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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470815/identification-of-mir-9-as-a-negative-factor-of-insulin-secretion-from-beta-cells
#1
Dongzhi Hu, Yi Wang, Haiyang Zhang, Dalu Kong
MicroRNA is a novel class of small noncoding RNA that has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including glucose homeostasis and diabetes mellitus. So far, a few studies have reported that miRNAs may be an important regulator in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) pathway. However, the role of miRNAs in this process remains unclear. The levels of miRNAs in mouse islets and MIN6 cells were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Concentration of insulin was determined by ELISA, and the expression of the target protein was determined with western blot assay...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470174/antidiabetic-and-protective-effects-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-arbutus-unedo-l-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-mice
#2
Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Karima Sayah, Nidal Jaradat, Faouzi Kichou, Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Badiaa Belarj, Yahia Cherrah, My El Abbes Faouzi
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is currently a major health problem and the most common chronic disease worldwide. Traditional medicinal plants remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Arbutus unedo L. has been traditionally used to manage several diseases including diabetes. This study was undertaken to contribute the validation of the traditional use of Arbutus unedoL. (Ericaceae) in the treatment of diabetes. Methods In-vitro antidiabetic effect of the A...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467850/decrease-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-and-zinc-ions-in-the-islet-periportal-circulation-stimulates-glucagon-secretion-during-hypoglycemia
#3
Tingting Yu, Zhonghua Jiang, Li Liu, Zhining Fan
The present study assessed the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from β-cells on glucose levels and glucagon secretion, and identified channels via which glucagon secretion is initiated. An in vivo experiment was performed containing three groups: Intrapancreatic artery infusion of GABA alone, GABA plus insulin or insulin alone in rats with diabetes. Rats infused with GABA and insulin were also subdivided in groups receiving additional infusion of K+ -channel activator diazoxide (DIA), K+ -channel blocker tolbutamide (TLB) and calcium channel blocker nifedipine (NIF)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467344/berberine-inhibits-glucose-oxidation-and-insulin-secretion-in-rat-islets
#4
Mengyao Bai, Yun Liu, Feiye Zhou, Yuqing Zhang, Qin Zhu, Linlin Zhang, Qi Zhang, Shushu Wang, Kecheng Zhu, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou
Glucose promotes insulin secretion primarily via its metabolism and the production of metabolic coupling factors in beta-cells. The activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor, results in a decrease in insulin secretion from beta-cells, but its mechanism remains largely unknown. Berberine, an oral anti-diabetic drug, has been shown to activate AMPK in multiple peripheral tissues. Here, we examined the effects of berberine and AMPK activation on insulin secretion and glucose oxidation in rat islets...
February 22, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464840/distribution-and-density-of-melatonin-receptors-in-human-main-pancreatic-islet-cell-types
#5
Juliane Zibolka, Ivonne Bazwinsky-Wutschke, Eckhard Mühlbauer, Elmar Peschke
Recent investigations of our group established that melatonin modulates hormone secretion of pancreatic islets via melatonin receptor types MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 and MT2 has been shown in mouse, rat and human pancreatic islets as well as in the β-, α- and δ-cell lines INS-1, αTC1.9 and QGP-1. In view of these earlier investigations, the present study was performed to analyze in detail the distribution and density of melatonin receptors on the main islet cell types in human pancreatic tissue obtained from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463575/closing-in-on-the-mechanisms-of-pulsatile-insulin-secretion
#6
Richard Bertram, Leslie S Satin, Arthur S Sherman
Insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells occurs in a pulsatile fashion, with a typical period of ∼5 min. The basis of this pulsatility in mouse islets has been investigated for more than four decades, and the various theories have been described as either qualitative or mathematical models. In many cases the models differ in their mechanisms for rhythmogenesis, as well as other less important details. In this Perspective, we describe two main classes of models: those in which oscillations in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration drive oscillations in metabolism, and those in which intrinsic metabolic oscillations drive oscillations in Ca2+ concentration and electrical activity...
March 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460641/novel-blood-glucose-lowering-therapies-for-managing-type-1-diabetes-in-paediatric-patients
#7
Anda Mihaela Naciu, Paolo Pozzilli
Therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) is mainly restricted to insulin treatment. The management of paediatric patients with T1D should tackle not only glucose control, but also insulin resistance, beta-cell preservation, quality of life and cardiovascular disease risk factors, which are increasingly recognized to occur in adolescents with T1D. Areas covered: This review examines the recently published literature from PubMed on non-insulin agents for the management of T1D in paediatric patients. Expert opinion: Few paediatric patients with T1D are achieving their metabolic targets...
February 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460298/inverse-association-of-insulin-antibody-levels-with-insulin-sensitivity-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#8
V Burkart, K Strassburger, F Zivehe, D Markgraf, C Herder, K Müssig, J Szendroedi, N Schloot, M Roden
AIMS: Insulin resistance may contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune-mediated diabetes. Antibodies against β-cell-associated molecules, comprising islet cell antigen (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and insulin, characterize the autoimmune process. Because the link between insulin resistance and autoimmunity might be relevant for disease progression and treatment, we hypothesized that insulin resistance associates positively with β-cell-directed antibodies in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes...
February 20, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459675/c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-1-defective-cd4-cd25-foxp3-cells-prolong-islet-allograft-survival-in-diabetic-mice
#9
Deepak Tripathi, Satyanarayana S Cheekatla, Padmaja Paidipally, Rajesh Kumar Radhakrishnan, Elwyn Welch, Ramya Sivangala Thandi, Amy R Tvinnereim, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells (Tregs) inhibit inflammatory immune responses to allografts. Here, we found that co-transplantation of allogeneic pancreatic islets with Tregs that are defective in c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling prolongs islet allograft survival in the liver parenchyma of chemically induced diabetic mice (CDM). Adoptively transferred JNK1-/- but not wild-type (WT) Tregs survive longer in the liver parenchyma of CDM. JNK1-/- Tregs are resistant to apoptosis and express anti-apoptotic molecules...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459424/the-role-of-adherens-junction-proteins-in-the-regulation-of-insulin-secretion
#10
Waruni C Dissanayake, Brie Sorrenson, Peter R Shepherd
In healthy individuals any rise in blood glucose levels is rapidly countered by the release of insulin from the β-cells of the pancreas which in turn promotes the uptake and storage of the glucose in peripheral tissues. The β-cells possess exquisite mechansims regulating the secretion of insulin to ensure that the correct amount of insulin is released. These mechanisms involve tight control of the movement of insulin containing secretory vesicles within the β-cells, initially preventing most vesicles being able to move to the plasma membrane...
February 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457786/intracellular-lipid-metabolism-impairs-%C3%AE-cell-compensation-during-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Risheng Ye, Ruth Gordillo, Mengle Shao, Toshiharu Onodera, Zhe Chen, Shiuhwei Chen, Xiaoli Lin, Jeffrey A SoRelle, Xiaohong Li, Miao Tang, Mark P Keller, Regina Kuliawat, Alan D Attie, Rana K Gupta, William L Holland, Bruce Beutler, Joachim Herz, Philipp E Scherer
The compensatory proliferation of insulin-producing β cells is critical to maintaining glucose homeostasis at the early stage of type 2 diabetes. Failure of β cells to proliferate results in hyperglycemia and insulin dependence in patients. To understand the effect of the interplay between β cell compensation and lipid metabolism upon obesity and peripheral insulin resistance, we eliminated LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a pleiotropic mediator of cholesterol, insulin, energy metabolism, and other cellular processes, in β cells...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454490/subchronic-exposure-to-acrylamide-leads-to-pancreatic-islet-remodeling-determined-by-alpha-cell-expansion-and-beta-cell-mass-reduction-in-adult-rats
#12
Milena Stošić, Milica Matavulj, Jelena Marković
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic substance, used to synthesize polymers for industrial and laboratory processes. Also, AA is a food contaminant formed during the high temperature preparation of carbohydrate-rich food. The main subject of this study was to examine effects of subchronic AA treatment on the islets of Langerhans of adult rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of glucagon and insulin expression and stereological analyses of pancreatic alpha and beta cells were performed...
February 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453879/defining-outcomes-for-%C3%AE-cell-replacement-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-a-consensus-report-on-the-igls-criteria-from-the-ipita-epita-opinion-leaders-workshop
#13
REVIEW
Michael R Rickels, Peter G Stock, Eelco J P de Koning, Lorenzo Piemonti, Johann Pratschke, Rodolfo Alejandro, Melena D Bellin, Thierry Berney, Pratik Choudhary, Paul R Johnson, Raja Kandaswamy, Thomas W H Kay, Bart Keymeulen, Yogish C Kudva, Esther Latres, Robert M Langer, Roger Lehmann, Barbara Ludwig, James F Markmann, Marjana Marinac, Jon S Odorico, François Pattou, Peter A Senior, James A M Shaw, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Steven White
β-cell replacement therapy, available currently as pancreas or islet transplantation, has developed without a clear definition of graft functional and clinical outcomes. The International Pancreas & Islet Transplant Association (IPITA) and European Pancreas & Islet Transplantation Association (EPITA) held a workshop to develop consensus for an IPITA/EPITA Statement on the definition of function and failure of current and future forms of β-cell replacement therapy. There was consensus that β-cell replacement therapy could be considered as a treatment for β-cell failure, regardless of etiology and without requiring undetectable C-peptide, accompanied by glycemic instability with either problematic hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia...
February 17, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453110/genetics-of-type-1-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Catherine C Robertson, Stephen S Rich
Type 1 diabetes is the most common autoimmune disorder in childhood, characterized by the development of autoimmunity through unknown environmental insults in genetically susceptible individuals. There are now over 50 regions of the genome that harbor type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes, with much of the genetic risk now well-defined in youth of Northern European ancestry. The impact of these genetic variants on initiation and progression of the autoimmune process (islet autoimmunity) is now being understood; however, studies are only now being conducted to understand the function of the variants associated with type 1 diabetes risk...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452233/role-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-differentiated-into-insulin-producing-cells-in-the-treatment-of-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Mona G Amer, Azza S Embaby, Rehab A Karam, Marwa G Amer
Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas...
February 13, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451122/sprouting-angiogenesis-in-engineered-pseudo-islets
#16
Monika Hospodiuk, Madhuri Dey, Bugra Ayan, Donna Sosnoski, Kazim Kerim Moncal, Yang Wu, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
Despite the recent achievements in cell-based therapies for curing type-1 diabetes (T1D), capillarization in beta (β)-cell clusters is still a major roadblock as it is essential for long-term viability and function of β-cells in vivo. In this research, we report sprouting angiogenesis in engineered pseudo islets (EPIs) made of mouse insulinoma βTC3 cells and rat heart microvascular endothelial cells (RHMVECs). Upon culturing in three-dimensional (3D) constructs under angiogenic conditions, EPIs sprouted extensive capillaries into the surrounding matrix...
February 16, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450573/author-correction-beta-cell-connectivity-in-pancreatic-islets-a-type-2-diabetes-target
#17
Guy A Rutter, David J Hodson
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Legends of Figures 1 and 2 were interchanged. The correct versions are given below.
February 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449530/the-type-2-diabetes-associated-hmg20a-gene-is-mandatory-for-islet-beta-cell-functional-maturity
#18
Jose M Mellado-Gil, Esther Fuente-Martín, Petra I Lorenzo, Nadia Cobo-Vuilleumier, Livia López-Noriega, Alejandro Martín-Montalvo, Irene de Gracia Herrera Gómez, Maria Ceballos-Chávez, Laura Gómez-Jaramillo, Antonio Campos-Caro, Silvana Y Romero-Zerbo, Júlia Rodríguez-Comas, Joan-Marc Servitja, Gemma Rojo-Martinez, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Bernat Soria, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Francisco J Bérmudez-Silva, Jose C Reyes, Manuel Aguilar-Diosdado, Benoit R Gauthier
HMG20A (also known as iBRAF) is a chromatin factor involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation. Recently small nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HMG20A gene have been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) yet neither expression nor function of this T2DM candidate gene in islets is known. Herein we demonstrate that HMG20A is expressed in both human and mouse islets and that levels are decreased in islets of T2DM donors as compared to islets from non-diabetic donors. In vitro studies in mouse and human islets demonstrated that glucose transiently increased HMG20A transcript levels, a result also observed in islets of gestating mice...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448249/the-placental-secretome-identifying-potential-cross-talk-between-placenta-and-islet-%C3%AE-cells
#19
Robert Drynda, Shanta J Persaud, James E Bowe, Peter M Jones
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insulin-secreting islet β-cells adapt to the insulin resistance associated with pregnancy by increasing functional β-cell mass, but the placental signals involved in this process are not well defined. In the current study, we analysed expression of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mRNAs in mouse islets and islet GPCR ligand mRNAs in placenta during pregnancy to generate an atlas of potential interactions between the placenta and β-cells to inform future functional studies of islet adaptive responses to pregnancy...
February 8, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446696/expression-profiles-of-stress-related-genes-in-islets-from-donors-with-progressively-impaired-glucose-metabolism
#20
Marcus Lundberg, Anton Stenwall, Angie Tegehall, Olle Korsgren, Oskar Skog
It is currently unknown how the islet transcriptional pattern changes as glucose metabolism deteriorates and progresses to fulminant type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we hypothesized that islets from donors with elevated HbA1c levels, but not yet diagnosed with T2D, would show signs of cell stress on a transcriptional level. Laser capture microdissection and qPCR arrays including 330 genes related to mitochondria, oxidative stress, or the unfolded protein response were used to extract and analyze islets from organ donors with HbA1c <5...
February 15, 2018: Islets
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