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Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Y M Zheng, W Z Li, Z X Wang, W Zhang, H Lv, J X Xiao, Y Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To report thigh muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests of four Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy with edema changes in adductor longus muscles that mimics adductor enthesopathy. METHODS: Four boys, who were from four unrelated families and aged from 5 to 11 years, were investigated because of the clinical manifestations including myalgia or muscle weakness or the incidental findings of elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and were diagnosed with dystrophinopathy by gene test of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Andreas Reinke, Michael Behr, Alexander Preuss, Jimmy Villard, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel
OBJECT: Total disc replacement (TDR) is typically indicated in young patients with a cervical soft disc herniation. To date, there are few data on the activity level of patients after cervical TDR; in particular, from young patients who are expected to have a high activity level with frequent exercising. The expectation is that returning to active sports after cervical TDR is not restricted. METHODS: Fifty patients were treated with a monosegmental cervical TDR at our department between May 2006 and March 2012...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Ljiljana S Sulovic, Meho Mahmutovic, Snezana Lazic, Nenad Sulovic
: Aims "Athlete's heart" is a cardiac adaptation to long-term intensive training. The aims of this study were to show the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in teenagers who participate in sports, to define the different types of cardiac re-modelling, and to differentiate between physiological and pathological hypertrophy. METHOD: Echocardiographic measurements were obtained by M-mode, two dimensional, and Doppler techniques of participants from sports and control groups...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Hotfiel T, Swoboda B, Krinner S, Grim C, Engelhardt M, Uder M, Hei R
Foam rolling has been developed as a popular intervention in training and rehabilitation. However, evidence on its effects on the cellular and physiological level is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foam rolling on arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh. Twenty-one healthy participants (age 25 ± 2 years, height 177 ± 9 cm, body weight 74 ± 9 kg) were recruited from the medical and sports faculty. Arterial tissue perfusion was determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound, represented as peak flow (Vmax), time average velocity maximum (TAMx), time average velocity mean (TAMn), and resistive index (RI), and with semiquantitative grading that was assessed by four blind-folded investigators...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Erika Zemková
The purpose of this study was to develop an Agility Index (AI), plus related methodology, for representing and quantifying the data variability of agility performance, incorporating varied stimuli number and traveling distances. A group of 84 physically fit subjects performed the agility test. Their task was to touch, with either the left or the right foot, one of four mats according to the location of a stimulus in one of the corners of the screen. Results showed no significant changes in agility time during 60 responses, when subjects traveled a distance of 0...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lynn Babcock, Cody S Olsen, David M Jaffe, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179)...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Eric W Djimeu, Annette N Brown
BACKGROUND: Seven new impact evaluations of pilot programs for increasing the demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) provide evidence of what works and what does not. The study findings suggest that financial compensation designed to relieve the opportunity or transportation costs from undergoing the procedure can increase the uptake of VMMC. There is also evidence that programs using peer influence can be effective, although so far only sports-based programs demonstrate a strong effect...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jeff DeCelles, Rebecca B Hershow, Zachary A Kaufman, Katherine R Gannett, Thandanani Kombandeya, Cynthia Chaibva, David A Ross, Abigail Harrison
INTRODUCTION: Grassroot Soccer (GRS) developed 2 brief and scalable voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) promotion interventions for males in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, consisting of a 60-minute interactive, soccer-themed educational session with follow-up behavioral and logistical reinforcement. Both interventions were led by circumcised male community leaders ("coaches") ages 18-30. "Make The Cut" (MTC) targeted adult males on soccer teams and "Make The Cut+" targeted boys in secondary schools...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Paola Di Stefano, Antonina Sciacca, Tamara Ursini, Maurizio Paoloni, Jacopo Vecchiet, Dante Di Giammartino, Maria Pina Sciotti, Alessandro Grimaldi, Valerio Cortesi, Paolo Fazii, Elena Ricci, Claudio D'Amario, Giuseppe Ippolito, Lucio Pippa, Giustino Parruti
Undiagnosed cases of HIV infection in developed countries are estimated at 20-30% of individuals living with HIV. Web-based strategies may represent a new approach to easier, wider, and unrestricted access to early testing. The Abruzzo Region, Italy, developed a Web-based tool to recruit persons at high risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). At the Website , browsers found information on STIs (HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis), a structured questionnaire called "risk calculator" to assess one's own risk behaviors and direct booking of their test at one of six sites throughout the region...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Alicia Pike, Riana R Pryor, Stephanie M Mazerolle, Rebecca Stearns, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:  Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Kenneth Amaechi Agu, Vincent Chidi Enemuo, Linda Oge Okoye, Okechukwu Onwuasoigwe
Studies from parts of Nigeria reported low compliance with seatbelt. This study sought to establish driver seatbelt use in Enugu, Nigeria by gender, vehicle type/use and time of day. Observations were done day and night at randomly selected locations. Data were analysed with SPSS version 15. Differences in response were checked with chi-square for trend. Confidence interval was 95% and P value < 0.05 was regarded as significant. Average compliance was 37.6% for the 510 males (85%) and 90 females (15%) observed...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
E Portegijs, S Sipilä, A Viljanen, M Rantakokko, T Rantanen
The aim is to determine concurrent validity of a single self-report habitual physical activity (PA) question against accelerometer-based PA and mobility variables, and corresponding changes in self-reported PA and mobility. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of the "Life-space mobility in old age" (LISPE) cohort and its substudy on PA were utilized. At baseline, 848 community-dwelling, 75- to 90-year-old people living independently in central Finland participated in home-based interviews. One and 2 years later, 816 and 761 of them were reassessed by phone, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
E D'Elia, P Ferrero, C Vittori, A Calabrese, V Duino, S Perlini, M Senni
Athletes may have electrocardiogram (ECG) repolarization abnormalities during stress test suggestive for ischemia in the absence of ischemic coronary artery disease, often in a setting of myocardial septum hypertrophy. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) might be altered in these athletes compared to hypertensive patients with the same degree of septal thickness. About 735 consecutive athletes were screened for mandatory assessment of fitness to participate in competitive sports. At the stress test, 23 (19 M, 4 F) were found to have ECG repolarization abnormalities suggestive for ischemia in the presence of normal coronary vessels...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Myosotis Massidda, Valeria Bachis, Laura Corrias, Francesco Piras, Marco Scorcu, Claudia Culigioni, Daniele Masala, Carla M Calò
BACKGROUND: The ACTN3 gene may influence performance in team sports, in which sprint action and high-speed movements, regulated by the anaerobic energy system, are crucial to the ultimate success of a match. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism and elite team sport athletic status in Italian male athletes. METHODS: We compared the genotype and allele frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism between team sport athletes (n = 75), endurance athletes (n = 40), sprint/power athletes (n = 64), and non-athletic healthy controls (n = 192) from Italy...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Karim Chamari, Johnny Padulo
The purpose of this Current Opinion article is to focus on the appropriate use of the terms 'aerobic'- and 'anaerobic'-exercise in sports medicine, in order to try to unify their use across coaches/athletes and sport scientists. Despite the high quality of most of the investigations, the terms aerobic/anaerobic continue to be used inappropriately by some researchers in exercise science. Until late 2014, for instance, 14,883 and 6,136 articles were cited in PubMed, in the field of 'exercise science', using the words 'aerobic' or 'anaerobic', respectively...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
C M Inness, K L Morgan
Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is played in over 80 countries. It is unique in combining the skills of a person with the agility and performance of an animal in a contact sport. There is only one report of the frequency and type of injuries in this population. Here we report risk perception, mitigation and risk factors for injuries and falls in UK polo players. Data were collected retrospectively from a random sample of 112 UK polo players by telephone questionnaire. Injuries (commonly to a shoulder or wrist) requiring a hospital visit were sustained by 17...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Roger Olney, Steve McMillan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
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