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Vaginal microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435139/the-role-of-lactic-acid-production-by-probiotic-lactobacillus-species-in-vaginal-health
#1
Gilda Tachedjian, Muriel Aldunate, Catronia S Bradshaw, Richard A Cone
Vaginal eubiosis is characterised by beneficial lactobacillus-dominated microbiota. In contrast, vaginal dysbiosis (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, BV), characterised by an overgrowth of multiple anaerobes, is associated with an increased risk of adverse urogenital and reproductive health outcomes. A major distinguishing feature between the vaginal environment in states of eubiosis and dysbiosis is a high concentration of lactic acid, produced by lactobacilli, that acidifies the vagina in eubiosis versus a sharp drop in lactic acid and an increase in pH in dysbiosis...
April 20, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430679/cervicovaginal-levels-of-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-2-3-and-4-of-reproductive-aged-women-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection
#2
Nathália Mayumi Noda-Nicolau, Larissa Brito Bastos, Aline Nascimento Bolpetti, Gabriel Vitor Silva Pinto, Larissa Doddi Marcolino, Camila Marconi, Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira, Jossimara Polettini, Eliane Passarelli Vieira, Márcia Guimarães da Silva
OBJECTIVE: This study included women attending primary health care units in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, to assess the cervicovaginal levels of human β-defensin (hBD) 1, 2, 3, and 4 during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cervicovaginal samples were collected for Pap testing and assessing the presence of infection by C. trachomatis, human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Vaginal smears were taken to evaluate local microbiota...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426023/infection-brief-encounter-uti-triggered-by-vaginal-microbiota
#3
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418713/defence-factors-of-vaginal-lactobacilli
#4
S Kovachev
Accurate knowledge of the composition and ecology of the vaginal microbial environment in healthy women is necessary for understanding lactobacilli-dominated normal microbiota and the mechanisms by which it reduces disease risk. The vagina and its microbiota form a balanced ecosystem; any movement outside the normal range for this ecosystem of obligate and/or facultative microbes, termed dysbacteriosis, can lead to infection and disease. This review summarizes recent research on the vaginal ecosystem, the Lactobacillus species that dominate it, and the means by which they suppress the growth, development, and/or proliferation of pathogenic microbial species...
April 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416607/human-milk-oligosaccharides-inhibit-growth-of-group-b-streptococcus
#5
Ann E Lin, Chloe A Autran, Alexandra Szyszka, Tamara Escajadillo, Mia Huang, Kamil Godula, Anthony R Prudden, Geert-Jan Boons, Amanda L Lewis, Kelly S Doran, Victor Nizet, Lars Bode
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide development of the infant's immune system and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce risk of infection. In the course of our studies of HMO-microbial interactions, we unexpectedly uncovered a novel HMO property to directly inhibit the growth of GBS, independent of host immunity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401934/vaginal-lactic-acid-elicits-an-anti-inflammatory-response-from-human-cervicovaginal-epithelial-cells-and-inhibits-production-of-pro-inflammatory-mediators-associated-with-hiv-acquisition
#6
A C Hearps, D Tyssen, D Srbinovski, L Bayigga, D J D Diaz, M Aldunate, R A Cone, R Gugasyan, D J Anderson, G Tachedjian
Inflammation in the female reproductive tract (FRT) is associated with increased HIV transmission. Lactobacillus spp. dominate the vaginal microbiota of many women and their presence is associated with reduced HIV acquisition. Here we demonstrate that lactic acid (LA), a major organic acid metabolite produced by lactobacilli, mediates anti-inflammatory effects on human cervicovaginal epithelial cells. Treatment of human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines with LA (pH 3.9) elicited significant increases in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1RA...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398069/comparison-of-mucosal-markers-of-hiv-susceptibility-in-healthy-premenopausal-versus-postmenopausal-women
#7
Andrea Ries Thurman, Nazita Yousefieh, Neelima Chandra, Thomas Dudley Kimble, Susana Asin, Christiane Rollenhagen, Sharon Anderson, Betsy Herold, Jamie L Freiermuth, Brian S Starkman, Pedro Mesquita, Nicola Richardson-Harman, Tina Duong Cunningham, Sharon L Hillier, Lorna Rabe, Jill L Schwartz, Gustavo Doncel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize cervicovaginal (CV) mucosal factors modulating susceptibility to HIV acquisition in healthy premenopausal (PRE) and postmenopausal (POST) women before and after treatment with estradiol. METHODS: We compared CV mucosal epithelial histology and immune cells, vaginal microbiota, antimicrobial activity of, and soluble mucosal protein concentrations in the CV fluid lavage (CVL), and p24 antigen production after ex vivo infection of ectocervical tissues with HIV-1BaL among PRE women (n = 20) in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and POST women (n = 17) at baseline and after approximately 1 month of treatment with 0...
April 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388469/higher-prevalence-of-colonization-with-gardnerella-vaginalis-and-gram-negative-anaerobes-in-patients-with-recurrent-miscarriage-and-elevated-peripheral-natural-killer-cells
#8
R J Kuon, R Togawa, K Vomstein, M Weber, T Goeggl, T Strowitzki, U R Markert, S Zimmermann, V Daniel, A H Dalpke, B Toth
The role of vaginal infections in recurrent miscarriage (RM) is discussed controversially and screening is not recommended in international guidelines. Peripheral and uterine NK cells (pNK, uNK) play an important role in the establishment of a healthy pregnancy and are targets of immune diagnostics in RM patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition of the vaginal microbiota in RM patients and to correlate the findings to clinical characteristics as well as NK cell parameters. In total, n=243 RM patients with ≥3 consecutive miscarriages were recruited between 11/2011 and 03/2016...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381231/exposure-to-household-furry-pets-influences-the-gut-microbiota-of-infant-at-3-4%C3%A2-months-following-various-birth-scenarios
#9
Hein M Tun, Theodore Konya, Tim K Takaro, Jeffrey R Brook, Radha Chari, Catherine J Field, David S Guttman, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to household pets has the capacity to reduce risk for overweight and allergic disease, especially following caesarean delivery. Since there is some evidence that pets also alter the gut microbial composition of infants, changes to the gut microbiome are putative pathways by which pet exposure can reduce these risks to health. To investigate the impact of pre- and postnatal pet exposure on infant gut microbiota following various birth scenarios, this study employed a large subsample of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) cohort, whose mothers were enrolled during pregnancy between 2009 and 2012...
April 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374172/evaluation-of-potential-probiotics-isolated-from-human-milk-and-colostrum
#10
Quésia S Damaceno, Jaqueline P Souza, Jacques R Nicoli, Raquel L Paula, Gabriela B Assis, Henrique C Figueiredo, Vasco Azevedo, Flaviano S Martins
Several studies have demonstrated a diversity of bacterial species in human milk, even in aseptically collected samples. The present study evaluated potential probiotic bacteria isolated from human milk and associated maternal variables. Milk samples were collected from 47 healthy women and cultured on selective and universal agar media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacterial isolates were counted and identified by Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry and then tested for probiotic properties...
April 3, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358889/transient-microbiota-exposures-activate-dormant-escherichia-coli-infection-in-the-bladder-and-drive-severe-outcomes-of-recurrent-disease
#11
Nicole M Gilbert, Valerie P O'Brien, Amanda L Lewis
Pathogens often inhabit the body asymptomatically, emerging to cause disease in response to unknown triggers. In the bladder, latent intracellular Escherichia coli reservoirs are regarded as likely origins of recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI), a problem affecting millions of women worldwide. However, clinically plausible triggers that activate these reservoirs are unknown. Clinical studies suggest that the composition of a woman's vaginal microbiota influences her susceptibility to rUTI, but the mechanisms behind these associations are unclear...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351489/dying-for-love-perimenopausal-degeneration-of-vaginal-microbiome-drives-the-chronic-inflammation-malignant-transformation-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-to-prostatic-adenocarcinoma
#12
Albert Stuart Reece
Prostatic carcinoma is the second commonest cancer in males and is so common as to become almost holoendemic with advancing age. The recent demonstration that far from being benign, "benign" prostatic hypertrophy is a likely a reaction of the prostate to chronic untreated lower genital tract infection, and that this chronic inflammation is likely the usual precursor to the frequent occurrence of prostatic carcinoma has far reaching implications. The obvious source for the chronic inflammatory stimulus in the prostate is the documented dramatically altered lower female genital microbiota associated with the menopause...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349616/antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-sp-isolated-from-the-vaginal-environment-of-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-spp-bred-ex%C3%A2-situ
#13
Anna C J Donato, Bruno Penna, Angélica Consalter, Daniela D Carvalho, Walter Lilenbaum, Ana M R Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) have been widely used as animal models; however, the occurrence of Staphylococcus sp in their vaginal microbiota remains to be described. METHODS: Samples were collected from 175 adult squirrel monkeys to isolate Staphylococcus sp and to test for susceptibility to a panel of nine antimicrobial agents. RESULTS: Isolates with characteristics of the genus Staphylococcus were detected in 95 of 175 samples...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346935/dysbiosis-in-the-neonatal-period-role-of-cesarean-section
#14
Josef Neu
From epidemiological studies and studies done evaluating microbiomes in infants, there is a strong signal that the infants born by elective cesarean section (C-section) develop microbiota that differs from those babies born by vaginal delivery. Epidemiological studies show increased odds ratios for the development of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, asthma, allergic diseases as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity in babies born by C-section. These are interesting associations, and if supported by additional studies that rigorously control for confounding factors, they will have major public health implications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#15
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#17
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315382/characterization-of-vaginal-lactobacillus-species-by-rplk-based-multiplex-qpcr-in-russian-women
#18
Vladimir V Demkin, Stanislav I Koshechkin
We describe a multiplex qPCR assay for identification and quantitative assessment of a set of vaginal Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. helveticus, L. iners, and L. jensenii. The assay extends the previously developed qPCR method for Lactobacillus detection and total quantification based on targeting the rplK gene. Both assays use only single pair of primers and a set of probes combined in three reactions, comprising a vaginal Lactobacillus diagnostic assay panel...
March 14, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302110/beneficial-effects-of-a-coriolus-versicolor-based-vaginal-gel-on-cervical-epithelization-vaginal-microbiota-and-vaginal-health-a-pilot-study-in-asymptomatic-women
#19
Santiago Palacios, Fernando Losa, Damián Dexeus, Javier Cortés
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of a 12-day treatment using a vaginal gel based on niosomes containing hyaluronic acid, ß-glucan, alpha-glucan oligosaccharide, Coriolus versicolor, Asian centella, Azadirachta indica and Aloe vera on vaginal microbiota, cervical epithelization and vaginal health. METHODS: Open-label, prospective pilot study conducted in asymptomatic women in daily practice. Cervical epithelization was evaluated by colposcopy using an ectopy epithelization score (from 5: no ectopy to 1: severe ectopy and bleeding), vaginal microbiota using the VaginaStatus-Diagnostic test (Instiüt für Mikroökologie, Herborn, Germany) and further rated by the investigator using a 5-point Liker scale (from 5: normal to 1: very severe deterioration in which all evaluated species were altered), and vaginal health using the Vaginal Health Index...
March 16, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301987/properties-of-epithelial-cells-and-vaginal-secretions-in-pregnant-women-when-lactobacillus-crispatus-or-lactobacillus-iners-dominate-the-vaginal-microbiome
#20
Julie Leizer, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Larry J Forney, G Maria Schneider, Karol Gliniewicz, Allison Boester, Steven S Witkin
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine differences in properties of vaginal epithelial cells and the composition of vaginal secretions when Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus iners are numerically dominant in the vaginal microenvironment of pregnant women. METHODS: The vaginal microbiomes of 157 first-trimester pregnant women were identified by classifying partial 16S gene sequences amplified from the V1 to V3 region of bacterial ribosomal 16S RNA genes...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
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