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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222788/rat-pancreatic-beta-cell-culture
#1
Myrian Velasco, Carlos Larqué, Carlos Manlio Díaz-García, Carmen Sanchez-Soto, Marcia Hiriart
In this chapter, we describe the methods used to culture mainly rat pancreatic beta cells. We consider necessary to use this approach to get more information about physiological, biophysical, and molecular biology characteristics of primary beta cells. Most of the literature published has been developed in murine and human beta-cell lines. However, there are many differences between tumoral cell lines and native cells because, in contrast to cell lines, primary cells do not divide. Moreover, cell lines can be in various stages of the cell cycle and thus have a different sensitivity to glucose, compared to primary cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222447/structural-abnormalities-in-islets-from-very-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-may-contribute-to-cystic-fibrosis-related-diabetes
#2
Marika Bogdani, Scott M Blackman, Cecilia Ridaura, Jean-Pierre Bellocq, Alvin C Powers, Lydia Aguilar-Bryan
Cystic fibrosis (CF)-related diabetes (CFRD) is thought to result from beta-cell injury due in part to pancreas exocrine damage and lipofibrosis. CFRD pancreata exhibit reduced islet density and altered cellular composition. To investigate a possible etiology, we tested the hypothesis that such changes are present in CF pancreata before the development of lipofibrosis. We evaluated pancreas and islet morphology in tissues from very young CF children (<4 years of age), and adult patients with CF and CFRD...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220505/metabolic-characteristics-of-recently-diagnosed-adult-onset-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Oana P Zaharia, Pavel Bobrov, Klaus Strassburger, Kálmán Bódis, Yanislava Karusheva, Michaela Scholz, Daniel F Markgraf, Volker Burkart, Nanette C Schloot, Karsten Müssig, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden
Context and Objective: Among patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diabetes often remains undetected. Metabolic features of these patients are insufficiently characterized at present. Design, Setting and Patients: This study compared age- and sex-matched adult (41-62 years) humans with recent-onset diabetes: patients positive for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and/or cytoplasmic islet-cell antigen with an insulin-free period of >6 months (ab+/ins-; previously termed latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, LADA), type 1 (ab+/ins+), type 2 diabetes (ab-/ins-) and glucose-tolerant humans (controls) of the German Diabetes Study (n=41/group)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218834/comparative-evaluation-of-simple-indices-using-a-single-fasting-blood-sample-to-estimate-beta-cell-function-after-islet-transplantation
#4
Justyna E Gołębiewska, Julia Solomina, Celeste Thomas, Mark Kijek, Piotr Bachul, Lindsay Basto, Karolina Golab, Ling-Jia Wang, Natalie Fillman, Martin Tibudan, Kamil Cieply, Luis Philipson, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień, J Michael Millis, John Fung, Piotr Witkowski
Six single fasting blood sample based indices: Secretory Unit of Islet Transplant Objects (SUITO), Transplant Estimated Function (TEF), Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA)2-B%, C-peptide/glucose ratio (CP/G), C-peptide/glucose creatinine ratio (CP/GCr) and BETA-2 score, were compared against commonly used 90-min mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) serum glucose and beta-score to assess which of them best recognizes the state of acceptable blood glucose control without insulin supplementation after islet allotransplantation (ITx)...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218794/examining-the-potential-for-porcine-derived-islet-cells-to-harbour-viral-pathogens
#5
Claire Crossan, Zoe O'Hara, Nizar Mourad, Pierre Gianello, Linda Scobie
With an onus on safety in the potential use of porcine islet cells as a treatment for diabetes, the use of animals lacking exogenous pathogens is clearly important and multilevel screening strategies have been presented on testing animals and the product. In this study, we wished to investigate whether islet cells indeed harboured the same viral pathogens of concern in the source animal. PMBC and islet cells from both adult and neonatal source animals were directly compared and tested for PCMV, PLHV, PCV2, PPV and HEV using both molecular and serological assays...
December 7, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218485/apical-membrane-alterations-in-non-intestinal-organs-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#6
Cameron Schlegel, Victoria G Weis, Byron C Knowles, Lynne A Lapierre, Martin G Martin, Paul Dickman, James R Goldenring, Mitchell D Shub
OBJECTIVES: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of neonatal diarrhea, caused mainly by mutations in MYO5B. Inactivating mutations in MYO5B causes depolarization of enterocytes in the small intestine, which gives rise to chronic, unremitting secretory diarrhea. While the pathology of the small intestine in MVID patients is well described, little is known about extraintestinal effects of MYO5B mutation. METHODS: We examined stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, and kidney in Navajo MVID patients, who share a single homozygous MYO5B-P660L (1979C>T p...
December 7, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218110/downregulation-of-cathepsin-g-reduces-the-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-in-murine-autoimmune-diabetes
#7
Fang Zou, Xiaoyang Lai, Jing Li, Shuihong Lei, Lei Hu
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease due to progressive injury of islet cells mediated by T lymphocytes (T cells). Our previous studies have shown that only cathepsin G (CatG), not other proteases, is involved in the antigen presentation of proinsulin, and if the presentation is inhibited, the activation of CD4+ T cells induced by proinsulin is alleviated in T1DM patients, and CatG-specific inhibitor reduces the activation of CD4+ cells induced by proinsulin in T1DM patients. Therefore, we hypothesize that CatG may play an important role in the activation of CD4+ T cells in T1DM...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218028/the-folate-cycle-as-a-cause-of-natural-killer-cell-dysfunction-and-viral-etiology-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Allison L Bayer, Christopher A Fraker
The folate pathway is critical to proper cellular function and metabolism. It is responsible for multiple functions, including energy (ATP) production, methylation reactions for DNA and protein synthesis and the production of immunomodulatory molecules, inosine and adenosine. These play an important role in immune signaling and cytotoxicity. Herein, we hypothesize that defects in the folate pathway in genetically susceptible individuals could lead to immune dysfunction, permissive environments for chronic cyclical latent/lytic viral infection, and, ultimately, the development of unchecked autoimmune responses to infected tissue, in this case islet beta cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217654/the-p300-and-cbp-transcriptional-coactivators-are-required-for-beta-cell-and-alpha-cell-proliferation
#9
Chi Kin Wong, Adam K Wade-Vallance, Dan S Luciani, Paul K Brindle, Francis C Lynn, William T Gibson
p300 (EP300) and CBP (CREBBP) are transcriptional coactivators with histone acetyltransferase activity. Various beta cell transcription factors can recruit p300/CBP, and thus the coactivators could be important for beta cell function and health in vivo We hypothesized that p300/CBP contribute to the development and proper function of pancreatic islets. To test this, we bred and studied mice lacking p300/CBP in their islets. Mice lacking either p300 or CBP in islets developed glucose intolerance attributable to impaired insulin secretion, together with reduced alpha and beta cell area and islet insulin content...
December 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215945/the-adverse-effects-of-chronic-low-dose-exposure-to-nonylphenol-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-high-sucrose-high-fat-diet-treated-rats
#10
Jie Yu, Jin Yang, Ya Luo, Yang Mengxue, Wenmei Li, Yu Yang, Liting He, Jie Xu
OBJECTIVES: Although it has been shown that exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) has been implicated as a potential risk factor for metabolic disease, information on adverse effect of chronic low-dose exposure to nonylphenol (NP), on the development and progress of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is scarce. NP, as an EDC, is a ubiquitous degradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPE) that is primarily used in cleaning and industrial processes. METHOD: Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 8 groups (n = 10 per group): rats fed a normal-diet (ND) as the control (C-ND); rats fed a normal diet and were gavaged with NP at a dose level of 0...
December 7, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215800/microencapsulation-for-the-cell-therapy-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-the-interplay-between-common-beliefs-prejudices-and-real-progress
#11
EDITORIAL
Riccardo Calafiore
When Anthony Sun (1) showed, for the first time in 1980, that intraperitoneal graft of allogeneic rat pancreatic islet containing alginate-poly-L-lysine microcapsules, reversed hyperglycemia in not immunosuppressed diabetic rats, a new era for the cell therapy of diabetes had started. As a unique and unmatched result, years later, Sun replied success in diabetic primates, that upon intraperitoneal transplant of microencapsulated porcine islets, showed long-term remission of hyperglycemia. However, at that time, the international academic and scientific community greeted with skepticism such a revolutionary approach...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215791/protective-effects-of-carbonyl-iron-against-multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rodents
#12
Milica Vujicic, Tamara Saksida, Marija Mostarica Stojkovic, Neda Djedovic, Ivana Stojanovic, Stanislava Stosic-Grujicic
Particulate adjuvants have shown increasing promise as effective, safe and durable agents for the stimulation of immunity, or alternatively, the suppression of autoimmunity. Here we examined the potential of the adjuvant carbonyl iron (CI) for the modulation of organ-specific autoimmune disease - type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) that initiates beta cell death and triggers immune cell infiltration into the pancreatic islets. The results of this study indicate that the single in vivo application of CI to MLDS-treated DA rats, CBA/H mice, or C57BL/6 mice successfully counteracted the development of insulitis and hyperglycemia...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214049/latent-autoimmune-diabetes-of-adulthood-case-report
#13
Cristen P Page, Brian Fitzgerald, Emily M Hawes
Background: Primary care clinicians will see a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes in adult patients, and the diagnosis and management of an initial presentation of type 1 diabetes can pose challenges to clinicians who see it less frequently. Symptoms of hyperglycemia and risk of ketoacidosis may be missed. Further, endocrine autoimmune disease can run together in patients and families. Case presentation: A 49-year-old Caucasian female with history of pituitary adenoma and Graves' disease with history of thyroid ablation presented in the outpatient setting due to hand tingling of her right middle finger that was worse in the mornings and improved throughout the day...
2017: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213078/functional-status-of-microvascular-vasomotion-is-impaired-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#14
Mingming Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bing Wang, Qingbin Wu, Bingwei Li, Ailing Li, Honggang Zhang, Ruijuan Xiu
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that microcirculation plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the current study, we demonstrated that pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) lost the ability to regulate blood flow perfusion and exhibited a lower microvascular blood perfusion pattern which was negative correlated with blood glucose level. SHRs administrated with insulin revealed an improvement of pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion and blood perfusion pattern...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210476/delayed-revascularization-of-islets-after-transplantation-by-il-6-blockade-in-pig-to-non-human-primate-islet-xenotransplantation-model
#15
Byoung-Hoon Min, Jun-Seop Shin, Jong-Min Kim, Seong-Jun Kang, Hyun-Je Kim, Il-Hee Yoon, Su-Kyoung Park, Ji-Won Choi, Min-Suk Lee, Chung-Gyu Park
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet transplantation is currently proven as a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes patients with labile glycemic control and severe hypoglycemia unawareness. Upon islet transplantation, revascularization is essential for proper functioning of the transplanted islets. As IL-6 is important for endothelial cell survival and systemic inflammation related to xenograft, the effect of IL-6 receptor antagonist, tocilizumab, on revascularization of the transplanted islets was examined in pig to non-human primate islet xenotransplantation model...
December 6, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209740/early-deficits-in-insulin-secretion-beta-cell-mass-and-islet-blood-perfusion-precede-onset-of-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes-in-biobreeding-rats
#16
Anya Medina, Saba Parween, Sara Ullsten, Neelanjan Vishnu, Yuk Ting Siu, My Quach, Hedvig Bennet, Alexander Balhuizen, Lina Åkesson, Nils Wierup, Per Ola Carlsson, Ulf Ahlgren, Åke Lernmark, Malin Fex
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Genetic studies show coupling of genes affecting beta cell function to type 1 diabetes, but hitherto no studies on whether beta cell dysfunction could precede insulitis and clinical onset of type 1 diabetes are available. METHODS: We used 40-day-old BioBreeding (BB) DRLyp/Lyp rats (a model of spontaneous autoimmune type 1 diabetes) and diabetes-resistant DRLyp/+ and DR+/+ littermates (controls) to investigate beta cell function in vivo, and insulin and glucagon secretion in vitro...
December 6, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208957/neuronal-signals-regulate-obesity-induced-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-by-foxm1-dependent-mechanism
#17
Junpei Yamamoto, Junta Imai, Tomohito Izumi, Hironori Takahashi, Yohei Kawana, Kei Takahashi, Shinjiro Kodama, Keizo Kaneko, Junhong Gao, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Tomoichiro Asano, Vladimir V Kalinichenko, Etsuo A Susaki, Makoto Kanzaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Yasushi Ishigaki, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri
Under insulin-resistant conditions such as obesity, pancreatic β-cells proliferate to prevent blood glucose elevations. A liver-brain-pancreas neuronal relay plays an important role in this process. Here, we show the molecular mechanism underlying this compensatory β-cell proliferation. We identify FoxM1 activation in islets from neuronal relay-stimulated mice. Blockade of this relay, including vagotomy, inhibits obesity-induced activation of the β-cell FoxM1 pathway and suppresses β-cell expansion. Inducible β-cell-specific FoxM1 deficiency also blocks compensatory β-cell proliferation...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208633/in-vivo-visualization-of-beta-cells-by-targeting-of-gpr44
#18
Olof Eriksson, Peter Johnström, Zsolt Cselenyi, Mahabuba Jahan, Ram K Selvaraju, Marianne Jensen-Waern, Akihiro Takano, Maria Sörhede Winzell, Christer Halldin, Stanko Skrtic, Olle Korsgren
GPR44 expression has recently been described as highly beta cell selective in the human pancreas and constitutes a tentative surrogate imaging biomarker in diabetes.A radiolabeled small molecule GPR44 antagonist, [11C]AZ12204657, was evaluated for visualization of beta cells in pigs and non-human primates by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) as well as in immunodeficient mice transplanted with human islets under the kidney capsule. In vitro autoradiography of human and animal pancreatic sections from non-diabetic and diabetic subjects, in combination with insulin staining, was performed to assess beta cell selectivity of the radiotracer...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208420/the-inhibitor-of-connexin-cx36-channels-mefloquine-inhibits-voltage-dependent-ca2-channels-and-insulin-secretion
#19
Nele Seemann, Andrea Welling, Ingo Rustenbeck
The antimalarial agent, mefloquine, inhibits the function of connexin Cx36 gap junctions and hemichannels and has thus become a tool to investigate their physiological relevance in pancreatic islets. In view of earlier reports on a KATP channel-block by mefloquine, the specificity of mefloquine as a pharmacological tool was investigated. Mouse pancreatic islets and single beta cells were used to measure membrane potential, whole cell currents, Ca2+ channel activity, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and insulin secretion...
December 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207597/inhibition-of-miro1-disturbs-mitophagy-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-interfering-insulin-release-via-irs-akt-foxo1-in-diabetes
#20
Lingling Chen, Chunyan Liu, Jianfeng Gao, Zhiwen Xie, Lawrence W C Chan, Damien J Keating, Yibin Yang, Jiazhong Sun, Fuling Zhou, Yongchang Wei, Xiuli Men, Sijun Yang
Mitochondrial function is essential to meet metabolic demand of pancreatic beta cells respond to high nutrient stress. Mitophagy is an essential component to normal pancreatic β-cell function and has been associated with β-cell failure in Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our previous studies have indicated that mitochondrial Rho (Miro) GTPase-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction under high nutrient stress leads to NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3)-dependent proinflammatory responses and subsequent insulin resistance. However, the in vivo mechanism by which Miro1 underlies mitophagy has not been identified...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
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