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Cardiac stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350968/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-cardiac-applications-opportunities-and-challenges
#1
Adrien Moreau, Mohamed Boutjdir, Mohamed Chahine
Chronic diseases are the primary cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 67% of deaths. One of the major challenges in developing new treatments is the lack of understanding of the exact underlying biological and molecular mechanisms. Chronic cardiovascular diseases are the single most common cause of death worldwide, and sudden deaths due to cardiac arrhythmias account for approximately 50% of all such cases. Traditional genetic screening for genes involved in cardiac disorders is laborious and frequently fails to detect the mutation that explains or causes the disorder...
March 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346367/transplantation-of-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-the-repair-of-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#2
Bingyu Xiang, Lu Chen, Xiaojun Wang, Yongjia Zhao, Yanling Wang, Charlie Xiang
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) have been shown to be good therapeutic tools in diseases such as ovarian failure and cardiac fibrosis. However, relevant studies of MenSCs in ALI have not yet proceeded. We hypothesized that MenSC could attenuate the inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and promote the repair of damaged lung. ALI model was induced by LPS in C57 mice, and saline or MenSCs were administered via tail vein after four hours...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343439/toward-improved-myocardial-maturity-in-an-organ-on-chip-platform-with-immature-cardiac-myocytes
#3
Sean P Sheehy, Anna Grosberg, Pu Qin, David J Behm, John P Ferrier, Mackenzie A Eagleson, Alexander P Nesmith, David Krull, James G Falls, Patrick H Campbell, Megan L McCain, Robert N Willette, Erding Hu, Kevin K Parker
In vitro studies of cardiac physiology and drug response have traditionally been performed on individual isolated cardiomyocytes or isotropic monolayers of cells that may not mimic desired physiological traits of the laminar adult myocardium. Recent studies have reported a number of advances to Heart-on-a-Chip platforms for the fabrication of more sophisticated engineered myocardium, but cardiomyocyte immaturity remains a challenge. In the anisotropic musculature of the heart, interactions between cardiac myocytes, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and neighboring cells give rise to changes in cell shape and tissue architecture that have been implicated in both development and disease...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341634/contribution-of-two-pore-potassium-channels-to-cardiac-ventricular-action-potential-revealed-using-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes
#4
Sam Chai, Xiaoping Wan, Drew M Nassal, Haiyan Liu, Christine S Moravec, Angelina Ramirez-Navarro, Isabelle Deschenes
Two pore potassium channels (K2p) have been described in modulating background conductance as leak channels in different physiological systems. In the heart, the expression of K2p channels is heterogeneous with equivocation regarding their functional role. Our objective was to determine the K2p expression profile and their physiological and pathophysiological contribution to cardiac electrophysiology. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) cells generated from humans were differentiated into cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM)...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340040/impaired-ability-to-grow-colonies-of-endothelial-stem-cells-could-be-the-mechanism-explaining-the-high-cardiovascular-morbidity-mortality-of-patients-with-depression
#5
Blum Arnon, Pastukh Nina, Zaroura Imad, Jonathan Rotem, Farhat Kamal
Background: Subjects with depression are more prone to develop cardiovascular complications. Severity of depression is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Several mechanisms were suggested including accelerated atherosclerosis, alteration of the cardiac autonomic response with a decrease in heart rate variability. There is evidence that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are decreased in patients with major depression. Our hypothesis was that patients with depression would have an impaired ability to build colonies of endothelial progenitor cells...
March 9, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339837/vitamin-d-treatment-attenuates-cardiac-fgf23-fgfr4-signaling-and-hypertrophy-in-uremic-rats
#6
Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Alexander Grabner, Laura Hermann, Beatrice Richter, Karin Schmitz, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Christopher Yanucil, Christian Faul, Dieter Haffner
Background.: Vitamin D deficiency and excess of circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) contribute to cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). FGF23 activates FGF receptor 4 and (FGFR4) calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling in cardiac myocytes, thereby causing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Here, we determined if 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) inhibits FGF23-induced cardiac signaling and LVH. Methods...
February 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338096/identification-of-cardiac-hemo-vascular-precursors-and-their-requirement-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-for-heart-development
#7
Yan Hu, Brian C Belyea, Minghong Li, Joachim R Göthert, R Ariel Gomez, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez
The cardiac endothelium plays a crucial role in the development of a functional heart. However, the precise identification of the endocardial precursors and the mechanisms they require for their role in heart morphogenesis are not well understood. Using in vivo and in vitro cell fate tracing concomitant with specific cell ablation and embryonic heart transplantation studies, we identified a unique set of precursors which possess hemogenic functions and express the stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene driven by its 5' enhancer...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337437/bioengineering-approaches-to-mature-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#8
REVIEW
Xuetao Sun, Sara S Nunes
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CM) represent a potential unlimited cell supply for cardiac tissue engineering and possibly regenerative medicine applications. However, hPSC-CMs produced by current protocols are not representative of native adult human cardiomyocytes as they display immature gene expression profile, structure and function. In order to improve hPSC-CM maturity and function, various approaches have been developed, including genetic manipulations to induce gene expression, delivery of biochemical factors, such as triiodothyronine and alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, induction of cell alignment in 3D tissues, mechanical stress as a mimic of cardiac load and electrical stimulation/pacing or a combination of these...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336914/inhibition-of-serum-and-glucocorticoid-regulated-kinase-1-as-novel-therapy-for-cardiac-arrhythmia-disorders
#9
Vassilios J Bezzerides, Aifeng Zhang, Ling Xiao, Bridget Simonson, Santosh A Khedkar, Shiro Baba, Filomena Ottaviano, Stacey Lynch, Katherine Hessler, Alan C Rigby, David Milan, Saumya Das, Anthony Rosenzweig
Alterations in sodium flux (INa) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and may also contribute to the development of cardiomyopathies. We have recently demonstrated a critical role for the regulation of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5 in the heart by the serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase-1 (SGK1). Activation of SGK1 in the heart causes a marked increase in both the peak and late sodium currents leading to prolongation of the action potential duration and an increased propensity to arrhythmia...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336524/dual-roles-for-bone-marrow-derived-sca-1-cells-in-cardiac-function
#10
Stephanie W Tobin, Shu-Hong Li, Jiao Li, Jun Wu, Azadeh Yeganeh, Pan Yu, Richard D Weisel, Ren-Ke Li
Recruitment of stem cells from the bone marrow (BM) is an important aspect of cardiac healing that becomes inefficient with age. We investigated the role of young stem cell antigen 1 (Sca-1)-positive BM cells on the aged heart by microarray analysis after BM reconstitution. Sca-1(+) and Sca-1(-) BM cells from young green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive mice were used to reconstitute the BM of aged mice. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced 3 mo later. GFP(+) cells were more abundant in the BM, blood, and heart of Sca-1(+) mice, which corresponded to preserved cardiac function after MI...
March 23, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335032/allele-specific-ablation-rescues-electrophysiological-abnormalities-in-a-human-ips-cell-model-of-long-qt-syndrome-with-a-calm2-mutation
#11
Yuta Yamamoto, Takeru Makiyama, Takeshi Harita, Kenichi Sasaki, Yimin Wuriyanghai, Mamoru Hayano, Suguru Nishiuchi, Hirohiko Kohjitani, Sayako Hirose, Jiarong Chen, Fumika Yokoi, Taisuke Ishikawa, Seiko Ohno, Kazuhisa Chonabayashi, Hideki Motomura, Yoshinori Yoshida, Minoru Horie, Naomasa Makita, Takeshi Kimura
Background: Calmodulin is a ubiquitous Ca 2+ sensor molecule encoded by three distinct calmodulin genes, CALM1-3 . Recently, mutations in CALM1-3 have been reported to be associated with severe early-onset long-QT syndrome (LQTS). However, the underlying mechanism through which heterozygous calmodulin mutations lead to severe LQTS remains unknown, particularly in human cardiomyocytes. Objectives: We aimed to establish an LQTS disease model associated with a CALM2 mutation (LQT15) using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and to assess mutant allele-specific ablation by genome editing for the treatment of LQT15...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334384/the-cancer-paradigms-of-mammalian-regeneration-can-mammals-regenerate-as-amphibians
#12
Rachel Sarig, Eldad Tzahor
Regeneration in mammals is restricted to distinct tissues and occurs mainly by expansion and maturation of resident stem cells. During regeneration, even subtle mutations in the proliferating cells may cause a detrimental effect by eliciting abnormal differentiation or malignant transformation. Indeed, cancer in mammals has been shown to arise through deregulation of stem cells maturation, which often leads to a differentiation block and cell transformation. In contrast, lower organisms such as amphibians retain a remarkable regenerative capacity in various organs, which occurs via de- and re-differentiation of mature cells...
March 15, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333933/geometry-dependent-functional-changes-in-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes-probed-by-functional-imaging-and-rna-sequencing
#13
Christopher A Werley, Miao-Ping Chien, Jellert Gaublomme, Karthik Shekhar, Vincent Butty, B Alexander Yi, Joel M Kralj, William Bloxham, Laurie A Boyer, Aviv Regev, Adam E Cohen
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) are a promising platform for cardiac studies in vitro, and possibly for tissue repair in humans. However, hiPSC-CM cells tend to retain morphology, metabolism, patterns of gene expression, and electrophysiology similar to that of embryonic cardiomyocytes. We grew hiPSC-CM in patterned islands of different sizes and shapes, and measured the effect of island geometry on action potential waveform and calcium dynamics using optical recordings of voltage and calcium from 970 islands of different sizes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332991/accelerated-total-lymphoid-irradiation-containing-salvage-regimen-for-patients-with-refractory-and-relapsed-hodgkin-lymphoma-20%C3%A2-years-of-experience
#14
Andreas Rimner, Shona Lovie, Meier Hsu, Monica Chelius, Zhigang Zhang, Karen Chau, Alison J Moskowitz, Matthew Matasar, Craig H Moskowitz, Joachim Yahalom
PURPOSE: We report the long-term results of integrated accelerated involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) followed by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as part of the high-dose salvage regimen followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation or autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). METHODS AND MATERIALS: From November 1985 to July 2008, 186 previously unirradiated patients with relapsed or refractory HL underwent salvage therapy on 4 consecutive institutional review board-approved protocols...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329361/sex-hormones-affect-outcome-in-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-dysplasia-from-a-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-based-model-to-clinical-biomarkers-of-disease-outcome
#15
Deniz Akdis, Ardan M Saguner, Khooshbu Shah, Chuanyu Wei, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Arnold von Eckardstein, Thomas F Lüscher, Corinna Brunckhorst, H S Vincent Chen, Firat Duru
Aims: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is characterized by fibrofatty infiltration of the myocardium and ventricular arrhythmias that may lead to sudden cardiac death. It has been observed that male patients develop the disease earlier and present with more severe phenotypes as compared to females. Thus, we hypothesized that serum levels of sex hormones may contribute to major arrhythmic cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ARVC/D. Methods and results: The serum levels of five sex hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin, high sensitivity troponin T, pro-brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose were measured in 54 ARVC/D patients (72% male)...
February 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327660/quantitative-volumetric-raman-imaging-of-three-dimensional-cell-cultures
#16
Charalambos Kallepitis, Mads S Bergholt, Manuel M Mazo, Vincent Leonardo, Stacey C Skaalure, Stephanie A Maynard, Molly M Stevens
The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327633/cardiac-drug-drug-interaction-between-hcv-ns5b-pronucleotide-inhibitors-and-amiodarone-is-determined-by-their-specific-diastereochemistry
#17
Armando Lagrutta, Christopher P Regan, Haoyu Zeng, John P Imredy, Kenneth Koeplinger, Pierre Morissette, Liping Liu, Gordon Wollenberg, Christopher Brynczka, José Lebrón, Joseph DeGeorge, Frederick Sannajust
Severe bradycardia/bradyarrhythmia following coadministration of the HCV-NS5B prodrug sofosbuvir with amiodarone was recently reported. Our previous preclinical in vivo experiments demonstrated that only certain HCV-NS5B prodrugs elicit bradycardia when combined with amiodarone. In this study, we evaluate the impact of HCV-NS5B prodrug phosphoramidate diastereochemistry (D-/L-alanine, R-/S-phosphoryl) in vitro and in vivo. Co-applied with amiodarone, L-ala,SP prodrugs increased beating rate and decreased beat amplitude in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), but D-ala,RP produgs, including MK-3682, did not...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326324/three-dimensional-human-cardiac-tissue-engineered-by-centrifugation-of-stacked-cell-sheets-and-cross-sectional-observation-of-its-synchronous-beatings-by-optical-coherence-tomography
#18
Yuji Haraguchi, Akiyuki Hasegawa, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Mari Kobayashi, Shin-Ichi Iwana, Yasuhiro Kabetani, Tatsuya Shimizu
Three-dimensional (3D) tissues are engineered by stacking cell sheets, and these tissues have been applied in clinical regenerative therapies. The optimal fabrication technique of 3D human tissues and the real-time observation system for these tissues are important in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cardiac physiology, and the safety testing of candidate chemicals. In this study, for aiming the clinical application, 3D human cardiac tissues were rapidly fabricated by human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cell sheets with centrifugation, and the structures and beatings in the cardiac tissues were observed cross-sectionally and noninvasively by two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322510/rational-design-of-a-conductive-collagen-heart-patch
#19
Peter C Sherrell, Artur Cieślar-Pobuda, Malin Silverå Ejneby, Laura Sammalisto, Amy Gelmi, Ebo de Muinck, Johan Brask, Marek J Łos, Mehrdad Rafat
Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality globally. Tissue engineering is a key emerging treatment method for supporting and repairing the cardiac scar tissue caused by myocardial infarction. Creating cell supportive scaffolds that can be directly implanted on a myocardial infarct is an attractive solution. Hydrogels made of collagen are highly biocompatible materials that can be molded into a range of shapes suitable for cardiac patch applications...
March 21, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322445/transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-il10-attenuates-cardiac-impairments-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#20
Xin Meng, Jianping Li, Ming Yu, Jian Yang, Minjuan Zheng, Jinzhou Zhang, Chao Sun, Hongliang Liang, Liwen Liu
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been well known to exert therapeutic potential for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, interleukin-10 (IL10) could attenuate MI through suppressing inflammation. Thus, the combination of MSC implantation with IL10 delivery may extend health benefits to ameliorate cardiac injury after MI. Here we established overexpression of IL10 in bone marrow-derived MSC through adenoviral transduction. Cell viability, apoptosis and IL10 secretion under ischemic challenge in vitro were examined...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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