in late childhood is uncommon and often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. However, in a patient with Hirschsprung disease, of greater significance is the occurrence of life threatening enterocolitis. In its more severe form, this is associated with gross dilatation of the colon and profound toxaemia, the combination being termed toxic megacolon. Because of its relative rarity, we report a case of 10-year-old child who had a history of chronic constipation for nine years. He later developed complications and presented to the emergency department with toxic megacolon, a rare occurrence due to neglected constipation...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180937/guidelines-for-the-management-of-postoperative-obstructive-symptoms-in-children-with-hirschsprung-disease
#2
REVIEW
J C Langer, M D Rollins, M Levitt, A Gosain, L de la Torre, R P Kapur, R A Cowles, J Horton, D H Rothstein, A M Goldstein
Although most children with Hirschsprung disease ultimately do well, many experience a variety of ongoing problems after pull-through surgery. The most common include obstructive symptoms, soiling, enterocolitis and failure to thrive. The purpose of this guideline is to present a rational approach to the management of postoperative obstructive symptoms in children with Hirschsprung disease. The American Pediatric Surgical Association Board of Governors established a Hirschsprung Disease Interest Group. Group discussions, literature review and expert consensus were then used to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding causes, methods of diagnosis, and treatment approaches to children with obstructive symptoms following pull-through for Hirschsprung disease...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164077/severe-hyponatremia-and-repeated-intestinal-resections-for-intestinal-dysmotility-mimicking-congenital-aganglionic-megacolon-due-to-delay-in-the-diagnosis-of-congenital-hypothyroidism
#3
Gonul Buyukyilmaz, Demet Baltu, Tutku Soyer, Murat Tanyıldız, Huseyin Demirbilek
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) may present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, though, majority of infants can be asymptomatic. Therefore, understimation and delay in diagnosis may result in severe complications. A 5-month-old female admitted to our clinic with the history of repeated surgical operations due to the diagnosis of congenital aganglionic megacolon. Investigations performed in our clinic revealed the diagnosis of congenital (primary) hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis. Histopathologic evaluation of previously resected colon sample revealed normal ganglionic cell included colon...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161256/cecal-perforation-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-a%C3%A2-case-report
#4
Sarah Kyuragi Luthe, Ryota Sato
BACKGROUND: Various complications are reported with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), including fulminant CDI. Fulminant CDI is an underappreciated life-threatening condition associated with complications such as toxic megacolon and bowel perforation. CASE REPORT: A 79-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Department with altered mental status. She was admitted and conservatively treated for a left thalamic hemorrhage. While hospitalized, she developed watery diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154903/diagnostic-value-of-the-preoperatively-detected-radiological-transition-zone-in-hirschsprung-s-disease
#5
Xuyong Chen, Wu Xiaojuan, Hongyi Zhang, Chunlei Jiao, Kechi Yu, Tianqi Zhu, Jiexiong Feng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The cardinal diagnostic sign of congenital aganglionic megacolon, or Hirschsprung's disease (HD), is an aganglionic segment of the distal colon or rectum. To determine the surgical planning of a radiological transition zone (TZ) in HD, this study investigated the association between a radiological TZ and the bowel resection length. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in children (n = 192) with suspected HD determined by radiological TZ on contrast barium enema, and who underwent pull-through operations...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120235/identifying-key-genes-associated-with-hirschsprung-s-disease-based-on-bioinformatics-analysis-of-rna-sequencing-data
#6
Wei-Kang Pan, Ya-Fei Zhang, Hui Yu, Ya Gao, Bai-Jun Zheng, Peng Li, Chong Xie, Xin Ge
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a type of megacolon induced by deficiency or dysfunction of ganglion cells in the distal intestine and is associated with developmental disorders of the enteric nervous system. To explore the mechanisms of HSCR, we analyzed the RNA-sequencing data of the expansion and the narrow segments of colon tissues separated from children with HSCR. METHODS: RNA-sequencing of the expansion segments and the narrow segments of colon tissues isolated from children with HSCR was performed...
January 25, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112415/relation-between-mast-cells-concentration-and-serotonin-expression-in-chagasic-megacolon-development
#7
Michelle Aparecida Ribeiro de Freitas, Nathália Segatto, Natália Tischler, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Axel Brehmer, Alexandre Barcelos Morais da Silveira
Chagas' disease still reaching about 10 million people in the world. In South America, one of the most severe forms of this disease is the megacolon, characterized by severe constipation, dilated sigmoid colon and rectum and severe malnutrition. Previous data suggested that mast cells and serotonin (5-HT) expression could be involved in intestinal homeostasis control, avoiding the chagasic megacolon development. The aim at this study was to characterize the presence of mast cells and expression of serotonin in chagasic patients with and without megacolon and evaluate the relation between mast cells, serotonin and megacolon development...
January 23, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090493/toxic-megacolon-and-interstitial-pneumonia-caused-by-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-receiving-chemotherapy
#8
Hyunseop Kwon, Hyun Hee Lee, Chung Ryul Paik, Yun-Jeong Lim, Jeong A Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997854/the-emerging-metabolic-view-of-clostridium-difficile-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Andrew J Hryckowian, Kali M Pruss, Justin L Sonnenburg
It is widely accepted that Clostridium difficile exploits dysbiosis and leverages inflammation to thrive in the gut environment, where it can asymptomatically colonize humans or cause a toxin-mediated disease ranging in severity from frequent watery diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Here, we synthesize recent findings from the gut microbiota and enteric pathogenesis fields to inform the next steps toward a better understanding of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this review, we present a model in which the lifestyle of C...
December 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959751/neurogenic-megacolon-in-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Rukma R Govindu, Michelle Kelley
A 44-year-old man with a 20-year history of quadriplegia from a gunshot wound to the neck presented to the emergency department with symptoms of a urinary tract infection. His medical history included chronic megacolon and neurogenic bladder, and he had been admitted to the hospital many times for..
1, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930275/concomitant-laparoscopic-ileocolectomy-and-ladds-procedure-for-crohns-ileocolitis-with-mesenteric-abscess-and-congenital-megacolon
#11
Ahsan Raza, Bashar Safar, Rida Jamil, Lindsey Goldstein, Sanda Tan, Atif Iqbal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861867/death-caused-by-hepatodiaphragmatic-interposition-of-the-colon
#12
Dmitrij Fomin, Vilma Baranauskaitė, Sigitas Laima, Algimantas Jasulaitis, Donatas Petroška
Hepatodiaphragmatic interposition of the colon is a rare, usually asymptomatic, anomaly and is typically an incidental radiologic finding. There are few cases in the literature describing the symptomatic form of the condition, known as Chilaiditi syndrome. In some cases, it may be accompanied by various severe complications. If symptoms are present, usually conservative treatment is given. However, conservative treatment only addresses the symptoms but does not prevent their recurrence and possible complications...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796474/-clostridium-difficile-infection-what-is-currently-available-for-treatment
#13
A Stallmach
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-secreting bacillus. It is transmitted via a fecal-oral route and can be found in 1-3 % of the healthy population. Symptoms caused by C. difficile range from uncomplicated diarrhea to a toxic megacolon. The incidence, frequency of recurrence, and mortality rate of C. difficile infections (CDIs) have increased significantly over the past few decades. The most important risk factor is antibiotic treatment in elderly patients and patients with severe comorbidities...
December 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759787/management-of-acute-severe-ulcerative-colitis-a-clinical-update
#14
Carlos Walter Sobrado, Lucas Faraco Sobrado
Introduction: Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. Objective: To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755271/the-use-and-efficacy-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-refractory-clostridium-difficile-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Clostridium difficile (CD) is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for a spectrum of gastrointestinal illness ranging from asymptomatic carriage to toxic megacolon and death. The prevalence of CD infection is increasing in both hospitalized and community-based inflammatory bowel disease populations. Standard antibiotic therapy fails to cure or prevent recurrence in more than 50% of patients, thus increasing the need for alternative therapies. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation has received renewed attention as a therapy for refractory or recurrent CD infection...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721723/tacrolimus-therapy-for-three-patients-with-elderly-onset-ulcerative-colitis-report-of-three-cases
#16
Rumiko Kobayashi, Satohiro Matsumoto, Yukio Yoshida
In recent years, cases of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (UC) have been increasing in number and are currently reported to account for 10-15% of all cases of UC. Although the treatment of UC is essentially similar between older and younger patients, evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of tacrolimus in elderly-onset UC patients is still limited. Herein, we report our attempt to induce remission using tacrolimus in three patients with elderly-onset UC. A 75-year-old Japanese woman, a 71-year-old Japanese man and a 76-year-old Japanese woman with severe elderly-onset UC of the pancolitis type were treated with tacrolimus...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717398/rapid-change-of-fecal-microbiome-and-disappearance-of-clostridium-difficile-in-a-colonized-infant-after-transition-from-breast-milk-to-cow-milk
#17
Manli Y Davis, Husen Zhang, Lera E Brannan, Robert J Carman, James H Boone
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Upon the disturbance of gut microbiota by antibiotics, C. difficile establishes growth and releases toxins A and B, which cause tissue damage in the host. The symptoms of C. difficile infection disease range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Interestingly, 10-50 % of infants are asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. This longitudinal study of the C. difficile colonization in an infant revealed the dynamics of C...
October 7, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682968/hirschsprung-s-disease-clinical-dysmorphology-genes-micro-rnas-and-future-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Consolato Maria Sergi, Oana Caluseriu, Hunter McColl, David D Eisenstat
On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Dr. Harald Hirschsprung's death, there is a worldwide significant research effort toward identifying and understanding the role of genes and biochemical pathways involved in the pathogenesis as well as the use of new therapies for the disease harboring his name (Hirschsprung disease, HSCR). HSCR (aganglionic megacolon) is a frequent diagnostic and clinical challenge in perinatology and pediatric surgery, and a major cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction. HSCR is characterized by the absence of ganglia of the enteric nervous system, mostly in the distal gastrointestinal tract...
November 2, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680077/-preliminary-exploration-on-accurately-preoperative-evaluation-of-colonic-lesions-in-slow-transit-constipation-complicated-with-adult-megacolon
#19
Zhenhua Yu, Qi Liu, Zhigang Xiao, Dan Li, Xing Huang, Zhongcheng Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application value of colonic transit test (CTT) combined with anorectal manometry (ARM), barium enema (BE) and defecography (DFG) in accurately evaluating colonic lesions of slow transit constipation complicated with adult megacolon. METHODS: Clinical data of 47 above patients admitted between October 2007 and February 2015 in the People's Hospital of Hunan Province were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were examined with≥2 times of CTT combined with ARM and BE, and 42 cases received additional DFG at the same time, to evaluate colonic lesions before operation...
September 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670550/concomitant-laparoscopic-ileocolectomy-and-ladd-s-procedure-for-crohn-s-ileocolitis-with-mesenteric-abscess-and-congenital-megacolon
#20
Ahsan Raza, Bashar Safar, Rida Jamil, Lindsey Goldstein, Sanda Tan, Atif Iqbal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Surgeon
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