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Cardiac stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440472/human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-acute-myocarditis-by-modulating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-1-2-mediated-apoptosis
#1
Changyi Zhang, Guichi Zhou, Chanxin Cai, Jindi Li, Fen Chen, Lichun Xie, Wei Wang, Yonggang Zhang, Xiulan Lai, Lian Ma
Acute myocarditis is a non-ischemic inflammatory disease of the myocardium, and there is currently no standard treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can alleviate myosin‑induced myocarditis; however, the mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, the authors investigated the ability of human umbilical cordMSCs (HuMSCs) to attenuate myocardial injury and dysfunction during the acute phase of experimental myocarditis. Male Lewis rats (aged 8 weeks) were injected with porcine myosin to induce myocarditis...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440414/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-promotes-the-survival-and-angiogenesis-of-transplanted-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-the-infarcted-myocardium
#2
Zhe Quan, Qiang-Li Wang, Pei Zhou, Guo-Dong Wang, Yu-Zhen Tan, Hai-Jie Wang
The survival of transplanted stem cells in ischemic tissue is poor. In the present study, the effects of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on the survival and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and improvement in cardiac functions after transplantation of Tβ4-treated EPCs in the infarcted myocardium were investigated. EPCs were isolated from bone marrow of adult male rats and incubated in Endothelial Basal Medium-2. Then the cells were treated with Tβ4 at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 µM), and cells incubated with DMEM were set as controls...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439945/enhancement-of-cardiomyogenesis-in-murine-stem-cells-by-low-intensity-ultrasound
#3
Ailing Teo, Amir Morshedi, Jen-Chieh Wang, Yufeng Zhou, Mayasari Lim
OBJECTIVES: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) has been shown to enhance bone and cartilage regeneration from stem cells. The ease of its incorporation makes it an attractive mechanical stimulus for not only osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, but also cardiomyogenesis. However, to date, no study has investigated its effects on cardiomyogenesis from embryonic stem cells. METHODS: In this study, murine embryonic stem cells were differentiated via embryoid body formation and plating, and after 3 days they were subjected to daily 10 minutes of LIUS treatment with various conditions: (1) low-pulsed (21 mW/cm(2) , 20% duty cycle), (2) low-continuous, (3) high-pulsed (147 mW/cm(2) , 20% duty cycle), and (4) high-continuous LIUS...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435069/age-related-increase-in-wnt-inhibitor-causes-a-senescence-like-phenotype-in-human-cardiac-stem-cells
#4
Tamami Nakamura, Tohru Hosoyamaa, Junichi Murakami, Makoto Samura, Koji Ueno, Hiroshi Kurazumi, Ryo Suzuki, Akihito Mikamo, Kimikazu Hamano
Aging of cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CSCs) impairs heart regeneration and leads to unsatisfactory outcomes of cell-based therapies. As the precise mechanisms underlying CSC aging remain unclear, the use of therapeutic strategies for elderly patients with heart failure is severely delayed. In this study, we used human cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), a subtype of CSC found in the postnatal heart, to identify secreted factor(s) associated with CSC aging. Human CDCs were isolated from heart failure patients of various ages (2-83 years old)...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434942/ipsc-derived-regulatory-dendritic-cells-inhibit-allograft-rejection-by%C3%A2-generating-alloantigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#5
Songjie Cai, Jiangang Hou, Masayuki Fujino, Qi Zhang, Naotsugu Ichimaru, Shiro Takahara, Ryoko Araki, Lina Lu, Ji-Mei Chen, Jian Zhuang, Ping Zhu, Xiao-Kang Li
Regulatory dendritic cell (DCregs)-based immunotherapy is a potential therapeutic tool for transplant rejection. We generated DCregs from murine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which could remain in a "stable immature stage" even under strong stimulation. Harnessing this characteristic, we hypothesized that iPS-DCregs worked as a negative vaccine to generate regulatory T cells (Tregs), and induced donor-specific allograft acceptance. We immunized naive CBA (H-2K(k)) mice with B6 (H-2K(b)) iPS-DCregs and found that Tregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)) significantly increased in CBA splenocytes...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434939/calreticulin-is-required-for-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-during-cardiogenesis-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#6
Fereshteh Karimzadeh, Michal Opas
Calreticulin, a multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum resident protein, is required for TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent cardiomyogenesis. Using embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from calreticulin-null and wild-type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we show that expression of EMT and cardiac differentiation markers is induced during differentiation of WT EBs. This induction is inhibited in the absence of calreticulin and can be mimicked by inhibiting TGF-β signaling in WT cells...
April 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434621/mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cardiac-repair-is-the-placenta-the-answer
#7
EDITORIAL
Harold L Lazar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430892/anti-arrhythmic-potential-of-the-late-sodium-current-inhibitor-gs-458967-in-murine-scn5a-1798insd-and-human-scn5a-1795insd-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes
#8
Vincent Portero, Simona Casini, Maaike Hoekstra, Arie O Verkerk, Isabella Mengarelli, Luiz Belardinelli, Sridharan Rajamani, Arthur A M Wilde, Connie R Bezzina, Marieke W Veldkamp, Carol Ann Remme
AIM: Selective inhibition of cardiac late sodium current (INaL) is an emerging target in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated the electrophysiological effects of GS-458967 (GS967), a potent, selective inhibitor of INaL, in an overlap syndrome model of both gain and loss of sodium channel function, comprising cardiomyocytes derived from both human SCN5A-1795insD+/- induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs) and mice carrying the homologous mutation Scn5a-1798insD+/-...
April 18, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424763/airway-problems-in-neonates-a-review-of-the-current-investigation-and-management-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Quen Mok
Airway problems in the neonatal population are often life threatening and raise challenging issues in diagnosis and management. The airway problems can result from congenital or acquired lesions and can be broadly classified into those causing obstruction or those due to an abnormal "communication" in the airway. Many different investigations are now available to identify the diagnosis and quantify the severity of the problem, and these tests can be simple or invasive. Bronchography and bronchoscopy are essential to determine the extent and severity of the airway problem and to plan treatment strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421296/metabolite-signatures-of-doxorubicin-induced-toxicity-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#10
Umesh Chaudhari, James K Ellis, Vilas Wagh, Harshal Nemade, Jürgen Hescheler, Hector C Keun, Agapios Sachinidis
Drug-induced off-target cardiotoxicity, particularly following anti-cancer therapy, is a major concern in new drug discovery and development. To ensure patient safety and efficient pharmaceutical drug development, there is an urgent need to develop more predictive cell model systems and distinct toxicity signatures. In this study, we applied our previously proposed repeated exposure toxicity methodology and performed (1)H NMR spectroscopy-based extracellular metabolic profiling in culture medium of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) exposed to doxorubicin (DOX), an anti-cancer agent...
April 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420436/autophagy-mediates-the-beneficial-effect-of-hypoxic-preconditioning-on-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-therapy-of-myocardial-infarction
#11
Zheng Zhang, Chao Yang, Mingzhi Shen, Ming Yang, Zhitao Jin, Liping Ding, Wei Jiang, Junke Yang, Haixu Chen, Feng Cao, Taohong Hu
BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for myocardial infarction (MI). However, the poor viability of transplanted stem cells hampers their therapeutic efficacy. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) can effectively promote the survival of stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HPC improved the functional survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and increased their cardiac protective effect. METHODS: BM-MSCs, isolated from Tg(Fluc-egfp) mice which constitutively express both firefly luciferase (Fluc) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), were preconditioned with HPC (1% O2) for 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h, respectively, followed by 24 h of hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD) injury...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419336/ip3r-mediated-ca2-signals-govern-hematopoietic-and-cardiac-divergence-of-flk1-cells-via-the-calcineurin-nfatc3-etv2-pathway
#12
Yi-Jie Wang, Jijun Huang, Wenqiang Liu, Xiaochen Kou, Huayuan Tang, Hong Wang, Xiujian Yu, Shaorong Gao, Kunfu Ouyang, Huang-Tian Yang
Ca2+ signals participate in various cellular processes with spatial and temporal dynamics, among which, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs)-mediated Ca2+ signals are essential for early development. However, the underlying mechanisms of IP3R-regulated cell fate decision remain largely unknown. Here we report that IP3Rs are required for the hematopoietic and cardiac fate divergence of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Deletion of IP3Rs (IP3R-tKO) reduced Flk1+/PDGFRα- hematopoietic mesoderm, c-Kit+/CD41+ hematopoietic progenitor cell population, and the colony-forming unit activity, but increased cardiac progenitor markers as well as cardiomyocytes...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418864/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-mir-21-efficiently-repair-myocardial-damage-in-rats
#13
Yan-Ling Zeng, Hao Zheng, Qiu-Ru Chen, Xiao-Hong Yuan, Jin-Hua Ren, Xiao-Feng Luo, Ping Chen, Zhe-Yao Lin, Shao-Zhen Chen, Xue-Qiong Wu, Min Xiao, Yong-Quan Chen, Zhi-Zhe Chen, Jian-Da Hu, Ting Yang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the ability of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) overexpressing microRNA-21 (miR-21) to repair cardiac damage induced by anthracyclines in rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of 2~3 weeks old were selected to isolate and culture BMSCs. A lentivirus harboring pLVX-miR-21 was generated and transfected into rat BMSCs. The rats were assigned into an untreated negative control group, and groups injected with adriamycin alone or with adriamycin followed by BMSCs, pLVX-BMSCs or pLVX-miR-21-BMSCs (n = 10 each)...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418360/-role-of-telocytes-in-the-heart-in-health-and-diseases
#14
Yu V Liskova, A A Stadnikov, S P Salikova
This review summarizes the data available in the literature on the development, structure, and function of telocytes (TCs) and their role in the heart in health and diseases. At the present time, TCs have been found in many organs of mammals and humans. TC is a small oval cell that contains a nucleus surrounded by small amounts of cytoplasm, with extremely long and thin processes named telopodias. TCs have unique ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features; double positive labeling for CD34/PDGFR-β and CD34/vimentin is suitable for their identification...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416208/fetal-and-perinatal-stem-cells-in-cardiac-regeneration-moving-forward-to-the-paracrine-era
#15
C Balbi, S Bollini
Cardiovascular disease (CD) is a major burden for Western society. Regenerative medicine has provided encouraging results, yet it has not addressed the focal defects causing CD and mainly related to the inefficient repair programme of the heart. In this scenario, stem cells have been broadly investigated and their paracrine effect proposed as a possible working strategy to boost endogenous mechanisms of repair and regeneration from within the cardiac tissue. The scientific community is now focusing on identifying the most effective stem cell secretome, as the whole of bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles secreted by stem cells and endowed with regenerative potential...
April 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414815/isolation-of-human-explant-derived-cardiac-stem-cells-from-cryopreserved-heart-tissue
#16
Robyn Jackson, Seth Mount, Bin Ye, Audrey E Mayfield, Vincent Chan, Munir Boodhwani, Ross A Davies, Haissam Haddad, Darryl R Davis
The value of preserving high quality bio specimens for fundamental research is significant as linking cellular and molecular changes to clinical and epidemiological data has fueled many recent advances in medicine. Unfortunately, storage of traditional biospecimens is limited to fixed samples or isolated genetic material. Here, we report the effect of cryopreservation of routine myocardial biopsies on explant derived cardiac stem cell (EDC) culture outcomes. We demonstrate that immediate cryopreservation or delayed cryopreservation after suspension within cardioplegia for 12 hours did not alter EDC yields, proliferative capacity, antigenic phenotype or paracrine signature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412246/absence-of-nucks-augments-paracrine-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mediated-cardiac-protection
#17
Yuelin Zhang, Sinming Chiu, Xiaoting Liang, Yuet-Hung Chai, Yiming Qin, Junwen Wang, Xiang Li, Beiying Qiu, Vinay Tergaonkar, Hung-Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) contribute to myocardial repair after myocardial infarction (MI) by secreting a panel of growth factors and cytokines. This study was to investigate the potential mechanisms of the nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1 (NUCKS) in regulation of the profiles of BM-MSCs secretion and compare the therapeutic efficacy of NUCKS(-/-)- and wide type-BM-MSCs (WT-BM-MSCs) on MI. The secretion profiles between NUCKS(-/-)- and WT-BM-MSCs under hypoxia (1%O2) were analyzed...
April 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410244/platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-positive-cardiac-progenitor-cells-derived-from-multipotent-germline-stem-cells-are-capable-of-cardiomyogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Bang-Jin Kim, Yong-Hee Kim, Yong-An Lee, Sang-Eun Jung, Yeong Ho Hong, Eun-Ju Lee, Byung-Gak Kim, Seongsoo Hwang, Jeong Tae Do, Myung-Geol Pang, Buom-Yong Ryu
Cardiac cell therapy has the potential to revolutionize treatment of heart diseases, but its success hinders on the development of a stem cell therapy capable of efficiently producing functionally differentiated cardiomyocytes. A key to unlocking the therapeutic application of stem cells lies in understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern the differentiation process. Here we report that a population of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) cells derived from mouse multipotent germline stem cells (mGSCs) were capable of undergoing cardiomyogenesis in vitro...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410215/cardiac-glycosides-suppress-the-maintenance-of-stemness-and-malignancy-via-inhibiting-hif-1%C3%AE-in-human-glioma-stem-cells
#19
Dae-Hee Lee, Sang Cheul Oh, Amber J Giles, Jinkyu Jung, Mark R Gilbert, Deric M Park
Tissue hypoxia contributes to solid tumor pathogenesis by activating a series of adaptive programs. We previously showed that hypoxia promotes the preferential expansion and maintenance of CD133 positive human glioma stem cells (GSC) in a hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent mechanism. Here, we examined the activity of digitoxin (DT), a cardiac glycoside and a putative inhibitor of HIF-1α, on human GSC in vitro and in vivo. During hypoxic conditions (1% O2), we observed the effect of DT on the intracellular level of HIF-1α and the extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human GSC...
March 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408455/cell-therapy-trials-in-congenital-heart-disease
#20
REVIEW
Hidemasa Oh
Dramatic evolution in medical and catheter interventions and complex surgeries to treat children with congenital heart disease (CHD) has led to a growing number of patients with a multitude of long-term complications associated with morbidity and mortality. Heart failure in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome predicated by functional single ventricle lesions is associated with an increase in CHD prevalence and remains a significant challenge. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the progression of CHD, including single ventricle lesions and dilated cardiomyopathy, and adult heart disease may inevitably differ...
April 14, 2017: Circulation Research
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