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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441528/phosphorylation-of-neurog3-links-endocrine-differentiation-to-the-cell-cycle-in-pancreatic-progenitors
#1
Nicole A J Krentz, Dennis van Hoof, Zhongmei Li, Akie Watanabe, Mei Tang, Cuilan Nian, Michael S German, Francis C Lynn
During pancreatic development, proliferating pancreatic progenitors activate the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3), exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into islet cells. The mechanisms that direct robust NEUROG3 expression within a subset of progenitor cells control the size of the endocrine population. Here we demonstrate that NEUROG3 is phosphorylated within the nucleus on serine 183, which catalyzes its hyperphosphorylation and proteosomal degradation. During progression through the progenitor cell cycle, NEUROG3 phosphorylation is driven by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4/6 at G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439640/the-elusive-role-of-b-lymphocytes-and-islet-autoantibodies-in-human-type-1-diabetes
#2
EDITORIAL
Stef J Bloem, Bart O Roep
The role of B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in humans is not entirely evident. These cells are presumed to be important, but this assumption is largely based on animal models of autoimmune diabetes, where compelling evidence for the contribution of both B lymphocytes and insulin-specific autoantibodies to this disease is in place. For humans, this is much less the case; the exact way in which B lymphocytes and/or autoantibodies may contribute to type 1 diabetes is not yet known but the possibilities include a pathogenic function ('fire'), or they may represent a surrogate of loss of immune tolerance to beta cells ('smoke') or, indeed, they could be a marker of an attempt at immune regulation ('ice water')...
April 24, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439257/high-resolution-recording-of-the-circadian-oscillator-in-primary-mouse-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cell-culture
#3
Volodymyr Petrenko, Yvan Gosmain, Charna Dibner
Circadian clocks have been developed in evolution as an anticipatory mechanism allowing for adaptation to the constantly changing light environment due to rotation of the Earth. This mechanism is functional in all light-sensitive organisms. There is a considerable body of evidence on the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology and metabolism. Clocks, operative in the pancreatic islets, have caught particular attention in the last years due to recent reports on their critical roles in regulation of insulin secretion and etiology of type 2 diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438776/the-immunoproteasome-is-induced-by-cytokines-and-regulates-apoptosis-in-human-islets
#4
Morten Lundh, Marco Bugliani, Tina Dahlby, Danny Hung-Chieh Chou, Bridget Wagner, Seyed Mojtaba Ghiasi, Vincenzo De Tata, Zhifei Chen, Marianne Nissen Lund, Michael J Davies, Piero Marchetti, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
In addition to degrading misfolded and damaged proteins, the proteasome regulates the fate of cells in response to stress. The role of the proteasome in pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced human beta-cell apoptosis is unknown. INS-1, INS-1E and human islets were exposed to combinations of IFNγ, IL-1β and TNFα with or without addition of small molecules. Gene expression was assessed by microarray or quantitative PCR. Proteasome activities were analyzed using luminescent assays. Protein oxidation, Western blotting and electron microscopy were used to examine mechanisms underlying cytokine-induced apoptosis...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438671/alkaline-ph-induces-irr-mediated-phosphorylation-of-irs-1-and-actin-cytoskeleton-remodeling-in-a-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#5
Igor E Deyev, Nadezhda V Popova, Oxana V Serova, Svetlana V Zhenilo, Marì Regoli, Eugenio Bertelli, Alexander G Petrenko
Secretion of mildly alkaline (pH 8.0-8.5) juice to intestines is one of the key functions of the pancreas. Recent reports indicate that the pancreatic duct system containing the alkaline juice may adjoin the endocrine cells of pancreatic islets. We have previously identified the insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) that is expressed in islets as a sensor of mildly alkaline extracellular media. In this study, we show that those islet cells that are in contact with the excretory ducts are also IRR-expressing cells...
April 21, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436940/disruption-of-spatiotemporal-hypoxic-signaling-causes-congenital-heart-disease-in-mice
#6
Xuejun Yuan, Hui Qi, Xiang Li, Fan Wu, Jian Fang, Eva Bober, Gergana Dobreva, Yonggang Zhou, Thomas Braun
Congenital heart disease (CHD) represents the most prevalent inborn anomaly. Only a minority of CHD cases are attributed to genetic causes, suggesting a major role of environmental factors. Nonphysiological hypoxia during early pregnancy induces CHD, but the underlying reasons are unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that cells in the mouse heart tube are hypoxic, while cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) expressing islet 1 (ISL1) in the secondary heart field (SHF) are normoxic. In ISL1+ CPCs, induction of hypoxic responses caused CHD by repressing Isl1 and activating NK2 homeobox 5 (Nkx2...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436697/liver-track-embolization-after-islet-cell-transplant-comparison-of-two-techniques
#7
Ron C Gaba, Kenji R Kobayashi, James T Bui, R Peter Lokken, Andrew J Lipnik, Charles E Ray, Jose Oberholzer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of microfibrillar collagen paste with those of gelatin sponge for liver track embolization after islet cell transplants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single-institution, retrospective study, 37 patients underwent 66 islet cell transplants from January 2005 through October 2015. Transplants were performed with 6-French transhepatic access, systemic anticoagulation, pretransplant and posttransplant portal venous pressure measurement, and image-guided liver track embolization with gelatin sponge (2005-2011) or microfibrillar collagen paste (2012-2015)...
May 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436095/berberine-alleviates-oxidative-stress-in-islets-of-diabetic-mice-by-inhibiting-mir-106b-expression-and-up-regulating-sirt1
#8
Dong-Liang Chen, Ke-Ya Yang
BACKGROUND: Mounting studies have indicated the role of berberine, SIRT1 and oxidative stress in diabetes, respectively. However, few studies have demonstrated their correlation and regulation function in diabetes. Therefore, the protective effect of berberine in diabetic and the underlying core mechanism were investigated in the current study. METHODS: Diabetic mice model in vivo were established. Mouse pancreatic beta-cell line NIT-1 cells were treated with 30 mM high glucose to induce diabetic condition in vitro...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435063/regulation-of-nampt-expression-by-transcriptional-coactivator-ncoa6-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#9
Jin Yoon, Kyung Jin Lee, Gyun Sik Oh, Geun Hyang Kim, Seung-Whan Kim
Nuclear receptor coactivator 6 (NCOA6) is a transcriptional coactivator and crucial for insulin secretion and glucose metabolism in pancreatic β-cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of β-cell function by NCOA6 is largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) were decreased in islets of NCOA6(+/-) mice compared with NCOA6(+/+) mice. Moreover, NCOA6 overexpression increased the levels of Nampt transcripts in the mouse pancreatic β-cell line NIT-1...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435021/the-mtorc2-pkc-pathway-sustains-compensatory-insulin-secretion-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-in-response-to-metabolic-stress
#10
Yun Xie, Canqi Cui, Aifang Nie, Yan Wang, Qicheng Ni, Yun Liu, Qinglei Yin, Hongli Zhang, Yong Li, Qidi Wang, Yanyun Gu, Guang Ning
BACKGROUND: Compensation of the pancreatic β cell functional mass in response to metabolic stress is key to the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes. The mTORC2 pathway governs fuel metabolism and β cell functional mass. It is unknown whether mTORC2 is required for regulating metabolic stress-induced β cell compensation. METHODS: We challenged four-week-old β-cell-specific Rictor (a key component of mTORC2)-knockout mice with a high fat diet (HFD) for 4weeks and measured metabolic and pancreatic morphological parameters...
April 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433710/down-regulation-of-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-expression-induces-death-of-human-annulus-fibrosus-cells-via-mitochondrial-and-death-receptor-pathways
#11
Xinghuo Wu, Kun Wang, Wenbin Hua, Shuai Li, Xianzhe Liu, Wei Liu, Yu Song, Yukun Zhang, Zengwu Shao, Cao Yang
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) exerts its biological effects by participating in the regulation of glucose metabolism and cell apoptosis. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the expression of IAPP in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue and IAPP's modulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) catabolic and anabolic genes in human AF cells. We found that the expression of IAPP, the calcitonin receptor, and receptor activity modifying protein decreased considerably in AF cells during the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD)...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433068/the-role-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-in-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion
#12
Ben Niu, Heng Su, Xue-Shan Xia, Qiu He, Yuan-Ming Xue, Xin-Ming Yan
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is one of the important physiological characteristics of islet β cells, and extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that regulates this process. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β can inhibit the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells, but the exact mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of IL-1β on GSIS in βTC-6 cells and its relation with the ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway...
May 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432571/cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-current-and-future-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Yasaman Aghazadeh, Maria Cristina Nostro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431540/prevention-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-formation-in-diabetic-rats-through-beta-cell-modulation-by-aegle-marmelos
#14
Rahman M Hafizur, Shahrukh Momin, Noor Fatima
BACKGROUND: Although the anti-diabetic activity of Aegle marmelos (AM) is known, however, its anti-glycation activity is not reported yet. In this study, we have investigated its anti-glycation activity under in vitro and in vivo conditions and determined possible mechanism(s) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Effective dose of AM (400 mg/kg) was administrated orally to diabetic rats for 42 days. Thereafter, blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c, antioxidant status, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were measured...
April 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430925/islet-endothelial-cell-friend-and-foe
#15
Wilfrid Mazier, Daniela Cota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429513/distribution-and-hormonal-characterization-of-primary-murine-l-cells-throughout-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
Kazuyo Suzuki, Kanako Iwasaki, Yuki Murata, Norio Harada, Shunsuke Yamane, Akihiro Hamasaki, Kimitaka Shibue, Erina Joo, Akiko Sankoda, Yuta Fujiwara, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Nobuya Inagaki
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells is an incretin that potentiates insulin secretion and is already applied in therapies for type 2 diabetes. However, detailed examination of L-cells throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unclear, because of difficulties in purifying scattered L-cells from other cells. In the present study, we identified characteristics of L-cells of the upper small intestine (UI), the lower small intestine (LI) and the colon using glucagon (Gcg)-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing mice that express GFP driven by the proglucagon promoter...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429491/bringing-the-human-pancreas-into-focus-new-paradigms-for-the-understanding-of-type-1-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
N G Morgan
Type 1 diabetes affects increasingly large numbers of people globally (including at least half a million children under the age of 14 years) and it remains an illness with life-long and often devastating consequences. It is surprising, therefore, that the underlying aetiology of Type 1 diabetes remains poorly understood. This is largely because the cellular and molecular processes leading to the loss of β cells in the pancreas have rarely been studied at, or soon after, the onset of disease. Where such studies have been undertaken, a number of surprises have emerged which serve to challenge conventional wisdom...
April 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428639/obestatin-stimulates-glucose-induced-insulin-secretion-through-ghrelin-receptor-ghs-r
#18
Geetali Pradhan, Chia-Shan Wu, Jong Han Lee, Preeti Kanikarla, Shaodong Guo, Vijay K Yechoor, Susan L Samson, Yuxiang Sun
Orexigenic hormone ghrelin and anorexic hormone obestatin are encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. While it is known that ghrelin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), the effect of obestatin on GSIS is unclear. Ghrelin's effect is mediated by its receptor Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R), but the physiologically relevant receptor of obestatin remains debatable. Here we have investigated the effect of obestatin on GSIS in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo, and tested whether obestatin regulates insulin secretion through GHS-R...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428043/effects-of-bone-marrow-on-the-microenvironment-of-the-human-pancreatic-islet-a-protein-profile-approach
#19
Joseph William Kim, Souriya Vang, John Luo, William Newton, Luguang Luo
Stem cells are a new therapeutic modality that may support the viability and function of human organs and tissue. Our previous studies have revealed that human allogeneic bone marrow (BM) sustains pancreatic β cell function and survival. This paper examines whether BM creates a microenvironment that supports human pancreatic islets in vitro by evaluating 107 proteins in culture media from BM, islet, and islet/bone marrow (IB) with mass spectrometry. Proteins were considered up- or down-regulated if p-values < 0...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424732/evidence-for-loss-in-identity-de-differentiation-and-trans-differentiation-of-islet-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Chad S Hunter, Roland W Stein
The two main types of diabetes mellitus have distinct etiologies, yet a similar outcome: loss of islet β-cell function that is solely responsible for the secretion of the insulin hormone to reduce elevated plasma glucose toward euglycemic levels. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has traditionally been characterized by autoimmune-mediated β-cell death leading to insulin-dependence, whereas type 2 diabetes (T2D) has hallmarks of peripheral insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and cell death. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, especially during T2D, key components of β-cell failure involves: (1) loss of cell identity, specifically proteins associated with mature cell function (e...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
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