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Vaginal microbiota

Jeong Hyun Kim, Seung Min Yoo, Yong Hak Sohn, Chan Hee Jin, Yun Suk Yang, In Taek Hwang, Kwan Young Oh
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predominant Lactobacillus species types of vaginal microbiota in pregnant Korean women by quantifying five Lactobacillus species and two anaerobes. METHODS: One hundred sixty-eight pregnant Korean women under antenatal care at Eulji University Hospital and local clinics were enrolled in the prospective cohort study during pregnancy (10-14 wks). Vaginal samples were collected with Eswab for qPCR and stored in a -80ºC freezer. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for five Lactobacillus species, and two anaerobes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Francesca Deidda, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Teresa Graziano, Marco Pane, Serena Allesina, Elisabetta Raiteri, Mario Del Piano, Luca Mogna
GOALS: To investigate the possible use of Lactobacillus strains in the prophylaxis and/or adjuvant therapy of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis and other vaginal infections sustained by Candida yeasts. BACKGROUND: The incidence of Candida infections has substantially increased in recent years. Treatment of vaginal infections with lactobacilli has a long tradition, starting with Döderlein's description of the vaginal microbiota. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the activity of serially diluted fluconazole and miconazole (from 3 ng/mL to 1 mg/mL) against Candida strains...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Inmaculada Moreno, Francisco M Codoñer, Felipe Vilella, Diana Valbuena, Juan F Martinez-Blanch, Jorge Jimenez-Almazán, Roberto Alonso, Pilar Alamá, Jose Remohí, Antonio Pellicer, Daniel Ramon, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Bacterial cells in the human body account for 1-3% of total body weight and are at least equal in number to human cells. Recent research has focused on understanding how the different bacterial communities in the body (eg, gut, respiratory, skin, and vaginal microbiomes) predispose to health and disease. The microbiota of the reproductive tract has been inferred from the vaginal bacterial communities, and the uterus has been classically considered a sterile cavity. However, while the vaginal microbiota has been investigated in depth, there is a paucity of consistent data regarding the existence of an endometrial microbiota and its possible impact in reproductive function...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Daniele Maria Knupp de Souza, Claudio Galuppo Diniz, Didier Silveira Castellano Filho, Laura Maria Andrade de Oliveira, Débora Martins Coelho, Luciana De Souza Talha, Thiago César do Nascimento, Alessandra Barbosa Ferreira-Machado, Vânia Lúcia da Silva
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a syndrome related to Gardnerella vaginalis and is characterized by an imbalance in the vaginal microbiota. This work focused on the evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and the occurrence of the vaginolysin (vly) gene in G. vaginalis isolated from BV and non-BV patients. METHODOLOGY: The vaginal secretions were collected randomly and processed for G. vaginalis isolation. The isolates were presumptively identified by β-hemolysis and oxidase and catalase tests...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Amanda L Lewis, Grace E Deitzler, Maria J Ruiz, Cory Weimer, SoEun Park, Lloyd S Robinson, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Aye Wollam, Makedonka Mitreva, Warren G Lewis
The composition of the vaginal microbiota is an important health determinant. Several members of the phylum Actinobacteria have been implicated in bacterial vaginosis, a condition associated with many negative health outcomes. Here, we present 11 strains of vaginal Actinobacteria (now available through BEI Resources) along with draft genome sequences.
September 29, 2016: Genome Announcements
Christina Gill, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Frances Blow, Alistair C Darby
BACKGROUND: Recent studies on the vaginal microbiota have employed molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the bacterial community as a whole. These techniques require the lysis of bacterial cells to release DNA before purification and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Currently, methods for the lysis of bacterial cells are not standardised and there is potential for introducing bias into the results if some bacterial species are lysed less efficiently than others...
2016: PloS One
Manuel Ferrer, Celia Méndez-García, David Rojo, Coral Barbas, Andrés Moya
Our microbiome should be understood as one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is one of the microbiome covariates that influence its composition. The extent to which our microbiota changes after an antibiotic intervention depends not only on the chemical nature of the antibiotic or cocktail of antibiotics used to treat specific infections, but also on the type of administration, duration and dose, as well as the level of resistance that each microbiota develops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
C Genovese, S Corsello, D Nicolosi, V Aidala, E Falcidia, G Tempera
OBJECTIVE: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) is a significant issue in obstetric practice. One of the risk factors for pPROM are vaginal infections in the third trimester of pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an observational study on 600 pregnant women, analyzing the lactobacillary grade (LBG) and the presence of any pathogenic bacteria and/or Candida at weeks 28 and 32 of pregnancy and recording any pPROM events at delivery. At week 28, in the case of vaginal infection, the patients were treated for 6 days with a topical association of metronidazole+clotrimazole...
August 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
C van der Veer, S M Bruisten, J J van der Helm, Hjc de Vries, R van Houdt
BACKGROUND:  Increasing evidence suggests that cervico-vaginal microbiota (CVM) play an important role in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STI). Here we study the CVM in a population of women notified by a sex-partner for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. METHODS:  We included 98 women who were contact-traced by C. trachomatis positive sex partners at the STI outpatient clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and analyzed their cervico-vaginal samples and clinical data...
August 27, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Tine D Clausen, Thomas Bergholt, Olivier Bouaziz, Magnus Arpi, Frank Eriksson, Steen Rasmussen, Niels Keiding, Ellen C Løkkegaard
BACKGROUND: Studies link antibiotic treatment and delivery by cesarean section with increased risk of chronic diseases through changes of the gut-microbiota. We aimed to evaluate the association of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment during the first two years of life with subsequent onset of childhood type 1 diabetes and the potential effect-modification by mode of delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Danish nationwide cohort study including all singletons born during 1997-2010...
2016: PloS One
Laura L Reimers, Supriya D Mehta, L Stewart Massad, Robert D Burk, Xianhong Xie, Jacques Ravel, Mardge H Cohen, Joel M Palefsky, Kathleen Weber, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Howard Minkoff, Jessica Atrio, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Qian Ye, Christine Colie, Christine P Zolnik, Gregory T Spear, Howard D Strickler
BACKGROUND:  Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by low abundance of Lactobacillus spp., high pH, immune cell infiltration, and has been associated with increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We molecularly assessed the cervicovaginal microbiota over time in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women to more comprehensively study the HPV-microbiota relationship, controlling for immune status. METHODS:  16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and HPV DNA testing was conducted annually in serial cervicovaginal lavage specimens obtained over 8-10 years in African American women from Chicago: (i) N=22 HIV-uninfected, (ii) N=22 HIV-infected with stable CD4 >500 cells/mm(3), (iii) N=20 HIV-infected women with progressive immunosuppression...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ronald W Smith, Andrew Brittingham, Wayne A Wilson
The parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection trichomoniasis. In the laboratory, T. vaginalis is typically cultured in a serum-containing medium with maltose or glucose as the carbon source. The nature of the carbohydrates used by the organism in the environment of its host is unclear. However, the vagina contains substantial amounts of glycogen, which is believed to provide a growth substrate for the vaginal microbiota. We have shown previously that T...
August 6, 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Qing Xia, Lijuan Cheng, Hua Zhang, Shangwen Sun, Fang Liu, Hao Li, Jing Yuan, Zhendong Liu, Yutao Diao
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common complex associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, affecting women of different ages throughout the world. The etiology of BV remains poorly understood due to the difficulty of establishing a molecular genetic criterion to recognize the vaginal microbiota of BV-positive women from that of the normal women. We used techniques of broad-range PCR-DGGE and gel imaging analysis system cooperated with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and statistical analysis to investigate the community structure of the healthy and BV-affected vaginal microbial ecosystems...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yakov Vitrenko, Iryna Kostenko, Kateryna Kulebyakina, Alla Duda, Mariya Klunnyk, Khrystyna Sorochynska
Cell preparations to be used in clinical practice must be free of infectious agents. Safety concerns are especially elevated upon the use of human fetal tissues which are otherwise highly advantageous in cell therapy. We demonstrate that treating fetal samples with antibiotic, extensive washing and homogenization prior to cryoconservation efficiently removes microbes in general. Screening a large collection by an automatic culture system showed that 89% fetal tissue samples were sterile while contamination was detected in 10...
August 5, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Jean-Pierre Lepargneur
Decades of research have shown that the lactobacilli inhabiting the human vagina are the first line of defense in the female urogenital and reproductive tracts. In healthy cervicovaginal microbiota, Lactobacillus crispatus is prevalent and beneficial with production of copious amounts of lactic acid potent broad spectrum bactericide virucide and immunomodulator. Future and preventic approaches may need to include probiotics, prebiotics also have the potential to optimize and restore the vaginal ecosystem.
August 1, 2016: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Maria Kyrgiou, Anita Mitra, Anna-Barbara Moscicki
Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary but not sufficient for the development of cervical cancer. The factors promoting persistence as well those triggering carcinogenetic pathways are incompletely understood. Rapidly evolving evidence indicates that the vaginal microbiome (VM) may play a functional role (both protective and harmful) in the acquisition and persistence of HPV, and subsequent development of cervical cancer. The first studies examining the VM and the presence of an HPV infection using next-generation sequencing techniques identified higher microbial diversity in HPV-positive as opposed to HPV-negative women...
July 15, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Erigene Rutayisire, Kun Huang, Yehao Liu, Fangbiao Tao
BACKGROUND: The human gut is the habitat for diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem. The human microbiota plays a critical role in functions that sustain health and is a positive asset in host defenses. Establishment of the human intestinal microbiota during infancy may be influenced by multiple factors including delivery mode. Present review compiles existing evidences on the effect of delivery mode on the diversity and colonization pattern of infants gut microbiota. METHODS: Two investigators searched for relevant scientific publications from four databases (Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science)...
2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Alicia L Muhleisen, Melissa M Herbst-Kralovetz
For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded...
September 2016: Maturitas
Audrey Rivière, Marija Selak, David Lantin, Frédéric Leroy, Luc De Vuyst
With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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