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Beta cells AND osteocalcin

S D Schussler, K Uske, P Marwah, F W Kemp, J D Bogden, S S Lin, Treena Livingston Arinzeh
Large bone defects often require the use of autograft, allograft, or synthetic bone graft augmentation; however, these treatments can result in delayed osseous integration. A tissue engineering strategy would be the use of a scaffold that could promote the normal fracture healing process of endochondral ossification, where an intermediate cartilage phase is later transformed to bone. This study investigated vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC), an insulin mimetic, combined with a fibrous composite scaffold, consisting of polycaprolactone with nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate, as a potential bone tissue engineering scaffold...
March 22, 2017: AAPS Journal
Rasha M Hussein
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop many complications including osteopenia, which is associated with high fracture risk. Osteocalcin is a non collagenous protein derived from the osteoblasts. Recently, it was found that osteocalcin enhances the pancreatic beta cell proliferation, insulin secretion and protection against type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Investigation of the association of serum osteocalcin and other bone turnover markers with blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus duration in type 2 diabetic patients...
March 6, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Hee Chul Park, Hongxuan Quan, Tingting Zhu, Yongjoon Kim, Bongju Kim, Hyeong-Cheol Yang
INTRODUCTION: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated) macrophages are known to play primary roles in inflammation and tissue regeneration. To investigate the role of macrophages in dentin regeneration, this study examined the effects of M1 and M2 macrophages on the odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) using the conditioned media (CM) of the activated human monocyte cell line THP-1. METHODS: M1 and M2 macrophages were induced by lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ and interleukin-4, respectively, and the phenotypes were confirmed by flow cytometry...
April 2017: Journal of Endodontics
Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Erin M Lee, Kathryn Smith, Sharon L Hyzy, Maryam Doroudi, Joseph K Williams, Ken Gall, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
Stem cell fate has been linked to the mechanical properties of their underlying substrate, affecting mechanoreceptors and ultimately leading to downstream biological response. Studies have used polymers to mimic the stiffness of extracellular matrix as well as of individual tissues and shown mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be directed along specific lineages. In this study, we examined the role of stiffness in MSC differentiation to two closely related cell phenotypes: osteoblast and chondrocyte. We prepared four methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA) polymer surfaces with elastic moduli ranging from 0...
2017: PloS One
Maria J Redondo, Beverly A Shirkey, Daniel W Fraga, A Osama Gaber, Omaima M Sabek
BACKGROUND: Osteocalcin (OC), a hormone secreted by osteoblasts, improves beta-cell function in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to understand the relationship between OC and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in pediatric diabetes. METHODS: Children (n = 70; mean [SD] age = 11.8 years [3.1]; 34.3% non-Hispanic white, 46.3% Hispanic, 14.9% African-American, 4.5% other) newly diagnosed with diabetes (69.1% type 1 diabetes [T1D], 30.9% type 2 diabetes [T2D]) were studied...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
Nicolas Bonnet
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis are two major disorders which prevalence increases with aging and is predicted to worsen in the coming years. Preclinical investigations suggest common mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of both disorders. Recent evidence has established that there is a clear link between glucose and bone metabolism. The emergence of bone as an endocrine regulator through FGF23 and osteocalcin has led to the re-evaluation of the role of bone cells and bone-derived factors in the development of metabolic diseases such as T2DM...
November 10, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Surena Vahabi, Maryam Torshabi, Azadeh Esmaeil Nejad
Predictable regeneration of alveolar bone defects has always been a challenge in implant dentistry. Bone allografts are widely used bone substitutes with controversial osteoinductive activity. This in vitro study aimed to assess the osteogenic potential of some commercially available freeze-dried bone allografts supplemented with human recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor beta-1. Cell viability, mineralization, and osteogenic gene expression of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were compared among the allograft alone, allograft/platelet-derived growth factor-BB, allograft/transforming growth factor beta-1, and allograft/platelet-derived growth factor-BB/transforming growth factor beta-1 groups...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Yun-Yun Ma, Lin Sun, Xiu-Juan Chen, Na Wang, Peng-Fei Yi, Min Song, Bo Zhang, Yu-Zhong Wang, Qiu-Hua Liang
Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model...
2016: PloS One
Kazuyuki Yusa, Osamu Yamamoto, Mitsuyoshi Iino, Hiroshi Takano, Masayuki Fukuda, Zhiwei Qiao, Toshihiro Sugiyama
OBJECTIVE: Zinc is an essential element for proliferation, differentiation and survival in various cell types. In a previous study, we found that zinc ions released from zinc-modified titanium surfaces (eluted zinc ions; EZ) stimulate cell viability, osteoblast marker gene expression and calcium deposition in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (hBMCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of EZ on osteoblast differentiation among dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro...
November 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Maryam Rezia Rad, Moein Khojaste, Mehrnoosh Hasan Shahriari, Saeed Asgary, Arash Khojasteh
OBJECTIVES: Growth factors play a significant role in cell proliferation and differentiation during different stages of the bone repair. However, several limitations have been brought researchers attention to an osteoinductive small molecule including Purmorphamine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of Purmorphamine on adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) seaded on beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules. METHODS: hDPSCs were established from extracted wisdom teeth of healthy volenteers...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Amir A Hamidieh, Zohreh Hamidi, Maryam Behfar, Zeinab Pajouhi, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Fariba Mohseni, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Maryam Sobhani, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad R Mohajeri Tehrani
BACKGROUNDS: Beta Thalassemia Major, and its treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can have deleterious effect on bone integrity and a main part of such effects is due to their deleterious effects on endocrine systems. So, we assessed the effects of endocrine changes during HSCT (Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation) on growing bones of pediatric thalassemic patients. METHODS: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin (bone formation markers), NTX (bone resorption marker), Ca, P, Alk ph, PTH, Vitamin D (vit D), prolactin, LH, FSH, T4, T3, TSH, IGF-1, testosterone (in males) or estradiol (in females), measured in 20 major thalassemic patients with mean age of 10...
July 14, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Peng Gao, Haoqiang Zhang, Yun Liu, Bo Fan, Xiaokang Li, Xin Xiao, Pingheng Lan, Minghui Li, Lei Geng, Dong Liu, Yulin Yuan, Qin Lian, Jianxi Lu, Zheng Guo, Zhen Wang
The drawbacks of traditional bone-defect treatments have prompted the exploration of bone tissue engineering. This study aimed to explore suitable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules for bone regeneration and identify an efficient method to establish β-TCP-based osteo-regenerators. β-TCP granules with diameters of 1 mm and 1-2.5 mm were evaluated in vitro. The β-TCP granules with superior osteogenic properties were used to establish in vivo bioreactors, referred to as osteo-regenerators, which were fabricated using two different methods...
March 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Panudda Srichomkwun, Natnicha Houngngam, Sophitsachi Pasatrat, Thipaporn Tharavanij, Lalita Wattanachanya, Weerapan Khovidhunkit
In mice, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity through adiponectin. In humans, levels of total osteocalcin (OC) and ucOC were negatively correlated with insulin resistance (IR) indices in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether ucOC plays a role in glucose homeostasis and whether its effect is mediated through adiponectin during pregnancy is unclear. Serum levels of total OC, ucOC, and adiponectin were measured in 130 pregnant women with varying degrees of IR [gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), n = 74 and non-GDM, n = 56]...
July 2016: Endocrine
Huan Wang, Rong Wang, Zhe Wang, Qian Liu, Yong Mao, Xiaohong Duan
Mechanical stimulation usually causes the volume changes of osteoblasts. Whether these volume changes could be sensed by the ClC-3 chloride channel, a volume-sensitive ion channel, and further promote the osteodifferentiation in osteoblasts has not been determined. In this study, we applied persistent static compression on MC3T3-E1 cells to detect the expression changes of ClC-3, osteogenic markers, as well as some molecules related with signaling transduction pathway. We tested the key role of ClC-3 in transferring the mechanical signal to osteoinduction by ClC-3 overexpressing and siRNA technique...
December 2015: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Omaima M Sabek, Satoru Ken Nishimoto, Daniel Fraga, Neelam Tejpal, Camillo Ricordi, A O Gaber
The osteoblast-specific hormone osteocalcin (OC) was found to regulate glucose metabolism, fat mass, and β-cell proliferation in mice. Here, we investigate the effect of decarboxylated OC (D-OC) on human β-cell function and mass in culture and in vivo using a Nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model. We found that D-OC at dose ranges from 1.0 to 15 ng/mL significantly augmented insulin content and enhanced human β-cell proliferation of cultured human islets. This was paralleled by increased expression of sulfonylurea receptor protein; a marker of β-cell differentiation and a component of the insulin-secretory apparatus...
September 2015: Endocrinology
Mayra Laino Albiero, Bruna Rabelo Amorim, Luciane Martins, Márcio Zaffalon Casati, Enilson Antonio Sallum, Francisco Humberto Nociti, Karina Gonzales Silvério
UNLABELLED: Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLMSCs) are an important alternative source of adult stem cells and may be applied for periodontal tissue regeneration, neuroregenerative medicine, and heart valve tissue engineering. However, little is known about the impact of bacterial toxins on the biological properties of PDLSMSCs, including self-renewal, differentiation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether proliferation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and osteogenic differentiation of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105(+) cells) would be affected by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EcLPS)...
March 2015: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Karen Kover, Yun Yan, Pei Ying Tong, Dara Watkins, Xiaoyu Li, James Tasch, Melissa Hager, Mark Clements, Wayne V Moore
Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress...
June 19, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Vionnie W C Yu, Borja Saez, Colleen Cook, Sutada Lotinun, Ana Pardo-Saganta, Ying-Hua Wang, Stefania Lymperi, Francesca Ferraro, Marc H G P Raaijmakers, Joy Y Wu, Lan Zhou, Jayaraj Rajagopal, Henry M Kronenberg, Roland Baron, David T Scadden
Production of the cells that ultimately populate the thymus to generate α/β T cells has been controversial, and their molecular drivers remain undefined. Here, we report that specific deletion of bone-producing osteocalcin (Ocn)-expressing cells in vivo markedly reduces T-competent progenitors and thymus-homing receptor expression among bone marrow hematopoietic cells. Decreased intrathymic T cell precursors and decreased generation of mature T cells occurred despite normal thymic function. The Notch ligand DLL4 is abundantly expressed on bone marrow Ocn(+) cells, and selective depletion of DLL4 from these cells recapitulated the thymopoietic abnormality...
May 4, 2015: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jun-Kun Zhan, Yan-Jiao Wang, Yi Wang, Zhi-Yong Tang, Pan Tan, Wu Huang, You-Shuo Liu
BACKGROUND: Arterial calcification is a common event in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is the most important cytopathologic foundation of arterial calcification. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts multiple cardioprotective actions beyond insulinotropic effects through GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). However, whether GLP-1 regulates osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs and associated molecular mechanisms has not been clarified...
June 15, 2015: International Journal of Cardiology
Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Jessica M Ellis, Qian Zhang, Charles R Farber, Susan Aja, Michael J Wolfgang, Thomas L Clemens, Ryan C Riddle
The Wnt coreceptors Lrp5 and Lrp6 are essential for normal postnatal bone accrual and osteoblast function. In this study, we identify a previously unrecognized skeletal function unique to Lrp5 that enables osteoblasts to oxidize fatty acids. Mice lacking the Lrp5 coreceptor specifically in osteoblasts and osteocytes exhibit the expected reductions in postnatal bone mass but also exhibit an increase in body fat with corresponding reductions in energy expenditure. Conversely, mice expressing a high bone mass mutant Lrp5 allele are leaner with reduced plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels...
June 1, 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biology
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