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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018144/ogilvie-s-syndrome-treated-with-an-emergency-laparotomy-right-hemicolectomy-and-end-ileostomy
#1
Andrew James Robinson, John-Patrick Quigley, Athene Banks, Martin Farmer
Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), or Ogilvie's syndrome, is a rare clinical entity in which there is massive non-toxic colonic dilatation in the absence of a mechanically obstructing lesion. It is an important yet poorly recognised cause of surgical morbidity and mortality occurring typically in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. ACPO can often be reversed conservatively with colonoscopic or nasogastric decompression. Surgical intervention is seldom necessary. We present a case of Ogilvie's syndrome in which a healthy 76-year-old man developed life-threatening pseudo-obstruction following rib polytrauma after a mechanical fall...
October 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991144/colon-sparing-surgery-for-clostridium-difficile
#2
David N Naumann, Aneel Bhangu, Douglas M Bowley
There has been recent evidence from a large multi-center study sponsored by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma that colon-sparing surgery reduces mortality for patients with severe Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) when compared to total colectomy. Amoebic colitis shares many pathologic and clinical features to CDAD, such as worsening diarrhoea, patchy colonic ulceration and necrosis, toxic megacolon, pseudomembranous colitis, perforation, and death. However, published research regarding amoebic colitis is sparse...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951427/an-unexpected-complication-following-uterine-artery-embolisation
#3
Sarah Peters, Michelle Wise, Brendan Buckley
A 35-year-old nulliparous woman underwent uterine artery embolisation (UAE) for heavy menstrual bleeding and anaemia due to fibroids, refractive to medical and surgical treatment.Bilateral UAE was performed after cephazolin prophylaxis and analgesia. Postoperatively, pain and abdominal bloating were prominent. Symptoms were initially treated as postembolisation syndrome, and analgesia was escalated. By the third day, pain was worsening and the woman developed marked tachypnoea and tachycardia, with raised inflammatory markers and lactate...
September 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912906/constipation-is-related-to-small-bowel-disturbance-rather-than-colonic-enlargement-in-acquired-chagasic-megacolon
#4
Mauro Bafutto, Alejandro Ostermayer Luquetti, Salustiano Gabriel Neto, Felix Andre Sanches Penhavel, Enio Chaves Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Constipation is the main symptom of acquired chagasic megacolon. However, a number of patients with Chagas disease without colon involvement also have the same complain. This study evaluated the role of small bowel in constipated patients with Chagas disease with and without megacolon. METHODS: Orocecal transit time (OCTT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in constipated non-chagasic and chagasic patients with and without megacolon were performed...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906293/frequency-and-variables-associated-with-fasting-orders-in-inpatients-with-ulcerative-colitis-the-audit-of-diet-orders-ulcerative-colitis-adore-uc-study
#5
Zane R Gallinger, Amir Rumman, Kevin Pivovarov, Kyle J Fortinsky, A Hillary Steinhart, Adam V Weizman
INTRODUCTION: Current clinical practice guidelines suggest that patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) hospitalized because of a disease flare should be offered a normal diet, unless such a diet is not tolerated. Studies of hospitalized patients have demonstrated iatrogenic malnutrition from unjustified or inappropriate nil per os (NPO) or clear liquid diet (CLD) orders. In this study, we aim to characterize the burden of this problem in hospitalized patients with UC. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients with UC admitted to the gastroenterology service or the general internal medicine service at a tertiary, academic hospital between January 2009 and December 2014, with a length of stay between 2 and 30 days...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876575/neonatal-surgery-a-study-of-two-years-at-nelson-mandela-academic-hospital-mthatha-eastern-cape
#6
A Delgado, A Cejas, D Bangasa
BACKGROUND: Advances in diagnostic techniques and perioperative care have greatly improved the outcome of neonatal surgery. Despite this, disparity still exists in the outcome of neonatal surgery between developed and developing countries. METHOD: We performed a prospective study of neonates admitted and treated due to surgical congenital diseases and other conditions in our hospital from April 2015 to April 2017. RESULTS: There were 19 (28,7%) females and 47 (70,3%) males in this group...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876561/predictors-of-emergency-colectomy-in-patients-admitted-with-acute-severe-ulcerative-colitis
#7
N N Mokhele, S R Thomson, G A Watermeyer
BACKGROUND: Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis (ASUC) is a life-threatening condition which requires urgent and aggressive medical therapy to reduce mortality, morbidity and avoid surgery. To facilitate this process, it is essential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes and emergency colectomy. Numerous such risk factors have been described in Western literature, however there is no local data addressing this issue. As such it is unclear if these predictors are applicable in our setting...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868488/small-bowel-stricture-mimicking-megacolon-in-a-patient-with-crohn-s-disease
#8
Samuel Raimundo Fernandes, Luís Araújo Correia, José Velosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: GE Port J Gastroenterol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839947/dynamic-chronic-rectal-obstruction-causing-a-severe-colonic-dilatation-in-a-cat
#9
Sofia García-Pertierra, Esteban Gonzàlez-Gasch, Carmen Catalá Puyol, Jose María Closa Boixeda
CASE SUMMARY: A 5-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented to our referral centre with a 13 month history of chronic tenesmus due to malunion of the right caudal iliac body. Constipation and pelvic canal stenosis were initially addressed by the referring veterinarian with a right femoral head and neck excision and a right acetabulectomy without observable clinical improvement. At admission, abdominal radiographs revealed severe colonic distension and a narrowed pelvic canal caused by the right proximal femur...
July 2017: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814976/analysis-of-proteomes-released-from-in-vitro-cultured-eight-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-revealed-specific-expression-in-pcr-ribotypes-027-and-176-confirming-their-genetic-relatedness-and-clinical-importance-at-the-proteomic-level
#10
Jiri Dresler, Marcela Krutova, Alena Fucikova, Jana Klimentova, Veronika Hruzova, Miloslava Duracova, Katerina Houdkova, Barbora Salovska, Jana Matejkova, Martin Hubalek, Petr Pajer, Libor Pisa, Otakar Nyc
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of C. difficile infection (CDI) that could be manifested by diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis or life-threatening toxic megacolon. The spread of certain strains represents a significant economic burden for health-care. The epidemic successful strains are also associated with severe clinical features of CDI. Therefore, a proteomic study has been conducted that comprises proteomes released from in vitro cultured panel of eight different PCR ribotypes (RTs) and employs the combination of shotgun proteomics and label-free quantification (LFQ) approach...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790208/pathogenicity-locus-core-genome-and-accessory-gene-contributions-to-clostridium-difficile-virulence
#11
Brittany B Lewis, Rebecca A Carter, Lilan Ling, Ingrid Leiner, Ying Taur, Mini Kamboj, Erik R Dubberke, Joao Xavier, Eric G Pamer
Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that causes colitis in patients with disrupted colonic microbiota. While some individuals are asymptomatic C. difficile carriers, symptomatic disease ranges from mild diarrhea to potentially lethal toxic megacolon. The wide disease spectrum has been attributed to the infected host's age, underlying diseases, immune status, and microbiome composition. However, strain-specific differences in C. difficile virulence have also been implicated in determining colitis severity...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736259/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-the-chinese-people-s-liberation-army-general-hospital-in-china
#12
Rui Wang, Hui Xia Chen, Lin Jian Song, Yue Yun Shen, Yan Ping Luo
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Its virulence is associated with the production of endotoxins A and B and endospores, which can cause symptoms, such as diarrhea, toxic megacolon and pseudomembranous colitis. Given the increasing elderly population and the well-recognized problem of over-prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics, it is critical to understand molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in China...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730326/infectious-diseases-causing-autonomic-dysfunction
#13
REVIEW
Francisco Javier Carod Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707191/clostridium-difficile-colitis-and-colonoscopy-pediatric-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Randolph McConnie, Arthur Kastl
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Review tests available for detection of Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) induced disease, including when such tests should be done in children and how they should be interpreted. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple tests are available for detecting disease due to C. diff. These include colonoscopy and stool analysis. Colonoscopy with biopsy is the most sensitive test for detecting the presence of colitis. The toxins produced by the C. diff. (toxin A, toxin B, and binary toxin) are the agents that cause injury and disease...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657908/idiopathic-megacolon-report-of-2-deaths-with-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Leigh Hlavaty, LokMan Sung
Abnormal dilation of the colon and rectum can develop from a range of disease processes. When encountered at autopsy, its contribution to death requires assessment and a thorough investigation of its origins. Elimination of known causes elicits a diagnosis of idiopathic megacolon. This entity is uncommonly encountered and presents with similar gross anatomic findings as Hirschsprung disease. Although death is infrequent, it most commonly results from disruption of the bowel wall and subsequent peritonitis. The authors report 2 rare deaths from idiopathic megacolon with retained integrity of the bowel wall...
September 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625250/-fulminant-clostridium-difficile-colitis-new-challenges-in-critical-care-medicine
#16
Bin Liu
Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC) means severe Clostridium difficile colitis (CDC), which often manifested with severe diarrhea, fever, abdominal distention, electrolyte disorder, hypoalbuminemia, and it can lead to pseudo membrane colonitis, toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction. Now Clostridium difficile (CD) becomes one of the most important medical institutions related infectious pathogens. In particular, the recently discovered mutant CD strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 has high pathogenicity in the global epidemic and its outbreak...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580600/secretory-diarrhea-and-hypokalemia-associated-with-colonic-pseudo-obstruction-a-case-study-and-systematic-analysis-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
F Bazerbachi, S Haffar, L A Szarka, Z Wang, L J Prokop, M H Murad, M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) is characterized by colonic distention in the absence of mechanical obstruction or toxic megacolon. Concomitant secretory diarrhea (SD) with hypokalemia (SD-CPO) due to gastrointestinal (GI) loss requires further characterization. AIM: To perform a systematic review of SD-CPO, report a case study, and compare SD-CPO with classical CPO (C-CPO). METHODS: We performed a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Scopus for reports based on a priori criteria for CPO, SD and GI loss of potassium...
June 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554765/evaluation-of-the-immunohistochemical-expression-of-gal-1-gal-3-and-gal-9-in-the-colon-of-chronic-chagasic-patients
#18
Marcela Beghini, Márcia Fernandes de Araújo, Viviane Oliveira Severino, Renata Margarida Etchebehere, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues, Sanívia Aparecida de Lima Pereira
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Gal-1, Gal-3 and Gal-9 in the colon of chronic chagasic patients compared to biopsied non-chagasic patients. MATERIAL OR SUBJECTS: Thirty-two colon fragments were selected from chagasic patients with megacolon (n=25) and nonchagasic patients without megacolon (n=7). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for Gal-1, Gal-3 and Gal-9 was performed using a common light microscope and the results were scored 0-3 according to labeling intensity...
April 20, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536228/clostridium-difficile-extraintestinal-abscess-a-rare-complication
#19
Vamsi Krishna Kantamaneni, Krishna C Gurram, Abhijit Kulkarni
Extraintestinal Clostridium difficile is rare. A 74-year-old man with a history of ulcerative colitis presented after a fall. Trauma work-up showed liver cirrhosis. Two days later he developed abdominal pain, distension, diarrhoea and leucocytosis. Stool tested positive for C. difficile CT abdomen showed pancolitis with toxic megacolon. Total abdominal colectomy and ileostomy with a rectal stump was performed. He was discharged, but was readmitted with sepsis. CT abdomen showed a 10.4×7.2 cm fluid collection in the pelvis...
May 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524628/myenteric-neuroprotective-role-of-aspirin-in-acute-and-chronic-experimental-infections-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#20
J Y Oda, M O Belém, T M Carlos, R Gouveia, B F C Luchetti, N M Moreira, C L Massocatto, S M Araújo, D M G Sant Ana, N C Buttow, P Pinge-Filho, E J A Araújo
BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical studies have shown that myenteric neuron cell death during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi mainly occurs in the esophagus and colon, resulting in megaesophagus and megacolon, respectively. Evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) is involved in the T. cruzi invasion process. The use of low-dose aspirin (ASA), a COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, has been shown to reduce infection with T. cruzi. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of treatment with low-dose ASA on myenteric colonic neurons during murine infection with T...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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