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Yu Zhan, Yuzhou Luo, Xunfei Deng, Kaishan Zhang, Minghua Zhang, Michael L Grieneisen, Baofeng Di
A novel model named random-forest-spatiotemporal-kriging (RF-STK) was developed to estimate the daily ambient NO2 concentrations across China during 2013-2016 based on the satellite retrievals and geographic covariates. The RF-STK model showed good prediction performance, with cross-validation R2=0.62 (RMSE=13.3 µg/m3) for daily and R2=0.73 (RMSE=6.5 µg/m3) for spatial predictions. The nationwide population-weighted multiyear average of NO2 was predicted to be 30.9±11.7 µg/m3 (mean±standard deviation), with a slowly but significantly decreasing trend at a rate of -0...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Roseanne O Yeung, Jing-Heng Cai, Yuying Zhang, Andrea O Luk, Jun-Hao Pan, Junmei Yin, Risa Ozaki, Alice P S Kong, Ronald Ma, Wing-Yee So, Chiu Chi Tsang, K P Lau, Edwin Fisher, Williams Goggins, Brian Oldenburg, Julianna Chan
Background: In a randomized controlled trial of 628 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving multidisciplinary care in the Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation (JADE) Progam, 372 were randomized to receive additional telephone-based peer support (Peer Empowerment And Remote communication Linked by information technology, PEARL) intervention. After 12 months, all-cause hospitalization was reduced by half in the PEARL group especially in those with high Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) scores...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
Ibrahim Hussain, Theodore H Schwartz, Jeffrey P Greenfield
Basilar invagination is defined as abnormal upward and/or posterior displacement of the odontoid leading to ventral compression of the cervicomedullary junction. This condition leads to lower cranial neuropathies, sensorimotor deficits, and myelopathy. These symptoms can persist even after posterior decompression, which is an indication for ventral decompression. Transoral approaches to the upper cervical spine carry significant morbidity, limiting their utility. The endonasal approach to the upper cervical spine presents an alternative for patients with amenable anatomy...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
David K Tso, Ajay K Singh
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings of necrotizing fasciitis as seen on radiograph, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, and to recognize the early findings in this potentially fatal disease. CONCLUSION: Although classically a clinical diagnosis, imaging is a powerful adjunct to facilitate early diagnosis in equivocal cases. Compared to plain radiography, US, CT and MR provide higher sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Xiang-Yang Li, Hai-Yan He, Pearl Pai
Central venous catheterization can be challenging in patients that had undergone repeated catheter placements. Ultrasound scan may overlook venous stenosis which is better visualized using venography. The use of venography should be considered to assess for venous stenosis or vascular anomalies in individuals with multiple catheterizations or in close proximity to cancer.
March 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Yan Liu, Yifu Huang, Guosheng Chen, Junlong Huang, Juan Zheng, Jianqiao Xu, Shuqin Liu, Junlang Qiu, Li Yin, Wenhong Ruan, Fang Zhu, Gangfeng Ouyang
Sensitivity and selectivity of the solid phase microextraction (SPME) in analysis are mostly determined by the coating material of the fiber used. Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted great attention because of its large specific surface area, rich oxygen functional groups, good dispersibility in aqueous solution and high reactivity. However, the low thermal stability of the functional groups limits the wide application of GO in SPME coating design. Highly cross-linked polyoxyethylene (POE) is a substrate widely used for composite material construction, which could significantly improve the thermal stability, water resistance as well as biocompatibility of the functional materials...
July 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mohammad Kia, Timothy M Wright, Michael B Cross, David J Mayman, Andrew D Pearle, Peter K Sculco, Geoffrey H Westrich, Carl W Imhauser
BACKGROUND: The correct amount of external rotation of the femoral component during TKA is controversial because the resulting changes in biomechanical knee function associated with varying degrees of femoral component rotation are not well understood. We addressed this question using a computational model, which allowed us to isolate the biomechanical impact of geometric factors including bony shapes, location of ligament insertions, and implant size across three different knees after posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA...
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Ellen H de Moll
Dermatology is an exciting and rewarding specialty. Looking for jobs after training can be a daunting task. From deciding to pursue a fellowship or a job in private practice, the opportunities are extensive. I have collected advice from recent dermatology graduates to help jump-start the planning process.
January 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Marko Zdravković, Tamara Serdinšek, Monika Sobočan, Sebastjan Bevc, Radovan Hojs, Ivan Krajnc
BACKGROUND: Student engagement (SE) in the curriculum is a positive indicator in the development of students deeply involved in their learning. It also has several benefits for the schools' level of educational innovation and quality assurance. METHOD: In order to identify the most important pearls from the last decade of educational developments within the field of SE at the Faculty of Medicine University of Maribor, we searched through our school's archives, publications and research in the field of medical education...
March 11, 2018: Medical Teacher
M T Harper, A Melgar, J Oh, K Nedelkov, G Sanchez, G W Roth, A N Hristov
Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
John O Schorge, Amy J Bregar, John Durfee, Ross S Berkowitz
Joe V. Meigs was a visionary clinician and an early adopter of radical techniques in the surgical treatment of ovarian cancer. His 1934 textbook "Tumors of the Female Pelvic Organs", consolidated his approach to this "hopeless" disease, with pearls on diagnosis, outcomes, and even speculations about the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Decades before adjuvant chemotherapy would prove of value, and in an era when sophisticated statistics were unheard of, he nonetheless tried to eke out what benefits he could using the methods available in his time...
March 7, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
William N Levine, Julian J Sonnenfeld, Brian Shiu
Operative treatment of the unstable shoulder historically has a high success rate. However, the complication rate has risen. This article reviews the pearls and pitfalls to attempt to elucidate the etiology for these complications and failures. Preoperative assessment of the unstable shoulder ultimately is critical to avoid complications, including history, physical examination, and key radiographic features. Intraoperative techniques include appropriate soft tissue mobilization, multiple points of fixation, avoidance of hardware-related problems, and appropriate management of the capsule and bone defects...
April 2018: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Setsu Nakae, Masafumi Shionyu, Tomohisa Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Shirai
The nacreous layer of pearl oysters is one of the major biominerals of commercial and industrial interest. Jacalin-related lectins, including PPL3 isoforms, are known to regulate biomineralization of the Pteria penguin pearl shell, although the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The PPL3 crystal structures were determined partly by utilizing microgravity environments for three isoforms, namely, PPL3A, PPL3B, and PPL3C. The structures revealed a tail-to-tail dimer structure established by forming a unique inter-subunit disulfide bond at C-termini...
March 9, 2018: Proteins
Hui Wang, Shuangfei Zhang, Amit Pratush, Xueying Ye, Jinli Xie, Huan Wei, Chongran Sun, Zhong Hu
The phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities in response to environmental disturbances such as organic pollution has been well studied, but little is known about the way in which organic contaminants influence the acclimation of functional bacteria. In the present study, tolerance assays for bacterial communities from the sediment in the Pearl River Estuary were conducted with the isolation of functional bacteria using pyrene and different estrogens as environmental stressors. Molecular ecological networks and phylogenetic trees were constructed using both 16S rRNA gene sequences of cultured bacterial strains and 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing data to illustrate the successions of bacterial communities and their acclimations to the different organic compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jie Wu, Jian Ye, Huanlong Peng, Meirou Wu, Weiwei Shi, Yongmei Liang, Wei Liu
In the Pearl River Delta area, the upstream municipal wastewater is commonly discharged into rivers which are a pivotal source of downstream drinking water. Solar irradiation transforms some of the dissolved organic matter discharged from the wastewater, also affecting the formation of disinfection by-products in subsequent drinking water treatment plants. The effect of simulated solar radiation on soluble microbial products extracted from activated sludge was documented in laboratory experiments. Irradiation was found to degrade macromolecules in the effluent, yielding smaller, more reactive intermediate species which reacted with chlorine or chloramine to form higher levels of noxious disinfection by-products...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Pearl Z Fernandes, Marija Petricevic, Lukasz Sobala, Gideon J Davies, Spencer John Williams
Endo-α-1,2-mannosidases and -mannanases, members of glycoside hydrolase family 99 (GH99), cleave α-Glc/Man-1,3-α-Man-OR structures within mammalian N-linked glycans and fungal α-mannan, respectively. They are proposed to act through a two-step mechanism involving a 1,2-anhydrosugar 'epoxide' intermediate, involving two conserved catalytic residues. In the first step Glu333 acts as general base to deprotonate the 2-hydroxyl group adjacent to the fissile glycosidic bond, while Glu336 provides general acid assistance to departure of the aglycon...
March 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shaun Shahani, Pearl Korenblit, Pauline Thomas, Marian R Passannante, Richard Carr, Lynn Davis
BACKGROUND: Studies show that combining nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with tobacco treatment counseling is most effective for smoking cessation. However, tobacco treatment counseling has been underutilized across the nation. A secure email message sent to patients already taking NRT was hypothesized to increase the utilization of tobacco treatment counseling among Veterans in New Jersey. Secure messaging for communication between patients and providers was implemented through a web-based password-protected, secure messaging account, where veterans get notified through their personal email when they have a message awaiting them...
March 5, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Oïhana Latchere, Vincent Mehn, Nabila Gaertner-Mazouni, Gilles Le Moullac, Julie Fievet, Corinne Belliard, Philippe Cabral, Denis Saulnier
Environmental parameters, such as food level and water temperature, have been shown to be major factors influencing pearl oyster shell growth and molecular mechanisms involved in this biomineralization process. The present study investigates the effect of food level (i.e., microalgal concentration) and water temperature, in laboratory controlled conditions, on the last stages of pearl mineralization in order to assess their impact on pearl quality. To this end, grafted pearl oysters were fed at different levels of food and subjected to different water temperatures one month prior to harvest to evaluate the effect of these factors on 1) pearl and shell deposition rate, 2) expression of genes involved in biomineralization in pearl sacs, 3) nacre ultrastructure (tablet thickness and number of tablets deposited per day) and 4) pearl quality traits...
2018: PloS One
Pirjo Mattila, Sari Mäkinen, Merja Eurola, Taina Jalava, Juha-Matti Pihlava, Jarkko Hellström, Anne Pihlanto
The goal of this work was to analyze nutritional value of various minimally processed commercial products of plant protein sources such as faba bean (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), rapeseed press cake (Brassica rapa/napus subsp. Oleifera), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum), oil hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Basic composition and various nutritional components like amino acids, sugars, minerals, and dietary fiber were determined. Nearly all the samples studied could be considered as good sources of essential amino acids, minerals and dietary fiber...
March 2, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Martin C Koch, Johannes Lermann, Niels van de Roemer, Simone K Renner, Stefanie Burghaus, Janina Hackl, Ralf Dittrich, Sven Kehl, Patricia G Oppelt, Thomas Hildebrandt, Caroline C Hack, Uwe G Pöhls, Stefan P Renner, Falk C Thiel
BACKGROUND: Daysy is a fertility monitor that uses the fertility awareness method by tracking and analyzing the individual menstrual cycle. In addition, Daysy can be connected to the application DaysyView to transfer stored personal data from Daysy to a smartphone or tablet (IOS, Android). This combination is interesting because as it is shown in various studies, the use of apps is increasing patients´ focus on their disease or their health behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate if by the additional use of an App and thereby improved usability of the medical device, it is possible to enhance the typical-use related as well as the method-related pregnancy rates...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Health
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