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human factors engineering

Barbara Pavan, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a cell monolayer essential for photoreceptor function and forming the blood-retinal barrier. RPE and retinal neurons share the same origin and a polarized cytoarchitecture. Several factors determine the phagocytosis and permeability of RPE, influencing photoreceptor renewal and drug delivery, efficacy and toxicity. Adult human RPE expresses neuronal markers in vitro, indicating a potential transdifferentiation. Degeneration of the RPE leads to death of photoreceptors and retinal neurons, resulting in the vision loss of retinopathy...
June 13, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Sebastián L Vega, Varun Arvind, Prakhar Mishra, Joachim Kohn, N Sanjeeva Murthy, Prabhas V Moghe
Stem cells are adherent cells whose multipotency and differentiation can be regulated by numerous microenvironmental signals including soluble growth factors and surface topography. This study describes a simple method for creating distinct micropatterns via microphase separation resulting from polymer demixing of poly(desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine carbonate) (PDTEC) and polystyrene (PS). Substrates with co-continuous (ribbons) or discontinuous (islands and pits) PDTEC regions were obtained by varying the ratio of PDTEC and sacrificial PS...
June 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
David Josh Cohen, Sharon L Hyzy, Salma Haque, Lucas C Olson, Barbara Boyan, Justin M Saul, Zvi Schwartz
Keratin proteins derived from human hair are known to contain a large number of cysteine residues. In hydrogels composed of oxidatively extracted keratin (keratose), sulfonic acid on the cysteine residues prevents disulfide crosslinking. Reductively extracted keratin (kerateine) has thiol groups on cysteine residues that can form disulfide crosslinks. The rates of keratin hydrogel erosion and, in some cases, drug release can be tuned by manipulating disulfide crosslinking levels via the keratose:kerateine (KOS:KTN) ratio...
June 15, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Lokesh Karthik Narayanan, Trevor L Thompson, Rohan A Shirwaiker, Binil Starly
Biofabrication processes can affect biological quality attributes of encapsulated cells within constructs. Currently, assessment of the fabricated constructs is performed offline by subjecting the constructs to destructive assays that require staining and sectioning. This drawback limits the translation of biofabrication processes to industrial practice. In this work, we investigate the dielectric response of viable cells encapsulated in bioprinted 3D hydrogel constructs to an applied alternating electric field as a label-free non-destructive monitoring approach...
June 14, 2018: Biofabrication
Adam Mendez, Alexandra N Rindone, Namrata Batra, Pegah Abassnia, Janaka Senarathna, Stacy Gil, Darian H Hadjiabadi, Warren L Grayson, Arvind P Pathak
Tissue engineered scaffolds are a powerful means of healing craniofacial bone defects arising from trauma or disease. Murine models of critical-sized bone defects are especially useful in understanding the role of microenvironmental factors such as vascularization on bone regeneration. Here we demonstrate the capability of a novel multimodality imaging platform capable of acquiring in vivo images of microvascular architecture, microvascular blood flow and tracer/cell tracking via intrinsic optical signaling (IOS), laser speckle contrast (LSC) and fluorescence imaging, respectively in a critical-sized calvarial defect model...
June 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Paulo Gonçalves Teixeira, Florian David, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Production of triacylglycerols (TAGs) through microbial fermentation is an emerging alternative to plant and animal-derived sources. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a preferred organism for industrial use but has natively a very poor capacity of TAG production and storage. Here, we engineered S. cerevisiae for accumulation of high TAG levels through the use of structural and physiological factors that influence assembly and biogenesis of lipid droplets. First, human and fungal perilipin genes were expressed, increasing TAG content by up to 36% when expressing the human perilipin gene PLIN3...
June 11, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Harshini Surendran, Reena J Rathod, Rajarshi Pal
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the foremost cause of blindness in people over the age of 60 worldwide. Clinically, this disease starts with distortion in central vision eventually leading to legal blindness. Vision loss has a significant impact on quality of life and incurs a substantial cost to the economy. Furthermore, AMD is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that triggers visual impairment due to the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and the light-sensitive photoreceptors that they support, protect and provide nutrition...
June 13, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christine J Kowalczewski, Justin M Saul
Bone fracture followed by delayed or non-union typically requires bone graft intervention. Autologous bone grafts remain the clinical "gold standard". Recently, synthetic bone grafts such as Medtronic's Infuse Bone Graft have opened the possibility to pharmacological and tissue engineering strategies to bone repair following fracture. This clinically-available strategy uses an absorbable collagen sponge as a carrier material for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and a similar strategy has been employed by Stryker with BMP-7, also known as osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Eric Yanke, Helene Moriarty, Pascale Carayon, Nasia Safdar
OBJECTIVES: Using a novel human factors engineering approach, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, we evaluated environmental service workers' (ESWs) perceptions of barriers and facilitators influencing adherence to the nationally mandated Department of Veterans Affairs Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention bundle. METHODS: A focus group of ESWs was conducted. Qualitative analysis was performed employing a visual matrix display to identify barrier/facilitator themes related to Department of Veterans Affairs CDI bundle adherence using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety work system as a framework...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Yongqiang Li, Songyuan Yao, Yansheng Li, Mingkai Xu, Huiwen Zhang, Chenggang Zhang
CAR-T cell therapy that targets surface antigens to kill tumor cells specifically has recently become another cornerstone in tumor immunotherapy. In this study, a lentiviral expression plasmid of CAR targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was constructed by genetic engineering. The recombinant plasmid was co-transfected with other packaging plasmids into HEK293T cells by calcium phosphate precipitation to generate lenti-car, which are CAR lentiviral particles. HER2-specific CAR-T cells were obtained by transducing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with lenti-car...
May 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Sean Nee
Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Johnathan M Goldman, Haresh T More, Olga Yee, Elizabeth Borgeson, Brenda Remy, Jasmine Rowe, Vikram Sadineni
Development of optimal drug product lyophilization cycles is typically accomplished via multiple engineering runs to determine appropriate process parameters. These runs require significant time and product investments, which are especially costly during early phase development when the drug product formulation and lyophilization process are often defined simultaneously. Even small changes in the formulation may require a new set of engineering runs to define lyophilization process parameters. In order to overcome these development difficulties, an eight factor definitive screening design (DSD), including both formulation and process parameters, was executed on a fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug product...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Chiao-Fang Teng, Long-Bin Jeng, Woei-Cherng Shyu
Evidence has emerged that stem cells represent a promising therapeutic tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Thus, identifying functional markers for selecting stem cells capable of superior self-renewal and pluripotency (or multipotency) and maintaining stem cell identity under appropriate culture conditions are critical for guiding the use of stem cells toward clinical applications. Many investigations have implicated the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling in maintenance of stem cell characteristics and enhancement of stem cell therapy efficacy...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Hossein Safarpour, Morteza Shahmirzaie, Elham Rezaee, Mahmood Barati, Mohammad Reza Safarnejad, Farshad H Shirazi
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression amplifies to excess amounts in several disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Although, Anti-TNF biologics have revolutionized the treatment of these autoimmune diseases, formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) has dramatically affected their use. The next generation antibodies ( e.g. Fab, scFv) have not only reduced resulted immunogenicity, but also proved several benefits including better tumor penetration and more rapid blood clearance. Using affinity selection procedures in this study, a scFv antibody clone was isolated from naïve Tomlinson I phage display library that specifically recognizes and binds to TNF-α...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Anna D Dikina, Daniel S Alt, Samuel Herberg, Alexandra McMillan, Hannah A Strobel, Zijie Zheng, Meng Cao, Bradley P Lai, Oju Jeon, Victoria Ivy Petsinger, Calvin U Cotton, Marsha W Rolle, Eben Alsberg
Currently, there are no synthetic or biologic materials suitable for long-term treatment of large tracheal defects. A successful tracheal replacement must (1) have radial rigidity to prevent airway collapse during respiration, (2) contain an immunoprotective respiratory epithelium, and (3) integrate with the host vasculature to support epithelium viability. Herein, biopolymer microspheres are used to deliver chondrogenic growth factors to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded in a custom mold that self-assemble into cartilage rings, which can be fused into tubes...
May 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Ofir Schuster, Khandra Sears, Girish Ramachandran, Fabien J Fuche, Brittany Curtis, Sharon M Tennant, Raphael Simon
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are important human enteric pathogens globally. Among the different serovars associated with human NTS disease, S. Newport (a serogroup C2 -C3 Salmonella) accounts for a measurable proportion of cases. However, to date there are no licensed human NTS vaccines. NTS lipopolysaccharide-associated O polysaccharides are virulence factors and protective antigens in animal models. As isolated molecules, bacterial polysaccharides are generally poorly immunogenic, a limitation overcome by conjugation to a protein carrier...
June 6, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Assaf Bar, Emil Ruvinov, Smadar Cohen
Osteochondral defects (OCDs) are conditions affecting both cartilage and the underlying bone. Since cartilage is not spontaneously regenerated, our group has recently developed a strategy of injecting bioactive alginate hydrogel into the defect for promoting endogenous regeneration of cartilage via presentation of affinity-bound transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). As in vivo model systems often provide only limited insights regarding the mechanism behind regeneration processes, here we describe a novel flow bioreactor for the in vitro modeling of the OCD microenvironment, designed to promote cell recruitment from the simulated bone marrow compartment into the hydrogel, under physiological flow conditions...
June 5, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Ennio H Idrobo-Ávila, Humberto Loaiza-Correa, Leon van Noorden, Flavio G Muñoz-Bolaños, Rubiel Vargas-Cañas
Background: For some time now, the effects of sound, noise, and music on the human body have been studied. However, despite research done through time, it is still not completely clear what influence, interaction, and effects sounds have on human body. That is why it is necessary to conduct new research on this topic. Thus, in this paper, a systematic review is undertaken in order to integrate research related to several types of sound, both pleasant and unpleasant, specifically noise and music. In addition, it includes as much research as possible to give stakeholders a more general vision about relevant elements regarding methodologies, study subjects, stimulus, analysis, and experimental designs in general...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Masoumeh Hesam Mahmoudinezhad, Akbar Karkhaneh, Khosrow Jadidi
According to recent research, smart polymers can affect different kind of mammalian cells such as endothelial cells. It is known that conductive polymers have great features, e.g. electrical conductivity, and can help increase electrical cell communication. To clarify the effect of one of these smart materials on endothelial cells, which are not inherently electrically dependent, poly(3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) was chosen. Scaffolds were composed of gelatin, alginate, and PEDOT:PSS and made through solvent casting...
June 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Yan Su, Janet M Denbeigh, Emily T Camilleri, Scott M Riester, Joshua A Parry, Eric R Wagner, Michael J Yaszemski, Allan B Dietz, Simon M Cool, Andre J van Wijnen, Sanjeev Kakar
Purpose: The poor healing potential of intra-articular ligament injuries drives a need for the development of novel, viable 'neo-ligament' alternatives. Ex vivo approaches combining stem cell engineering, 3-dimensional biocompatible scaffold design and enhancement of biological and biomechanical functionality via the introduction of key growth factors and morphogens, represent a promising solution to ligament regeneration. Methods: We investigated growth, differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein production of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), cultured in 5% human platelet lysate (PL) and seeded on three-dimensional polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, in response to the connective-tissue related ligands fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic) (FGF2) and growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF5)...
March 2018: Gene Reports
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