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Takashi Ikeda, Kenta Uchida, Yukiko Matsuura, Hiroshi Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Yoshida, Koichi Kaji, Itsuro Koizumi
The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight), and cathemeral (active throughout the day). These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i...
2016: PloS One
Zhipeng Li, André-Denis G Wright, Huazhe Si, Xiaoxu Wang, Wenxi Qian, Zhigang Zhang, Guangyu Li
The rumen microbiota plays important roles in nutrient metabolism and absorption of the host. However, it is poorly understood how host genetic variation shapes the community structure of the rumen microbiota and its metabolic phenotype. Here, we used sika deer (Cervus nippon) and elk (Cervus elaphus) to produce the following two types of hybrid offspring: sika deer ♀ × elk ♂ (SEH) and elk ♀ × sika deer ♂ (ESH). Then, we examined the rumen microbiome and metabolites in the parents and their hybrid offspring...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Kazutaka Takeshita, Takashi Ikeda, Hiroshi Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Yoshida, Hiromasa Igota, Yukiko Matsuura, Koichi Kaji
Assessing temporal changes in abundance indices is an important issue in the management of large herbivore populations. The drive counts method has been frequently used as a deer abundance index in mountainous regions. However, despite an inherent risk for observation errors in drive counts, which increase with deer density, evaluations of the utility of drive counts at a high deer density remain scarce. We compared the drive counts and mark-resight (MR) methods in the evaluation of a highly dense sika deer population (MR estimates ranged between 11 and 53 individuals/km2) on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, Japan, between 1999 and 2006...
2016: PloS One
Ayako Yoshida, Kayoko Matsuo, Junji Moribe, Ryusei Tanaka, Taisei Kikuchi, Eiji Nagayasu, Naoaki Misawa, Haruhiko Maruyama
Paragonimiasis is a typical food-borne parasitic disease, endemic in most parts of Asia, with sporadic case reports from American and African countries. The major source of infection is undercooked freshwater crab or crayfish, though consumption of wild boar meat is also responsible for the infection in Japan, because wild boar is a paratenic host for Paragonimus westermani. Recently, living juveniles of P. westermani were isolated from muscle of a sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan, raising the possibility that venison has been another source of infection...
December 2016: Parasitology International
Diana Jalal, Molly McFadden, Jamie P Dwyer, Kausik Umanath, Erwin Aguilar, Yoram Yagil, Barbara Greco, Mohammed Sika, Julia B Lewis, Tom Greene, Simin Goral
Introduction Oral phosphate binders are the main stay of treatment of hyperphosphatemia. Adherence rates to ferric citrate, a recently approved phosphate binder, are unknown. Methods We conducted a post-hoc analysis to evaluate whether adherence rates were different for ferric citrate vs. active control in 412 subjects with end stage kidney disease (ESKD) who were randomized to ferric citrate vs. active control (sevelamer carbonate and/or calcium acetate). Adherence was defined as percent of actual number of pills taken to total number of pills prescribed...
September 12, 2016: Hemodialysis International
Mohammad S Khuroo, Mehnaaz S Khuroo, Naira S Khuroo
Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Enhui Zha, Li Dandan, Xue Bai, Tiezhong Zhou, Yongong Li, Gao Shenyang, Xiqing Yue
CONTEXT: Velvet antler (VA) is recognized as one of the most important Chinese traditional medical herbs. To date, the immunoactivity of the single component of VA is rarely studied though its compound extracts have been well analyzed. OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant polypeptide (rVAP32) based on the VA of the sika deer by comparison with its natural counterpart (nVAP32). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Splenocytes proliferation and NK-cell cytotoxicity assay was evaluated by the WST-8 colorimetric method...
September 7, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Chun Yang, Xiao Lu, Hongmei Sun, Wen Hui Chu, Chunyi Li
Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages that can fully regenerate each year from the permanent bony protuberances of the frontal bones, called pedicles. Pedicle periosteum (PP) is the key tissue for antler regeneration and the source of antler stem cells. The distal one third of the PP has acquired the ability to regenerate antlers and is termed the potentiated PP (PPP), whereas the proximal two thirds of the PP requires further interactions within its niche to launch antler regeneration and is termed the dormant PP (DPP)...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Elaine Ku, Jennifer Gassman, Lawrence J Appel, Miroslaw Smogorzewski, Mark J Sarnak, David V Glidden, George Bakris, Orlando M Gutiérrez, Lee A Hebert, Joachim H Ix, Janice Lea, Michael S Lipkowitz, Keith Norris, David Ploth, Velvie A Pogue, Stephen G Rostand, Edward D Siew, Mohammed Sika, C Craig Tisher, Robert Toto, Jackson T Wright, Christina Wyatt, Chi-Yuan Hsu
We recently showed an association between strict BP control and lower mortality risk during two decades of follow-up of prior participants in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) trial. Here, we determined the risk of ESRD and mortality during extended follow-up of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial. We linked 1067 former AASK participants with CKD previously randomized to strict or usual BP control (mean arterial pressure ≤92 mmHg or 102-107 mmHg, respectively) to the US Renal Data System and Social Security Death Index; 397 patients had ESRD and 475 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 14...
August 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Keiko Tagami, Brenda J Howard, Shigeo Uchida
Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, monitoring of tissues from hunted game animals ensures compliance with the standard food limits for radionuclides in Japan. We quantified the transfer of (137)Cs from contaminated land to game animals using the Aggregated transfer factor (Tag = activity concentration in meat [Bq kg(-1) fw]/amount in soil [Bq m(-2)]) of (137)Cs for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer, green pheasant, copper pheasant and wild duck, collected between 2011 and 2015. Open data sources were used from Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Bo-Yin Jia, Heng-Xing Ba, Gui-Wu Wang, Ying Yang, Xue-Zhe Cui, Ying-Hua Peng, Jun-Jun Zheng, Xiu-Mei Xing, Fu-He Yang
Sika deer is of great commercial value because their antlers are used in tonics and alternative medicine and their meat is healthy and delicious. The goal of this study was to generate transcript sequences from sika deer for functional genomic analyses and to identify the transcripts that demonstrate tissue-specific, age-dependent differential expression patterns. These sequences could enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sika deer growth and development. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and profiling analysis across ten tissue types and four developmental stages (juvenile, adolescent, adult, and aged) of sika deer, using Illumina paired-end tag (PET) sequencing technology...
October 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Datao Wang, Qianqian Guo, Hengxing Ba, Chunyi Li
Nanog plays a crucial role in the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency. Annual full regeneration of deer antlers has been shown to be a stem cell-based process, and antler stem cells (ASCs) reportedly express Nanog. In the present study, we found that Nanog RNA expressed by ASCs was a pseudogene (Nanog-ps). The coding sequence of Nanog-ps was 93.1% homologous to that of bovine Nanog, but with two missing nucleotides after position 391. Deletion of the two nucleotides in Nanog-ps resulted in a frame-shift mutation, suggesting that Nanog-ps would not encode a normal Nanog protein...
June 28, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Xueliang Zhang, Jiawen Wang, Meichen Liu, Siming Wang, Hui Zhang, Yu Zhao
Matrix metalloproteinase 13 is one of three mammalian collagenases that are capable of initiating the degradation of interstitial collagens during wound healing. Herein, we report for the first time the molecular cloning of the catalytic domain (CD) of sika deer MMP-13, followed by protein expression in Escherichia coli and purification by affinity chromatography. The final yield was approximately 90.4 mg per liter of growth culture with a purity of 91.6%. The mass recovery during the purification and renaturation were 70...
November 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Megan T Wyman, Yann Locatelli, Benjamin D Charlton, David Reby
The behavioral processes at the basis of hybridization and introgression are understudied in terrestrial mammals. We use a unique model to test the role of sexual signals as a reproductive barrier to introgression by investigating behavioral responses to male sexual calls in estrous females of two naturally allopatric but reproductively compatible deer species, red deer and sika deer. Previous studies demonstrated asymmetries in acoustic species discrimination between these species: most but not all female red deer prefer conspecific over sika deer male calls while female sika deer exhibit no preference differences...
2016: Evolutionary Biology
Mounerou Salou, Christelle Butel, Abla A Konou, Didier K Ekouevi, Nicole Vidal, Sika Dossim, Koko Lawson-Evi, Yawo T Nyasenu, Assetina Singo-Tokofaï, Senyedji d'Almeida, Raïssa Tchama, Eric Delaporte, Mireille Prince-David, Martine Peeters, Anoumou Y Dagnra
BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs have been largely scaled-up, but data on infant HIV drug resistance from PMTCT programs implemented in resource-limited countries are lacking. METHODS: Remnant dried blood spots from HIV-infected children (aged <18 months) tested through the Togo national early infant diagnosis program during 2012 and 2013 were collected and assessed for HIV drug resistance. Pol-RT (reverse transcriptase) region was amplified, sequenced and analyzed for the presence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs)...
August 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Celine K Vuong, Douglas L Black, Sika Zheng
Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain...
May 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Petras Prakas, Dalius Butkauskas, Eglė Rudaitytė, Liuda Kutkienė, Aniolas Sruoga, Irma Pūraitė
The diaphragm muscles of eight sika deer (Cervus nippon) bred in Lithuania were examined for Sarcocystis cysts. Two Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis taeniata, which were previously reported in Canadian moose (Alces alces) and Argentinean red deer (Cervus elaphus), and Sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. were described using light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) sequences analysis. By LM, cysts of S. taeniata were 424.8 × 57...
August 2016: Parasitology Research
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Wei Cong, Guo-Hua Liu, Xiao-Ting Ni, Jian-Gang Ma, Wen-Bin Zheng, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most important zoonotic pathogen that can infect almost all animals, including humans. However, little information is available regarding prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in sika deer. In the present study, the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in sika deer in Jilin province, Northeastern China was examined using PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. 23 (7.06%) of 326 samples were tested E. bieneusi-positive, and the risk factor significantly associated with E...
March 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Na Li, Min Zhang, Gregor P C Drummen, Yu Zhao, Yin Fen Tan, Su Luo, Xiao Bo Qu
Deer antler preparations have been used to strengthen bones for centuries. It is particularly rich in collagen type I. This study aimed to unravel part of the purported bioremedial effect of Sika deer antler collagen type I (SDA-Col I) on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that SDA-Col I might be used to promote and regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. SDA-Col I might potentially provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of bone injury and/or in scaffolds for bone replacement strategies...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Junlong Liu, Jifei Yang, Guiquan Guan, Aihong Liu, Bingjie Wang, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Parasites & Vectors
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