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Shunya Shibata, Thillaiampalam Sivakumar, Ikuo Igarashi, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Hisashi Inokuma, Shinya Fukumoto, Naoaki Yokoyama
Species of Theileria are tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of ruminants that can cause severe clinical disease. In this study, blood samples were obtained from 91 wild sika deer in various districts in Hokkaido, Japan. Samples were tested using a PCR assay designed to amplify a full-length major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene of a cervine Theileria species, designated as Theileria sp. (sika 1). The amplicons of 57 out of 89 PCR-positive samples were cloned and sequenced. The sequences shared 99.1%-100% identity scores, indicating the MPSP gene of Theileria sp...
May 4, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Maria Kaltenbrunner, Rupert Hochegger, Margit Cichna-Markl
Since game meat is more valuable and expensive than meat from domesticated animal species it is a potential target for adulteration. Analytical methods must allow the identification and quantification of meat species to be applicable for the detection of fraudulent labelling. We developed a real-time PCR assay for the authentication of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and products thereof. The primer/probe system amplifies a 71 bp fragment of the kappa-casein precursor gene. Since the target sequence contained only one sika deer-specific base, we introduced a deliberate base mismatch in the forward primer...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiayin Gu, Lan Yu, Yan Hua, Yao Ning, Bao Heng, Jinzhe Qi, Zexv Long, Mingyuan Yao, Chong Huang, Zhilin Li, Jianming Lang, Guangshun Jiang, Jianzhang Ma
A small, isolated Amur tiger population is living at the southwest Primorskii Krai in Russia and Hunchun in China region. Many of them with "dual nationality" cross the border frequently. Formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger food requirements in both Russia and China sides, while Russia side already have clear results of it. We used scat analysis combined with data on the abundance of four prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and prey preferences in Hunchun...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Stanislava Nechybová, Pavel Vejl, Vlastimil Hart, Martina Melounová, Daniela Čílová, Jakub Vašek, Ivana Jankovská, Jaroslav Vadlejch, Iva Langrová
The aim of this study was to identify Trichuris species in wild ruminants from 32 localities in the Czech Republic using morphological and molecular methods (ITS1-5.8S RNA-ITS2 region polymorphisms). Trichurids were obtained from 176 wild ruminants (roe deer, sika deer, red deer, fallow deer and mouflons) that were culled between 2009 and 2017. Trichuris discolor is the predominant trichurid of all of the above-mentioned wild ruminants, whereas Trichuris ovis was identified less frequently in roe deer, fallow deer, sika deer and mouflons...
May 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
Haitao Yang, Hailong Dou, Raj Kumar Baniya, Siyu Han, Yu Guan, Bing Xie, Guojing Zhao, Tianming Wang, Pu Mou, Limin Feng, Jianping Ge
We analyzed the scats of Amur tigers and Amur leopards, and examined their annual and seasonal food habits in Northeast China to comprehend their coexistence. Wild boar had the highest annual and seasonal consumption frequencies by the tigers, while both roe deer and sika deer were mostly preyed by the leopards annually. The three species appeared to be the key preys in terms of high proportion of consumed biomass by the two felids. Our data also revealed numerous mid-sized carnivores and small mammals included in the two felids' food list...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liang Chen, Sika Zheng
With rapid technical advances, single cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) has been used to detect cell subtypes exhibiting distinct gene expression profiles and to trace cell transitions in development and disease. However, the potential of scRNA-seq for new discoveries is constrained by the robustness of subsequent data analysis. Here we propose a robust model, BCseq (bias-corrected sequencing analysis), to accurately quantify gene expression from scRNA-seq. BCseq corrects inherent bias of scRNA-seq in a data-adaptive manner and effectively removes technical noise...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Cheryl Stork, Sika Zheng
Misregulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing contributes to various diseases. Understanding how alternative splicing is regulated paves the way to modulating or correcting molecular pathogenesis of the diseases. Alternative splicing is typically regulated by trans RNA binding proteins and their upstream modulators. Identification of these splicing regulators has been difficult and traditionally done piecemeal. High-throughput screening strategies to find multiple regulators of exon splicing have great potential to accelerate the discovery process, but typically confront low sensitivity and specificity of splicing assays...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jakob Winter, Steffen Rehbein, Anja Joachim
Helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. Farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. In Austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer) and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex), and transmission of parasites between different ruminant species seems likely...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Yun He, Istabrak Hasan, Ludger Keilig, Dominik Fischer, Luisa Ziegler, Marcus Abboud, Gerhard Wahl, Christoph Bourauel
This study combines finite element method and animal studies, aiming to investigate tissue remodelling processes around dental implants inserted into sika deer antler and to develop an alternative animal consuming model for studying bone remodelling around implants. Implants were inserted in the antlers and loaded immediately via a self-developed loading device. After 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks, implants and surrounding tissue were taken out. Specimens were scanned by μCT scanner and finite element models were generated...
April 16, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Katherine P Adams, Harriet Okronipa, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Mary Arimond, Sika Kumordzie, Brietta M Oaks, Maku E Ocansey, Rebecca R Young, Stephen A Vosti, Kathryn G Dewey
Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) have been studied in efficacy and effectiveness trials, but little is known about how parents perceive the products and their effects. In a randomised trial in Ghana, efficacy of SQ-LNS provided to women during pregnancy and the first 6 months postpartum and to their children from 6 to 18 months of age was assessed by comparison with iron-folic acid (IFA) capsules and multiple micronutrient (MMN) capsules provided to women. In a follow-up study conducted when the index children from the original trial were between 4 and 6 years of age, we used survey-based methods to assess retrospective and current parental perceptions of nutrient supplements generally and of SQ-LNS and their effects compared with perceptions IFA and MMN capsules...
April 15, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Jiawen Wang, Shuai Bian, Meichun Liu, Xin Zhang, Siming Wang, Xueyuan Bai, Daqing Zhao, Yu Zhao
BST-2(tetherin/CD317/HM1.24) has been identified as a cellular antiviral factor that inhibits the release of a wide range of enveloped viruses from infected cells. Orthologs of BST-2 have been identified in several species including humans, monkeys, cows, sheep, pigs, and mice. In this study, we cloned and characterized the protein of the BST-2 homolog from sika deer (Cervus nippon). cnBST-2 shares 37.8% and 74.2% identity with the BST-2 homologs from Homo sapiens and Ovis aries, respectively. The extracellular domain of cnBST-2 has two putative N-linked glycosylation sites and three potential dimerization sites...
April 2, 2018: Gene
J Wang, M Liu, X Bai, H Zhang, Z Xu, D Zhao, Y Zhao
Thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10) is a member of the β-thymosin family. As an actin-binding peptide, thymosin β10 is involved in many important biological activities. Transcriptome sequencing results suggest that Tβ10 may play important roles in the growth of deer antler. In this study, Tβ10 cDNA was isolated from sika deer, and complete open reading frame consisting of 129 nucleotides was obtained by PCR amplification. The predicted peptide was 42 amino acids in length. The sdTβ10 cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli resulting in a 6 kDa recombinant-His tagged protein...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Fei Liu, Jian-Ming Li, Fan-Li Zeng, Ying Zong, Xue Leng, Kun Shi, Nai-Chao Diao, Dong Li, Bo-Yu Li, Quan Zhao, Rui Du
Brucellosis and chlamydiosis are important zoonotic diseases and bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants. They are widely distributed around the world, cause large economic losses, and significant harmful effects on humans. However, epidemiological information relating to transmission from commercial sika deer in China is limited. Therefore, from 2016 to 2017, 458 sika deer blood samples were collected from three cities in Jilin Province in China. The Brucella antigen and specific antibodies to Chlamydia and BTV were examined using RT-PCR, indirect hemagglutination assay, and ELISA, respectively...
April 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Osamu Kawase, Mitsuru Jimbo
Antisperm antibodies potentially inhibit sperm functions causing the sterility in humans and experimentally treated animals. However, there is no information about antisperm antibodies emerging spontaneously in wildlife. In this study, we searched for the sperm-reactive antibodies, spontaneously produced in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon), and identified the sperm antigens. We collected 529 fecal masses of sika deer in Japanese cities, from which we extracted the mucosal antibodies to test them for reactivities to deer sperm proteins by ELISA...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Youngjun Na, Dong Hua Li, Yongjun Choi, Kyoung Hoon Kim, Sang Rak Lee
Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding level on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane (CH4) emissions in growing goats and Sika deer. Methods: Three growing male goats (initial BW of 22.4 ± 0.9 kg) and three growing male deer (initial BW of 20.2 ± 4.8 kg) were each allotted to a respiration-metabolism chamber for an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. An experimental diet was offered to each animal at one of three feeding levels (1...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Steve Squire
Steve Squire, head of Sika Major Projects, discusses approaches to integrated specification at the New Papworth Hospital, which is currently under construction at the famous Addenbrooke's Hospital site in Cambridge. He explains that ensuring that the fabric of the building supports an extended service life for the hospital, excellent build quality, and reduced maintenance, have been a high priority, with Sika supplying a number of its products for use in different parts of the structure.
June 2017: Health Estate
Eglė Rudaitytė-Lukošienė, Petras Prakas, Dalius Butkauskas, Liuda Kutkienė, Iglė Vepštaitė-Monstavičė, Elena Servienė
Diaphragm muscles of 25 sika deer (Cervus nippon) farmed in Lithuania were examined for sarcocysts of Sarcocystis species. Two new Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis frondea and Sarcocystis nipponi, were observed using light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and characterized by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) sequence analyses. By LM, sarcocysts of S. frondea and S. nipponi were ribbon-shaped and had finger-like sarcocyst wall protrusions, respectively...
May 2018: Parasitology Research
Stephanie L Smith, Helen V Senn, Sílvia Pérez-Espona, Megan T Wyman, Elizabeth Heap, Josephine M Pemberton
Since the mid-19th century, multiple introductions of Japanese sika deer ( Cervus nippon nippon ) and North American wapiti ( C. canadensis ) have taken place in the British Isles. While wapiti have generally been unsuccessful, sika have been very successful, especially in Scotland where they now overlap at least 40% of the range of native red deer ( C. elaphus ). Hybridization between these two species and red deer has been demonstrated in captivity and in the wild. Using a panel of 22 microsatellite loci that are highly diagnostic between red deer and sika, and moderately diagnostic between red deer and wapiti, we investigated the extent of introgression between these species in 2,943 deer sampled from around Scotland and from the English Lake District using the Bayesian clustering software STRUCTURE...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Zhipeng Li, Xiaoxu Wang, Ting Zhang, Huazhe Si, Weixiao Nan, Chao Xu, Leluo Guan, André-Denis G Wright, Guangyu Li
The dense and diverse community of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals plays critical roles in the metabolism and absorption of nutrients, and gut associated immune function. Understanding microbial colonization in the small intestine of new born ruminants is a vital first step toward manipulating gut function through interventions during early life to produce long-term positive effects on host productivity and health. Yet the knowledge of microbiota colonization and its induced metabolites of small intestine during early life is still limited...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yu Guan, Haitao Yang, Siyu Han, Limin Feng, Tianming Wang, Jianping Ge
The authors regret the following errors occurred in the original publication of the article (Guan et al. 2017). The corrected texts have been presented with this erratum.
February 5, 2018: AMB Express
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