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human factors engineering

Maria Chatzinikolaidou, Charalampos Pontikoglou, Konstantina Terzaki, Maria Kaliva, Athanasia Kalyva, Eleni Papadaki, Maria Vamvakaki, Maria Farsari
The regeneration of bone via a tissue engineering approach involves components from the macroscopic to the nanoscopic level, including appropriate 3D scaffolds, cells and growth factors. In this study, hexagonal scaffolds of different diagonals were fabricated by Direct Laser Writing using a photopolymerizable hybrid material. The proliferation of bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on structures with various diagonals, 50, 100, 150 and 200μm increased significantly after 10days in culture, however without significant differences among them...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Shang-Chun Guo, Shi-Cong Tao, Wen-Jing Yin, Xin Qi, Jia-Gen Sheng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) represents a debilitating complication following glucocorticoid (GC)-based therapy. Synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can exert protective effect in the animal model of GC-induced ONFH by inducing cell proliferation and preventing cell apoptosis. Recent studies indicate the transplanted cells exert therapeutic effects primarily via a paracrine mechanism and exosomes are an important paracrine factor that can be directly used as therapeutic agents for tissue engineering...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
W J Zhang, J J Sun
Objective: To construct tissue engineered-epithelial patches with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSC) and extracellular matrix scaffold (ECM), and to observe their morphological characteristics and biological behaviors. Methods: The cultured and purified hADSC were co-cultured with the ECM. The adhesion of hADSC formed sheet on the ECM were observed by the scanning electron microscopy. The activity and apoptosis of hADSC cultured on the ECM were observed by laser scanning confocal microscope...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Paulina J Paszkiewicz, Simon P Fräßle, Shivani Srivastava, Daniel Sommermeyer, Michael Hudecek, Ingo Drexler, Michel Sadelain, Lingfeng Liu, Michael C Jensen, Stanley R Riddell, Dirk H Busch
The adoptive transfer of T cells that have been genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is effective for treating human B cell malignancies. However, the persistence of functional CD19 CAR T cells causes sustained depletion of endogenous CD19+ B cells and hypogammaglobulinemia. Thus, there is a need for a mechanism to ablate transferred T cells after tumor eradication is complete to allow recovery of normal B cells. Previously, we developed a truncated version of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRt) that is coexpressed with the CAR on the T cell surface...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Elizabeth M Meier, Bin Wu, Aamir Siddiqui, Donna G Tepper, Michael T Longaker, Mai T Lam
: Efforts have been made to engineer knee meniscus tissue for injury repair, yet most attempts have been unsuccessful. Creating a cell source that resembles the complex, heterogeneous phenotype of the meniscus cell remains difficult. Stem cell differentiation has been investigated, mainly using bone marrow mesenchymal cells and biochemical means for differentiation, resulting in no solution. Mechanical stimulation has been investigated to an extent with no conclusion. Here, we explore the potential for and effectiveness of mechanical stimulation to induce the meniscal phenotype in adipose-derived stromal cells...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Stacey S Huppert, Kathleen M Campbell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the liver possesses a unique, innate ability to regenerate through mass compensation, transplantation remains the only therapy when damage outpaces regeneration, or liver metabolic capacity is irreversibly impacted. Recent insight from developmental biology has greatly influenced the advancement of alternative options to transplantation in these settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Factors known to direct liver cell specification, expansion, and differentiation have been used to generate hepatocyte-like cells from stem and somatic cells for developing cell therapies...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Aymeric Goyer
Thiamin is essential for human health. While plants are the ultimate source of thiamin in most human diets, staple foods like white rice have low thiamin content. Therefore, populations whose diets are mainly based on low-thiamin staple crops suffer from thiamin deficiency. Biofortification of rice grain by engineering the thiamin biosynthesis pathway has recently been attempted, with up to 5-fold increase in thiamin content in unpolished seeds. However, polished seeds that retain only the starchy endosperm had similar thiamin content than that of non-engineered plants...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Lisa M Li, Titus Wong, Emily Rose, Graham Wickham, Elizabeth Bryce
BACKGROUND: A tabletop-type ultraviolet C (UVC) light-emitting disinfecting device was evaluated for microbiologic effectiveness, safety, usability, and end-user satisfaction. METHODS: Three different inoculums of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex strains suspended in both saline and trypticase soy broth were applied onto stainless steel carriers and electronic device surfaces in triplicate and cultured for growth after UVC disinfection...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Luiz Alexandre Chisini, Marcus Cristian Muniz Conde, Jose Carlos Bernedo Alcázar, Adriana Fernandes da Silva, Jacques Eduardo Nör, Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquinio, Flávio Fernando Demarco
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and osteonectin (ON) in pulp-like tissues developed by tissue engineering and to compare it with the expression of these proteins in pulps treated with Ca(OH)2 therapy. Tooth slices were obtained from non-carious human third molars under sterile procedures. The residual periodontal and pulp soft tissues were removed. Empty pulp spaces of the tooth slice were filled with sodium chloride particles (250-425 µm)...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Carmen Martinez-Valenzuela, Fernanda Balderrama Soto, Stefan M Waliszewski, Enrique Meza, Sandra Gómez Arroyo, Luis Daniel Ortega Martínez, Eliakym Arambula Meraz, Mario Caba
Gasoline is a blend of organic compounds used in internal combustion engines. Gasoline-station attendants are exposed to gasoline vapors, which pose a potentially mutagenic risk. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, exposure to gasoline and engine exhaust is possibly carcinogenic to humans. We determined the frequency of micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities, such as pyknotic nuclei, chromatin condensation, cells with nuclear buds, karyolytic cells, karyorrhexis, and binucleated cells in buccal mucosal smears of 60 gasoline-station attendants and 60 unexposed controls...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xie Dejian, Shi Minglei, Zhang Yan, Wang Tianyi, Shen Wenlong, Ye Bingyu, Li Ping, He Chao, Zhang Xiangyuan, Zhao Zhihu
The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is the main insulator protein described in vertebrates. It plays fundamental roles during diverse cellular processes. CTCF gene knockout mice led to death during embryonic development. To further explore the functions of CTCF, we employed a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering strategy to in-frame insert the mitosis-special degradation domain (MD) of cyclin B into the upstream open reading frame of CTCF gene. Fusion protein is designed to degrade during mitosis leaded by MD. As a control group, mutation of a single arginine (R42A) within the destruction box inactivates the MD leading to constitutive expression of MD(*)-CTCF...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Cheng Zhong, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Xiao Xu, Shu-Sen Zheng
BACKGROUND: Because of an increasing discrepancy between the number of potential liver graft recipients and the number of organs available, scientists are trying to create artificial liver to mimic normal liver function and therefore, to support the patient's liver when in dysfunction. 3D printing technique meets this purpose. The present study was to test the feasibility of 3D hydrogel scaffolds for liver engineering. METHODS: We fabricated 3D hydrogel scaffolds with a bioprinter...
October 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Yeji Kim, Julie C Liu
Peripheral artery disease often requires treatments with vascular grafts for vessel reconstruction. Endothelialization of the vascular grafts is important to achieve long-term patency because endothelial cells regulate thrombosis, inflammation, and growth of smooth muscle cells. One potential source of endothelial cells is human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which can be routinely differentiated towards the endothelial lineage using exogenous growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Christoph Meinert, Karsten Schrobback, Peter A Levett, Cameron Lutton, Robert L Sah, Travis J Klein
Biological tissues at articulating surfaces, such as articular cartilage, typically have remarkable low-friction properties that limit tissue shear during movement. However, these frictional properties change with trauma, aging, and disease, resulting in an altered mechanical state within the tissues. Yet, it remains unclear how these surface changes affect the behaviour of embedded cells when the tissue is mechanically loaded. Here, we developed a cytocompatible, bilayered hydrogel system that permits control of surface frictional properties without affecting other bulk physicochemical characteristics such as compressive modulus, mass swelling ratio, and water content...
October 8, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Chun-Chieh Huang, Raghuvaran Narayanan, Satish Alapati, Sriram Ravindran
Achieving and maintaining safe and reliable lineage specific differentiation of stem cells is important for clinical translation of tissue engineering strategies. In an effort to circumvent the multitude of problems arising from the usage of growth factors and growth factor delivery systems, we have explored the use of exosomes as biomimetic tools to induce stem cell differentiation. Working on the hypothesis that cell-type specific exosomes can trigger lineage-specific differentiation of stem cells, we have evaluated the potential of exosomes derived from dental pulp cells cultured on under growth and odontogenic differentiation conditions to induce odontogenic differentiation of naïve human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and human bone marrow derived stromal cells (HMSCs) in vitro and in vivo...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Jezamine Lim, Zainul Rashid Mohamad Razi, Jiaxian Law, Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Ruszymah Binti Haji Idrus, Min Hwei Ng
BACKGROUND AIMS: Human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hWJMSCs) are possibly the most suitable allogeneic cell source for stromal cell therapy and tissue engineering applications because of their hypo-immunogenic and non-tumorigenic properties, easy availability and minimal ethical concerns. Furthermore, hWJMSCs possess unique properties of both adult mesenchymal stromal cells and embryonic stromal cells. The human umbilical cord (UC) is approximately 50-60 cm long and the existing studies in the literature have not provided information on which segment of the UC was studied...
October 7, 2016: Cytotherapy
Leylagul Kaynar, Koray Demir, Esra Ermiş Turak, Çiğdem Pala Öztürk, Gökmen Zararsız, Zeynep Burçin Gönen, Selma Gökahmetoğlu, Serdar Şıvgın, Bülent Eser, Yavuz Köker, Musa Solmaz, Ali Ünal, Mustafa Çetin
INTRODUCTION: The use of αβ+ T-cell-depleted grafts is a novel approach to prevent graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) in patients undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PATIENT AND METHOD: Thirty-four patients with acute leukemia and lacking a match donor were treated with αβ T-cell-depleted allografts from haploidentical family donors. A total of 24 patients had acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 10 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
October 10, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Mei-Chi Chang, Hsiao-Hua Chang, Po-Shuan Lin, Yu-An Huang, Chiu-Po Chan, Yi-Ling Tsai, Shen-Yang Lee, Po-Yuan Jeng, Han-Yueh Kuo, Sin-Yuet Yeung, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in the pulpal repair and dentinogenesis. Plasminogen activation (PA) system regulates extracellular matrix turnover. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on PA system of dental pulp cells and its signaling pathways. Dental pulp cells were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1. MTT assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) were used to detect the effect of TGF-β1 on cell viability, mRNA and protein expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as well as their secretion...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Miguel A Soler, Ario de Marco, Sara Fortuna
Nanobodies (VHHs) have proved to be valuable substitutes of conventional antibodies for molecular recognition. Their small size represents a precious advantage for rational mutagenesis based on modelling. Here we address the problem of predicting how Camelidae nanobody sequences can tolerate mutations by developing a simulation protocol based on all-atom molecular dynamics and whole-molecule docking. The method was tested on two sets of nanobodies characterized experimentally for their biophysical features...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
David W Howell, Camille L Duran, Shang-Pu Tsai, Sarah E Bondos, Kayla J Bayless
Successful design of tissue engineering scaffolds must include the ability to stimulate vascular development by incorporating angiogenic growth factors. Current approaches can allow diffusion of growth factors, incorporate active factors randomly, or can leave residual toxins. We addressed these problems by genetically fusing the gene encoding Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) with the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene to produce fusion proteins capable of self-assembly into materials. We demonstrate that VEGF-Ubx materials enhance human endothelial cell migration, prolong cell survival, and dose-dependently activate the VEGF signaling pathway...
October 7, 2016: Biomacromolecules
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