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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938390/induced-membrane-technique-pearls-and-pitfalls
#1
Alain C Masquelet
The induced membrane technique for reconstruction of bone defects has proved its effectiveness and is now widely accepted. The 2 stages procedure, implying a cement spacer in the first stage and a huge bone graft in the second stage, responds to rigorous technical details involving each phase of the procedure. Prerequisites for the technique, cement spacer, bone fixation, time between the 2 stages, grafting, and postoperative course are reported and discussed.
October 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933808/pediatric-orthopedic-injuries-evidence-based-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#2
Jamie Lien, Kathryn H Pade
Upper and lower extremity injuries are common in children, with an overall risk of fracture estimated at just under 1 in 5 children. Pediatric bone anatomy and physiology produce age specific injury patterns and conditions that are unique to children, which can make accurate diagnosis difficult for emergency clinicians. This issue reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of child-specific fractures, as well as common injuries of the upper and lower extremities. Evidence-based recommendations for management of pediatric fractures, including appropriate diagnostic studies and treatment, are also discussed...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933807/recognizing-and-managing-adrenal-disorders-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#3
Amy Cutright, Stephen Ducey, Claudia L Barthold, Jeremy Kim
Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency are underrecognized conditions among emergency department patients, affecting an estimated 10% to 20% of critically ill patients. The signs and symptoms of cortisol deficit can be nonspecific and wide-ranging, and identification and swift treatment with stress-dosing of hydrocortisone is vital to avoid life-threatening adrenal crisis. Laboratory evaluation focuses on identification of electrolyte abnormalities typical of adrenal insufficiency, and while additional testing may depend on the type and severity of symptoms, it should not delay corticosteroid replacement...
September 22, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932335/cataract-surgery-in-patients-with-keratoconus-pearls-and-pitfalls
#4
F Aiello, Q J Nasser, C Nucci, R I Angunawela, Z Gatzioufas, V Maurino
BACKGROUND: Keratoconus (KC) is a common ectatic disorder resulting in progressive corneal thinning and irregular astigmatism. It has been observed that patients affected by KC are more likely to develop lens opacities earlier compared to non-keratoconic patients. OBJECTIVE: Intraocular lens (IOL) selection and refractive outcome prediction are among a number of factors that can make cataract surgery in keratoconic patients challenging. Accurate biometry is often difficult to obtain due to unreliable K measurements and lack of dedicated biometric formulae...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931755/combination-central-tolerance-and-peripheral-checkpoint-blockade-unleashes-antimelanoma-immunity
#5
Pearl Bakhru, Meng-Lei Zhu, Hsing-Hui Wang, Lee K Hong, Imran Khan, Maria Mouchess, Ajay S Gulati, Joshua Starmer, Yafei Hou, David Sailer, Sandra Lee, Fengmin Zhao, John M Kirkwood, Stergios Moschos, Lawrence Fong, Mark S Anderson, Maureen A Su
Blockade of immune checkpoint proteins (e.g., CTLA-4, PD-1) improves overall survival in advanced melanoma; however, therapeutic benefit is limited to only a subset of patients. Because checkpoint blockade acts by "removing the brakes" on effector T cells, the efficacy of checkpoint blockade may be constrained by the limited pool of melanoma-reactive T cells in the periphery. In the thymus, autoimmune regulator (Aire) promotes deletion of T cells reactive against self-antigens that are also expressed by tumors...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927645/angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-antibodies-are-associated%C3%A2-with-inflammatory-cytokines-and-poor-clinical-outcomes-in-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#6
Meghan H Pearl, Qiuheng Zhang, Miguel Fernando Palma Diaz, Jonathan Grotts, Maura Rossetti, David Elashoff, David W Gjertson, Patricia Weng, Elaine F Reed, Eileen Tsai Chambers
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibody has been linked to poor allograft outcomes in adult kidney transplantation. However, its clinical consequences in children are unknown. To study this, we examined the relationship of AT1R antibody with clinical outcomes, biopsy findings, inflammatory cytokines, and HLA donor-specific antibodies (DSA) in a cohort of pediatric renal transplant recipients. Sixty-five patients were longitudinally monitored for AT1R antibody, HLA DSA, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-6, renal dysfunction, hypertension, rejection, and allograft loss during the first two years post transplantation...
September 16, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926510/restoring-vaginal-function-in-postmenopausal-women-with-genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause
#7
Risa Kagan, Eliza Rivera
Menopause practitioners are often asked to help postmenopausal women restore vaginal health and function. A common scenario is the postmenopausal woman who has been without a sexual partner for many years and is now about to resume or has already unsuccessfully attempted penetrative sexual activity. This Practice Pearl addresses the pathophysiology and effect of atrophic genital changes and offers advice on how vaginal health and comfortable sexual activity can be restored.
September 18, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923525/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-the-hemocytes-from-the-pearl-oyster-pteria-hirundo-and-their-immune-responses-against-vibrio-infections
#8
Graziela Cleuza Vieira, Patrícia Mirella da Silva, Margherita Anna Barracco, Augusto Ferrari Hering, Marcos Caivano Pedroso de Albuquerque, Jaqueline da Rosa Coelho, Éder Carlos Schmidt, Zenilda Laurita Bouzon, Rafael Diego Rosa, Luciane Maria Perazzolo
Hemocyte populations of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo were characterized at morphological, ultrastructural and functional levels. Three main hemocyte populations were identified: hyalinocytes, granulocytes and blast-like cells. Hyalinocytes were the most abundant population (88.2%) characterized by the presence of few or no granules in the cytoplasm and composed by two subpopulations, large and small hyalinocytes. Comparatively, granulocytes represented 2.2% of the hemocyte population and were characterized by the presence of numerous large electron-lucid granules in the cytoplasm...
September 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922347/pearl-millet-genome-sequence-provides-a-resource-to-improve-agronomic-traits-in-arid-environments
#9
Rajeev K Varshney, Chengcheng Shi, Mahendar Thudi, Cedric Mariac, Jason Wallace, Peng Qi, He Zhang, Yusheng Zhao, Xiyin Wang, Abhishek Rathore, Rakesh K Srivastava, Annapurna Chitikineni, Guangyi Fan, Prasad Bajaj, Somashekhar Punnuri, S K Gupta, Hao Wang, Yong Jiang, Marie Couderc, Mohan A V S K Katta, Dev R Paudel, K D Mungra, Wenbin Chen, Karen R Harris-Shultz, Vanika Garg, Neetin Desai, Dadakhalandar Doddamani, Ndjido Ardo Kane, Joann A Conner, Arindam Ghatak, Palak Chaturvedi, Sabarinath Subramaniam, Om Parkash Yadav, Cécile Berthouly-Salazar, Falalou Hamidou, Jianping Wang, Xinming Liang, Jérémy Clotault, Hari D Upadhyaya, Philippe Cubry, Bénédicte Rhoné, Mame Codou Gueye, Ramanjulu Sunkar, Christian Dupuy, Francesca Sparvoli, Shifeng Cheng, R S Mahala, Bharat Singh, Rattan S Yadav, Eric Lyons, Swapan K Datta, C Tom Hash, Katrien M Devos, Edward Buckler, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Andrew H Paterson, Peggy Ozias-Akins, Stefania Grando, Jun Wang, Trilochan Mohapatra, Wolfram Weckwerth, Jochen C Reif, Xin Liu, Yves Vigouroux, Xun Xu
Pearl millet [Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone] is a staple food for more than 90 million farmers in arid and semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa, India and South Asia. We report the ∼1.79 Gb draft whole genome sequence of reference genotype Tift 23D2B1-P1-P5, which contains an estimated 38,579 genes. We highlight the substantial enrichment for wax biosynthesis genes, which may contribute to heat and drought tolerance in this crop. We resequenced and analyzed 994 pearl millet lines, enabling insights into population structure, genetic diversity and domestication...
September 18, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919652/causal-inference-with-a-graphical-hierarchy-of-interventions
#10
Ilya Shpitser, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
Identifying causal parameters from observational data is fraught with subtleties due to the issues of selection bias and confounding. In addition, more complex questions of interest, such as effects of treatment on the treated and mediated effects may not always be identified even in data where treatment assignment is known and under investigator control, or may be identified under one causal model but not another. Increasingly complex effects of interest, coupled with a diversity of causal models in use resulted in a fragmented view of identification...
December 2016: Annals of Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918902/mtor-controls-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-cell-survival-via-mtfp1
#11
Masahiro Morita, Julien Prudent, Kaustuv Basu, Vanessa Goyon, Sakie Katsumura, Laura Hulea, Dana Pearl, Nadeem Siddiqui, Stefan Strack, Shawn McGuirk, Julie St-Pierre, Ola Larsson, Ivan Topisirovic, Hojatollah Vali, Heidi M McBride, John J Bergeron, Nahum Sonenberg
The mechanisms that link environmental and intracellular stimuli to mitochondrial functions, including fission/fusion, ATP production, metabolite biogenesis, and apoptosis, are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the nutrient-sensing mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates translation of mitochondrial fission process 1 (MTFP1) to control mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Expression of MTFP1 is coupled to pro-fission phosphorylation and mitochondrial recruitment of the fission GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918252/a-pdgf-vegf-homologue-provides-new-insights-into-the-nucleus-grafting-operation-and-immune-response-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#12
Xian-De Huang, Hua Zhang, Mao-Xian He
The platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF, PVF) family of proteins have been implicated in a wide range of biological functions in vertebrates, including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, neural development and especially angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. In this study, a PVF gene, belonging to the PDGF/VEGF family, was cloned and characterized from Pinctada fucata. It contained an ORF of 1110bp encoding a putative protein of 369 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence presented the typical structural features of PDGF family members and the N-terminal signal peptide for secretion...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916274/do-urinary-cystine-parameters-predict-clinical-stone-activity
#13
Justin I Friedlander, Jodi A Antonelli, Noah E Canvasser, Monica S C Morgan, Daniel Mollengarden, Sara Best, Margaret S Pearle
PURPOSE: An accurate urinary predictor of stone recurrence would be clinically advantageous for patients with cystinuria. A proprietary assay from Litholink® (Chicago, IL) measures cystine capacity as a potentially more reliable estimate of stone-forming propensity. The recommended capacity level to prevent stone formation, >150 mg/L, has not been directly correlated with clinical stone activity. Herein we investigated the relationship between urinary cystine parameters and clinical stone activity...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912817/the-effects-of-vitamin-d-supplement-on-prevention-of-recurrence-of-preeclampsia-in-pregnant-women-with-a-history-of-preeclampsia
#14
Sanam Behjat Sasan, Farnaz Zandvakili, Nasrin Soufizadeh, Elaheh Baybordi
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome. One of the hypotheses concerning the etiology of preeclampsia is vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy. METHOD AND MATERIALS: The present study is a randomized controlled clinical trial which aims to determine the effect of vitamin D supplement on reducing the probability of recurrent preeclampsia. 72 patients were placed in control group while 70 patients were randomized to the intervention group. The intervention group received a 50000 IU pearl vitamin D3 once every two weeks...
2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912282/apparent-diffusion-coefficient-histograms-of-human-papillomavirus-positive-and-human-papillomavirus-negative-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-assessment-of-tumor-heterogeneity-and-comparison-with-histopathology
#15
T de Perrot, V Lenoir, M Domingo Ayllón, N Dulguerov, M Pusztaszeri, M Becker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma associated with human papillomavirus infection represents a distinct tumor entity. We hypothesized that diffusion phenotypes based on the histogram analysis of ADC values reflect distinct degrees of tumor heterogeneity in human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred five consecutive patients (mean age, 64 years; range, 45-87 years) with primary oropharyngeal (n = 52) and oral cavity (n = 53) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma underwent MR imaging with anatomic and diffusion-weighted sequences (b = 0, b = 1000 s/mm(2), monoexponential ADC calculation)...
September 14, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902121/critical-care-resources-in-guangdong-province-of-china-three-surveys-from-2005-to-2015
#16
Jian-Feng Wu, Fei Pei, Bin Ouyang, Juan Chen, Yi-Min Li, Yong-Wen Feng, Fa-Liang Guo, Li-Xin Zhou, Zheng Wang, Ying-Jun Guo, Qin-Han Lin, Zhan-Peng Li, Yun Ling, Li Li, Lie-Hua Deng, Ying-Ping Zhao, Jian-Wei Dai, Shu-Yu Luo, Dun-Rong Zhou, Wei-Wen Luo, Ling Zhao, Wei-Ying Chen, Wei-Chuan Wang, Wen-Yang Cai, Qiong-Xiang Luo, Xiang-Dong Guan
OBJECTIVES: Data about the critical care resources in China remain scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation and distribution of critical care resources in Guangdong province from 2005 to 2015. DESIGN: Data in regard to critical care resources were collected through questionnaires and visits every 5 years from 2005. SETTING: All hospitals in Guangdong province were screened and hospitals that provide critical care services were enrolled...
September 8, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893645/a-novel-toll-like-receptor-from-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-martensii-is-induced-in-response-to-stress
#17
Yuyuan Wu, Haiying Liang, Zhixin Wang, Qiannan Lei, Liqun Xia
Graft rejection due to immune incompatibility is a common occurrence in pearl culture, which often cause death to the host oyster. To improve cultured pearl production, host mortality and bead rejection rates must be reduced. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in innate immunity, and may be related to allograft rejection. Here, we cloned the TLR4 cDNA from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii (PmTLR4). PmTLR4 cDNA was 3138bp, including a 2625bp open reading frame encoding 874 amino acids...
September 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889930/radiologic-pearls-for-internists-a-case-based-review
#18
REVIEW
Melissa J McGettigan, Robert A Gatenby
Modern technologic advances in medical imaging and the increasing use of imaging across all disciplines in medicine have led to a striking rise in incidental findings unrelated to the original study indication. Often, these findings have no clinical relevance and will not impact the current or future health status of the patient. It is incumbent on radiologists to report these findings in a definitive and unambiguous manner. Similarly, it is essential for clinicians to restrain from further diagnostic investigation of incidental findings that are conclusive by imaging...
September 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886880/choice-of-technological-change-for-china-s-low-carbon-development-evidence-from-three-urban-agglomerations
#19
Pinrong Jia, Ke Li, Shuai Shao
China's three urban agglomerations, namely, "Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei", "Yangtze River Delta", and "Pearl River Delta", are the most developed regions in China. These agglomerations are also expected to play a leading role in China's low-carbon development. Energy-saving and carbon-free technological changes play key roles in the low-carbon development transformation of these regions. This study investigates the elasticities of the output and substitution of factors, and the biased technological change in the three urban agglomerations based on the stochastic frontier analysis with a translog production function...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886754/on-farm-biosecurity-practices-and-causes-of-preweaning-mortality-in-canadian-commercial-mink-kits
#20
Nicole Compo, David L Pearl, Brian Tapscott, Amanda Storer, Jutta Hammermueller, Marina Brash, Patricia V Turner
BACKGROUND: Mink are an important animal commodity group in Canada and excessive kit mortality represents a significant loss to production. National biosecurity standards have been developed for Canadian mink farms, but it is unclear how well these standards have been implemented as there are no studies correlating management practices of mink producers with causes of death in mink kits. To that end, we surveyed Ontario mink producers on their biosecurity and management practices and conducted almost 5660 post mortem examinations on found-dead, preweaned kits to characterize mink farm biosecurity practices and causes of death in preweaned kits...
September 8, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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