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Brain Tumour and Epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857123/low-grade-epilepsy-associated-neuroepithelial-tumours-the-2016-who-classification
#1
REVIEW
Ingmar Blümcke, Eleonora Aronica, Albert Becker, David Capper, Roland Coras, Mrinalini Honavar, Thomas S Jacques, Katja Kobow, Hajime Miyata, Angelika Mühlebner, José Pimentel, Figen Söylemezoğlu, Maria Thom
Rapid developments in molecular genetic technology and research have swiftly advanced our understanding of neuro-oncology. As a consequence, the WHO invited their expert panels to revise the current classification system of brain tumours and to introduce, for the first time, a molecular genetic approach for selected tumour entities, thus setting a new gold standard in histopathology. The revised 5th edition of the 'blue book' was released in May 2016 and will have a major impact in stratifying diagnosis and treatment...
November 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806448/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-clinical-practice-state-of-the-art-and-science
#2
Christen D Barras, Hamed Asadi, Torsten Baldeweg, Laura Mancini, Tarek A Yousry, Sotirios Bisdas
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a mainstream neuroimaging modality in the assessment of patients being evaluated for brain tumour and epilepsy surgeries. Thus, it is important for doctors in primary care settings to be well acquainted with the present and potential future applications, as well as limitations, of this modality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to introduce the theoretical principles and state-of-the-art clinical applications of fMRI in brain tumour and epilepsy surgery, with a focus on the implications for clinical primary care...
November 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667783/comparison-of-feline-brain-anatomy-in-0-25-and-3%C3%A2-tesla-magnetic-resonance-images
#3
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
September 25, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506282/epilepsy-associated-tumours-what-epileptologists-should-know-about-neuropathology-terminology-and-classification-systems
#4
Hans Holthausen, Ingmar Blümcke
Brain tumours are an ever-challenging issue in neurology and related medical disciplines. This applies in particular to brain tumours associated with childhood-onset epilepsies, in which seizures are the presenting and only neurological symptom, as our current understanding of the biology and clinical behaviour of an individual tumour is far from being evidence-based. Prospective and randomized clinical trials are lacking in the field of epilepsy-associated tumours and a review of the current literature evokes more questions than provides answers...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340022/the-mtor-signalling-cascade-paving-new-roads-to-cure-neurological-disease
#5
REVIEW
Peter B Crino
Defining the multiple roles of the mechanistic (formerly 'mammalian') target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway in neurological diseases has been an exciting and rapidly evolving story of bench-to-bedside translational research that has spanned gene mutation discovery, functional experimental validation of mutations, pharmacological pathway manipulation, and clinical trials. Alterations in the dual contributions of mTOR - regulation of cell growth and proliferation, as well as autophagy and cell death - have been found in developmental brain malformations, epilepsy, autism and intellectual disability, hypoxic-ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries, brain tumours, and neurodegenerative disorders...
July 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229765/the-value-of-preoperative-functional-cortical-mapping-using-navigated-tms
#6
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Thomas Picht
The surgical removal of brain tumours in so-called eloquent regions is frequently associated with a high risk of causing disabling postoperative deficits. Among the preoperative techniques proposed to help neurosurgical planning and procedure, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is increasingly performed. A high level of evidence is now available in the literature regarding the anatomical and functional accuracy of this mapping technique. This article presents the principles and facts demonstrating the value of using nTMS in clinical practice to preserve motor or language functions from deleterious lesions secondary to brain tumour resection or epilepsy surgery...
April 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157245/clinical-characteristics-and-late-effects-in-cns-tumours-of-childhood-do-not-forget-long-term-follow-up-of-the-low-grade-tumours
#7
Christoffer Ehrstedt, Ingela Kristiansen, Gunnar Ahlsten, Olivera Casar-Borota, Margareta Dahl, Sylwia Libard, Bo Strömberg
AIM: To investigate clinical characteristics and late effects of CNS tumours in childhood with a special focus on low-grade tumours, especially low-grade astrocytoma and glioneuronal tumours. METHODS: A retrospective population based study was performed at Uppsala University Children's Hospital, a tertiary referral centre for children with CNS tumours. Patients were identified from the National Brain Tumour Registry and the National Epilepsy Surgery Registry. Hospital medical records were analysed for patients with a follow up of ≥5 years after diagnosis...
December 0: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27153747/burden-of-neurological-conditions-in-canada
#8
J Gaskin, J Gomes, S Darshan, D Krewski
Neurological conditions are among the leading causes of disability in the Canadian population and are associated with a large public health burden. An increase in life expectancy and a declining birth rate has resulted in an aging Canadian population, and the proportion of age-adjusted mortality due to non-communicable diseases has been steadily increasing. These conditions are frequently associated with chronic disability and an increasing burden of care for patients, their families and caregivers. The National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions (NPHSNC) aims to improve knowledge about neurological conditions and their impacts on individuals, their families, caregivers and health care system...
May 3, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101792/focused-ultrasound-as-a-non-invasive-intervention-for-neurological-disease-a-review
#9
Rory J Piper, Mark A Hughes, Carmel M Moran, Jothy Kandasamy
Focused ultrasound (FUS) is an incision-less intervention that is a Food and Drug Association (FDA) approved surgical treatment for various pathologies including uterine fibroids and bone metastases. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging thermometry and ability to use FUS across the intact calvarium have re-opened interest in the use of FUS in the treatment of neurological diseases. FUS currently has a European CE mark for use in movement disorders. However, it shows potential in the treatment of other neuropathologies including tumours and as a lesional tool in epilepsy...
June 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965673/seizures-and-gliomas-towards-a-single-therapeutic-approach
#10
REVIEW
Gilles Huberfeld, Charles J Vecht
Epilepsy often develops in patients with glioma, and the two conditions share common pathogenic mechanisms. Altered expression of glutamate transporters, including the cystine-glutamate transporter (xCT) system, increases concentrations of extracellular glutamate, which contribute to epileptic discharge, tumour proliferation and peripheral excitotoxicity. Furthermore, mutation of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene in low-grade gliomas causes production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate, a steric analogue of glutamate...
April 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26849906/the-role-of-mtor-signalling-in-neurogenesis-insights-from-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#11
REVIEW
Andrew R Tee, Julian R Sampson, Deb K Pal, Joseph M Bateman
Understanding the development and function of the nervous system is one of the foremost aims of current biomedical research. The nervous system is generated during a relatively short period of intense neurogenesis that is orchestrated by a number of key molecular signalling pathways. Even subtle defects in the activity of these molecules can have serious repercussions resulting in neurological, neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive problems including epilepsy, intellectual disability and autism. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a monogenic disease characterised by these problems and by the formation of benign tumours in multiple organs, including the brain...
April 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26467645/symptomatic-diagnosis-of-cancer-of-the-brain-and-central-nervous-system-in-primary-care-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Mia Schmidt-Hansen, Sabine Berendse, William Hamilton
BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review of diagnostic studies of symptomatic patients in primary care to quantify the risk of brain/central nervous system (CNS) cancer in patients presenting in primary care with symptoms that may indicate brain/CNS cancer. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of brain/CNS cancer in symptomatic patients presenting in primary care. METHODS: We searched Medline, Premedline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and ISI Proceedings (1980 to August 2014) and PsychInfo (1980 to February 2013) for diagnostic studies of symptomatic adult patients in primary care...
December 2015: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26423537/infections-inflammation-and-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Annamaria Vezzani, Robert S Fujinami, H Steve White, Pierre-Marie Preux, Ingmar Blümcke, Josemir W Sander, Wolfgang Löscher
Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled "epilepsy." Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood...
February 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26190012/anti-ma2-encephalitis-in-a-2-year-old-child-a-newly-diagnosed-case-and-literature-review
#14
Saloua Mrabet, Nedia Ben Achour, Ichraf Kraoua, Hanène Benrhouma, Hedia Klaa, Aida Rouissi, Malika Ben Ahmed, Ilhem Ben Youssef Turki
BACKGROUND: Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis is a rare paraneoplastic neurological syndrome characterized by isolated or combined limbic, diencephalic, or brainstem dysfunction. It is rarely reported in children. CASE STUDY: We describe the clinical data of a 2-year-old girl referred to our department for refractory focal seizures associated with fever, followed by behavioural changes, speech disturbances and confusional episodes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed left temporoparietal brain involvement...
November 2015: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26095098/seizure-outcomes-in-children-with-epilepsy-after-resective-brain-surgery
#15
Lakshmi Nagarajan, Michael Lee, Linda Palumbo, Sharon Lee, Snehal Shah, Peter Walsh, Patricia Cannell, Soumya Ghosh
PURPOSE: To assess the role of resective brain surgery in childhood epilepsy. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analysed the seizure outcomes in 55 children with epilepsy who had resective brain surgery between 1997 and 2012, at our centre. The children were 1.5-18 years at the time of surgery; their seizure onset was between 0.2 andto 15 years of age. 48 had refractory epilepsy. One child died of tumour progression. Follow-up duration in the survivors ranged from 2 to -16 years (mean: 9)...
September 2015: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26092434/animal-models-of-tumour-associated-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Timo Kirschstein, Rüdiger Köhling
Brain tumours cause a sizeable proportion of epilepsies in adulthood, and actually can be etiologically responsible also for childhood epilepsies. Conversely, seizures are often first clinical signs of a brain tumour. Nevertheless, several issues of brain-tumour associated seizures and epilepsies are far from understood, or clarified regarding clinical consensus. These include both the specific mechanisms of epileptogenesis related to different tumour types, the possible relationship between malignancy and seizure emergence, the interaction between tumour mass and surrounding neuronal networks, and - not least - the best treatment options depending on different tumour types...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26002272/the-start-and-development-of-epilepsy-surgery-in-europe-a-historical-review
#17
Olaf E M G Schijns, Govert Hoogland, Pieter L Kubben, Peter J Koehler
Epilepsy has not always been considered a brain disease, but was believed to be a demonic possession in the past. Therefore, trepanation was done not only for medical but also for religious or spiritual reasons, originating in the Neolithic period (3000 BC). The earliest documentation of trepanation for epilepsy is found in the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus and consisted mainly of just skull surgery. The transition from skull surgery to brain surgery took place in the middle of the nineteenth century when the insight of epilepsy as a cortical disorder of the brain emerged...
July 2015: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25912704/-neurological-appraisal-of-children-and-adolescents-with-psychotic-symptoms
#18
REVIEW
Miguel Tomás-Vila
INTRODUCTION: Psychotic manifestations in childhood are not infrequent, yet the existing literature dealing with the neurological appraisal of children and adolescents with a clinical picture of psychosis is very scant. AIM: To conduct a non-systematic review of the literature that provides an answer to these three questions: When must a neurological appraisal be performed in a child with psychotic traits? What medical conditions can include signs and symptoms of psychosis in their development? And, what diagnostic procedure should be followed? DEVELOPMENT: The diseases that can present psychotic symptoms at onset or during their course are reviewed and grouped by pathologies: inborn errors of metabolism, genetic diseases, autoimmune and infectious diseases, malformations of the central nervous system, epilepsy, vascular pathology, rheumatologic processes, brain tumours, and psychoactive substances and drugs...
May 1, 2015: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25802501/transient-global-amnesia-and-brain-tumour-chance-concurrence-or-aetiological-association-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#19
Phil Milburn-McNulty, Andrew J Larner
We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic criteria for TGA. Hence, the concurrence of brain tumour and TGA is very rare and of doubtful aetiological relevance...
January 2015: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25751136/tlr9-signalling-in-microglia-attenuates-seizure-induced-aberrant-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-hippocampus
#20
Taito Matsuda, Naoya Murao, Yuki Katano, Berry Juliandi, Jun Kohyama, Shizuo Akira, Taro Kawai, Kinichi Nakashima
Pathological conditions such as epilepsy cause misregulation of adult neural stem/progenitor populations in the adult hippocampus in mice, and the resulting abnormal neurogenesis leads to impairment in learning and memory. However, how animals cope with abnormal neurogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that microglia in the mouse hippocampus attenuate convulsive seizure-mediated aberrant neurogenesis through the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), an innate immune sensor known to recognize microbial DNA and trigger inflammatory responses...
March 9, 2015: Nature Communications
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