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Oxidative phosphorilation

Ie E Koliesnikova, V I Nosar, L V Bratus'
The results of pharmacological correction of experimental mitochondrial dysfunction in brain stem neurons after single injection of specific respiratory complex I inhibitor rotenone by complex agents mildronate and rhytmocor have been presented. It was shown that 14-days rhytmocor injection promoted the rise of mitochondrial reserve capacity under glutamate and malate oxidation as well as under succinate oxidation. The mildronate injection was accompanied by enhancement of the velocity of phosphorilated mitochondrial respiration in the presence and absence of ADP when both substrates of oxidation were used...
2013: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
V V Stel'makh, V K Kozlov, V G Radchenko, A S Nekrasova
Insulin resistance and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathogenetic mechanism of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatoprotective therapy that blocks the second phase of pathogenesis (oxidative stress) is a promising modality for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NACH). An alternative approach is the use of medicines recovering the mitochondrial membrane, lipid bi-layer of the plasma membrane, oxidative phosphorilation, and cellular metabolism. In this context, succinic acid-based remaxol showing antioxidative, antihypoxic and cytoprotective activities can be regarded as a promising metabolic hepatoprotector for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
2012: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
Luigi Leonardo Palese, Fabrizio Bossis
Even if systems thinking is not new in biology, rationalizing the explosively growing amount of knowledge has been the compelling reason for the sudden rise and spreading of systems biology. Based on 'omics' data, several genome-scale metabolic networks have been reconstructed and validated. One of the most striking aspects of complex metabolic networks is the pervasive power-law appearance of metabolite connectivity. However, the combinatorial diversity of some classes of compounds, such as lipids, has been scarcely considered so far...
August 2012: Bio Systems
Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Emma Mitidieri, Ferdinando Fusco, Elena D'Aiuto, Paolo Grieco, Ettore Novellino, Ciro Imbimbo, Vincenzo Mirone, Giuseppe Cirino, Raffaella Sorrentino
BACKGROUND: Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic peptide originally isolated from the neurosecretory system of the teleost fish and subsequently found in other species, including man. U-II was identified as the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, namely UT receptor. U-II and UT receptor are expressed in a variety of peripheral organs and especially in cardiovascular tissue. Recent evidence indicates the involvement of U-II/UT pathway in penile function in human, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear...
2012: PloS One
Silvia Kelsen, John E Hall, Alejandro R Chade
Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent renal vasoconstrictor with mitogenic properties, is upregulated by ischemia and has been shown to induce renal injury via the ET-A receptor. The potential role of ET-A blockade in chronic renovascular disease (RVD) has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. We hypothesized that chronic ET-A receptor blockade would preserve renal hemodynamics and slow the progression of injury of the stenotic kidney in experimental RVD. Renal artery stenosis, a major cause of chronic RVD, was induced in 14 pigs and observed for 6 wk...
July 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
R Nosadini, G Tonolo
Oxidized lipids initiate and modulate the inflammatory cellular events in the arterial wall and the formation of macrophage foam cells. CD36 mediates the cellular uptake of ox-LDL through its recognition of specific truncated fatty acid moieties and oxidized phosphatidylcholine. Evidence has been reported that chemokine CXCL16, rather than CD36, is the main scavenger receptor in human podocytes mediating the uptake of ox-LDL. Ox-LDL induces loss of nephrin expression from cultured podocytes. It has been recently shown that nephrin once phosphorilated associates with PI3K and stimulates the Akt dependent signaling...
February 2011: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
J Rivadeneira, A L Di Virgilio, D A Barrio, C I Muglia, L Bruzzone, S B Etcheverry
Strong chelating ligands as oxodiacetate (oda) are model systems to study the process of metal trapping by living organisms. Vanadium compounds display interesting biological and pharmacological actions. In vertebrates, vanadium is stored mainly in bones. In the present study we report the effects of the complex of oda with vanadyl(IV) cation, VO(oda), on two osteoblast cell lines, one normal (MC3T3E1) and the other tumoral (UMR106). VO(oda) exerted cytotoxic actions in osteoblasts as it was determined through a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation, and morphological and actin alterations...
January 2010: Medicinal Chemistry
A M Shostia
Modern ideas about biologic value of active oxygen forms in the processes of spermatozoon forming, maturation, preservation and mobility are considerated in the review. Spermatozoons' ability to produce free radicals is shown. They play significant role in signal transduction in the processes of: tyrosine phosphorilation of p 81 and p 105 proteins in spermatozoons through cAMP/PKA signal path; protein kinase and membrane phosphatase, cAMP activation which promote hyperactivation and capacitation of sperm, their acrosome reaction, oocyte entry and also influence of different biologically active substances on the processes...
January 2009: Ukraïnsʹkyĭ Biokhimichnyĭ Z︠h︡urnal
P Sanjurjo, A Baldellou, K Aldámiz-Echevarría, M Montejo, Mc García Jiménez
So-called congenital metabolic diseases (CMD) are a consequence of biochemical alterations originating in the genes that result in the alteration of a protein. Depending on this protein's function - whether as an enzyme, a hormone, a receiver-transporter of a cellular membrane or forming part of a cellular organelle (lysosome, peroxysome) - different groups of diseases emerge, which cause the most outstanding characteristic of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM): their clinical heterogeneity. The majority of these diseases are autosomal recessive, with a limited number of asymptomatic carriers, but there are also those ruled by an autonomous, dominant character inheritance or linked to the X chromosome...
2008: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Piotr Gałecki, Antoni Florkowski, Małgorzata Mrowicka, Tadeusz Pietras, Elzbieta Gałecka
Depressive disorder is still a rising and important problem in the modern world, it affects about 15% of the population. Present forms of treatment are effective in about 70% and require monthly therapy which sometimes causes side effects. Last decade studies paid attention to theories different to monoaminergic and to neurodegenerative changes mainly in the limbic system of hippocampus. In this article authors show a relationship between calcium ions, glutaminergic transduction and disfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
January 2008: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Elisabetta Blasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Bruna Colombari, Rachele Neglia, Cristina Baschieri, Samuele Peppoloni, Marina Cinco
Recently, we have shown a differential susceptibility of non-pathogenic vs. pathogenic leptospires to phagocytosis and killing by microglial cells. Although all ingested to some extent, only the pathogenic strains survived intracellularly while the non-pathogenic ones were killed in a time-dependent manner. By the same infection model, here we demonstrate that microglial cells respond to Leptospira infection with a time- and dose-dependent induction of molecular signals (p38 phosphorilation and NF-kB activation) and the production of soluble factors (cytokines and nitric oxide)...
February 2007: Microbial Pathogenesis
S M Pyvovar, V I Korzhov, R B Strutyns'kyĭ, L M Iahupol's'kyĭ, O O Moĭbenko
The cardioprotective mechanism of KATP channel openers and especially their influence on mitochondrial respiration has not been clarified yet. In this article we investigated the effect of DiazoFm and DiazoFp, the new fluor-containing analogues of diazoxide and the potential mitochondrial KATP channel openers, on the oxidative phosphorylation in the isolated mitochondria. It was shown that the influence of KATP channel openers on ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption (State 3) depended on the substrates we used (succinate or 2-oxoglutarate sodium)...
2006: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
V I Shishkin, G V Kudriavtseva, A B Riabkov
AIM: To study bioenergetic processes in the synovial fluid (SF) in osteoarthrosis and to study relevant effects of chondroitinsulphate (structum). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Changes in bioenergy parameters of SF were analysed in the course of 3-month structum treatment of 15 osteoarthrosis (OA) patients. Classic enzymatic tests and polarographic test of SF cells oxygen absorption rate were used. Physiological-biochemical indices were compared at the height of the disease and after therapy...
2005: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Tamás Kálai, Gábor Várbiró, Zita Bognár, Anita Pálfi, Katalin Hantó, Balázs Bognár, Erzsébet Osz, Balázs Sümegi, Kálmán Hideg
Several amiodarone analogues were synthesized varying the 2-substituent on the benzofuran ring and diethylaminoethyl side chain of phenolether by introducing 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole and 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine nitroxides or their amino or hydroxylamino precursors. The new compounds were screened on isolated mitochondria and perfused heart and their toxicity was evaluated on WRL-68 liver cells and H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Most of the newly synthesized derivatives exerted uncoupling effect on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorilation at higher concentrations, compared to amiodarone and one of the modified amiodarone analogues showed an effect similar to that of amiodarone on the mitochondrial permeability transition and on restoring of mitochondrial high-energy phosphate metabolites in perfused hearts...
April 1, 2005: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
E N Bufetov, O O Polygalova, A A Ponomareva
A study was made of respiration, heat production, K+ output and ultrastructure of wheat root cells treated for 6 h with rotenone (10 microM), an inhibitor of HADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I). Besides, the involvement of alternative pathways for adaptation to this inhibitor was studied. After 20 min of treatment, a brightened mitochondrial matrix and mitochondria with torus shapes were observed. We propose that the outer area of mitochondria increases due to their torus shapes, and this can point to the activating of extremal NAD(P)H-dehydrogenase, which uses enternal NAD(P)H...
2004: Tsitologiia
Maria-Angeles Aller, Jorge-Luis Arias, Jaime Arias
Post-traumatic inflammatory response, whether this be local or systemic, is considered to be the succession of three functional phases called nervous, immune and endocrine, that could have a nutritional significance. In the nervous phase, ischemia-reperfusion, which causes interstitial and cellular edema, is produced. Both types of edema could represent an ancestral mechanism to feed the cells by diffusion. During the immune phase, the tissues are infiltrated by inflammatory cells and bacteria. Then, extracellular digestion, by enzyme release (fermentation), and intracellular digestion by phagocytosis could be associated with a hypothetical trophic capacity for the neighbouring cells...
2004: Medical Hypotheses
A I Gritsuk, T G Matiukhina, A N Koval', S M Sergeenko, V T Svergun, A I Verner, N A Gritsuk
Ultrastructure, tissue respiration and oxidative phosphorilation were studies in the myocardium of animals after chronic natural irradiation by 137Cs in quantities that can in reality threaten population of radionuclide-polluted regions. Decline in the respiratory activity of the myocardium and ultrastructural disorders can be attributed to the effects of ions of radioactive Cs which is also a potassium antagonist. A hypothesis has been put forward according to which cesium blocks potassium channels in mitochondria and thus changes the volume and configuration of internal mitochondrial membranes, and impacts the respiratory processes...
2002: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
O V Ikkert, N M Kurhaliuk, S K Hordiĭ
The influence of L-arginine (600 mg/kg) and NO-synthase blocator N omega-nitro-L-arginine L-NNA (35 mg/kg) on processes of ADP-stimulated respiration (under using 0.35 mM succinate, 1 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 2 mM pyruvate, 2 mM glutamate, 2 Mm malate and succinate dehydrohenase blocator--2 mM malonate as substrates of oxidation), lipid peroxidation (concentration of DK and MDA), activities of succinate dehydrohenase and aminotransferases in rats tissues with different resistance to hypoxia under stress conditions have been investigated...
November 2001: Ukraïnsʹkyĭ Biokhimichnyĭ Z︠h︡urnal
A P Cherchenko, I S Chelnakova
The glutathione-reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in the cortex and brain stem tissues of rabbits with post-traumatic epileptic reality (1 year after the light brain injury) was defined. An increase of glutathione-reductase activity in the cortex microsomal and stem mitochondrial fractions, and increase of glutathione-S-transferase activity in cortex and stem mitochondrial fractions was obtained. The conclusion is made that the activation of the anti-oxidant glutathione fermentative system is a long-term metabolic CNS adaptation in the case while mitochondrial oxidation and oxidative phosphorilation are disturbed...
July 2001: Ukraïnsʹkyĭ Biokhimichnyĭ Z︠h︡urnal
A P Cherchenko, I M Todor
Changes in the energetic metabolism in the cortex were examined in bemegride-kindled rabbits. A reliable decrease in the ATP and an increase in the AMP contents in the cortical tissues as well as low ATP/AMP and energetic charge coefficients have been found after kindling the rabbits for 14 and 30-days as compared to the control groups of animals. Considerable disorders in the oxidative phosphorilation in the mitochondria of the cortical tissues have been determined after the succinate and glutamate oxidation: a decrease in the oxygen utilization rate at V3 active metabolic state, lowering the respiratory control coefficient and the disscciation between phosphorilation and oxidation...
2002: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
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