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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346046/ultrasonographic-characteristics-of-the-reproductive-tract-and-serum-progesterone-and-estradiol-concentrations-in-captive-female-red-wolves-canis-rufus-with-and-without-reproductive-tract-disease
#1
Kadie M Anderson, Mandi W Schook, Karen L Goodrowe, William T Waddell, Karen N Wolf
OBJECTIVE To describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the reproductive tract and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in captive female red wolves (Canis rufus) with and without reproductive tract disease. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 13 adult female red wolves. PROCEDURES Wolves with varying parity and history of contraceptive treatment were anesthetized to facilitate ultrasonographic examination and measurement of the reproductive tract and blood collection for determination of serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in December 2011 and June 2012...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343558/postcranial-diversity-and-recent-ecomorphic-impoverishment-of-north-american-gray-wolves
#2
Susumu Tomiya, Julie A Meachen
Recent advances in genomics and palaeontology have begun to unravel the complex evolutionary history of the gray wolf, Canis lupus Still, much of their phenotypic variation across time and space remains to be documented. We examined the limb morphology of the fossil and modern North American gray wolves from the late Quaternary (<ca 70 ka) to better understand their postcranial diversity through time. We found that the late-Pleistocene gray wolves were characterized by short-leggedness on both sides of the Cordilleran-Laurentide ice sheets, and that this trait survived well into the Holocene despite the collapse of Pleistocene megafauna and disappearance of the 'Beringian wolf' from Alaska...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320633/bioaccumulation-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-alternative-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-a-vegetation-caribou-wolf-food-chain-of-the-canadian-arctic
#3
Adam David Morris, Derek Muir, Keith Solomon, Camilla Teixeira, Mark Duric, Xiaowa Wang
The trophodynamics of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative HFRs were investigated in the terrestrial, vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst Region of northern Canada. The greatest concentrations in vegetation (geometric mean of lichens, moss, grasses, willow, and mushrooms) were of the order 2,4,6-tribromophenyl allyl ether (TBP-AE) (10 ng g-1 lw) > BDE47 (5.5 ng g-1 lw) > BDE99 (3.9 ng g-1 lw) > BDE100 (0.82 ng g-1 lw) > 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromobenzene (PBBz) (0...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320512/killing-wolves-to-prevent-predation-on-livestock-may-protect-one-farm-but-harm-neighbors
#4
Francisco J Santiago-Avila, Ari M Cornman, Adrian Treves
Large carnivores, such as gray wolves, Canis lupus, are difficult to protect in mixed-use landscapes because some people perceive them as dangerous and because they sometimes threaten human property and safety. Governments may respond by killing carnivores in an effort to prevent repeated conflicts or threats, although the functional effectiveness of lethal methods has long been questioned. We evaluated two methods of government intervention following independent events of verified wolf predation on domestic animals (depredation) in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA between 1998-2014, at three spatial scales...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274214/helminth-infections-in-faecal-samples-of-apennine-wolf-canis-lupus-italicus-and-marsican-brown-bear-ursus-arctos-marsicanus-in-two-protected-national-parks-of-central-italy
#5
Barbara Paoletti, Raffaella Iorio, Donato Traversa, Cristina E Di Francesco, Leonardo Gentile, Simone Angelucci, Cristina Amicucci, Roberto Bartolini, Marianna Marangi, Angela Di Cesare
This article reports the results of a copromicroscopic and molecular investigation carried out on faecal samples of wolves (n=37) and brown bears (n=80) collected in two protected national parks of central Italy (Abruzzo Region). Twenty-three (62.2%) samples from wolves were positive for parasite eggs. Eight (34.78%) samples scored positive for single infections, i.e. E. aerophilus (21.74%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (4.34%), Trichuris vulpis (4.34%), T. canis (4.34%). Polyspecific infections were found in 15 samples (65...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259277/dental-caries-in-the-fossil-record-a-window-to-the-evolution-of-dietary-plasticity-in-an-extinct-bear
#6
Borja Figueirido, Alejandro Pérez-Ramos, Blaine W Schubert, Francisco Serrano, Aisling B Farrell, Francisco J Pastor, Aline A Neves, Alejandro Romero
During the late Pleistocene of North America (≈36,000 to 10,000 years ago), saber-toothed cats, American lions, dire wolves, and coyotes competed for prey resources at Rancho La Brea (RLB). Despite the fact that the giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus) was the largest land carnivoran present in the fauna, there is no evidence that it competed with these other carnivores for prey at the site. Here, for the first time, we report carious lesions preserved in specimens of A. simus, recovered from RLB. Our results suggest that the population of A...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258497/non-invasive-genetic-monitoring-involving-citizen-science-enables-reconstruction-of-current-pack-dynamics-in-a-re-establishing-wolf-population
#7
Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Craig Primmer, Meri Lindqvist, Jenni Poutanen, Olaf Thalmann, Jouni Aspi, Jenni Harmoinen, Ilpo Kojola, Toni Laaksonen
BACKGROUND: Carnivores are re-establishing in many human-populated areas, where their presence is often contentious. Reaching consensus on management decisions is often hampered by a dispute over the size of the local carnivore population. Understanding the reproductive dynamics and individual movements of the carnivores can provide support for management decisions, but individual-level information can be difficult to obtain from elusive, wide-ranging species. Non-invasive genetic sampling can yield such information, but makes subsequent reconstruction of population history challenging due to incomplete population coverage and error-prone data...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258433/similar-genomic-proportions-of-copy-number-variation-within-gray-wolves-and-modern-dog-breeds-inferred-from-whole-genome-sequencing
#8
Aitor Serres-Armero, Inna S Povolotskaya, Javier Quilez, Oscar Ramirez, Gabriel Santpere, Lukas F K Kuderna, Jessica Hernandez-Rodriguez, Marcos Fernandez-Callejo, Daniel Gomez-Sanchez, Adam H Freedman, Zhenxin Fan, John Novembre, Arcadi Navarro, Adam Boyko, Robert Wayne, Carles Vilà, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Tomas Marques-Bonet
BACKGROUND: Whole genome re-sequencing data from dogs and wolves are now commonly used to study how natural and artificial selection have shaped the patterns of genetic diversity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites and variants in mitochondrial DNA have been interrogated for links to specific phenotypes or signals of domestication. However, copy number variation (CNV), despite its increasingly recognized importance as a contributor to phenotypic diversity, has not been extensively explored in canids...
December 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238553/understanding-predation-risk-and-individual-variation-in-risk-avoidance-for-threatened-boreal-caribou
#9
Matthew A Mumma, Michael P Gillingham, Chris J Johnson, Katherine L Parker
Predation risk is a driver of species' distributions. Animals can increase risk avoidance in response to fluctuations in predation risk, but questions remain regarding individual variability and the capacity to respond to changes in spatial risk across human-altered landscapes. In northeast British Columbia, Canada, boreal caribou populations declined as roads and seismic lines have increased, which are theorized to increase gray wolf predation. Our goal was to model risk and to evaluate individual variability and the development of risk perception by examining individual risk avoidance in response to reproductive status and age...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187986/spatially-varying-density-dependence-drives-a-shifting-mosaic-of-survival-in-a-recovering-apex-predator-canis-lupus
#10
Shawn T O'Neil, Joseph K Bump, Dean E Beyer
Understanding landscape patterns in mortality risk is crucial for promoting recovery of threatened and endangered species. Humans affect mortality risk in large carnivores such as wolves (Canis lupus), but spatiotemporally varying density dependence can significantly influence the landscape of survival. This potentially occurs when density varies spatially and risk is unevenly distributed. We quantified spatiotemporal sources of variation in survival rates of gray wolves (C. lupus) during a 21-year period of population recovery in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182674/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-diversity-and-ancestry-of-korean-dogs
#11
Bong Hwan Choi, Hasini I Wijayananda, Soo Hyun Lee, Doo Ho Lee, Jong Seok Kim, Seok Il Oh, Eung Woo Park, Cheul Koo Lee, Seung Hwan Lee
There are various hypotheses on dog domestication based on archeological and genetic studies. Although many studies have been conducted on the origin of dogs, the existing literature about the ancestry, diversity, and population structure of Korean dogs is sparse. Therefore, this study is focused on the origin, diversity and population structure of Korean dogs. The study sample comprised four major categories, including non-dogs (coyotes and wolves), ancient, modern and Korean dogs. Selected samples were genotyped using an Illumina CanineHD array containing 173,662 single nucleotide polymorphisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158554/genomic-consequences-of-intensive-inbreeding-in-an-isolated-wolf-population
#12
Marty Kardos, Mikael Åkesson, Toby Fountain, Øystein Flagstad, Olof Liberg, Pall Olason, Håkan Sand, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Hans Ellegren
Inbreeding (mating between relatives) is a major concern for conservation as it decreases individual fitness and can increase the risk of population extinction. We used whole-genome resequencing of 97 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from the highly inbred Scandinavian wolf population to identify 'identical-by-descent' (IBD) chromosome segments as runs of homozygosity (ROH). This gave the high resolution required to precisely measure realized inbreeding as the IBD fraction of the genome in ROH (F ROH). We found a striking pattern of complete or near-complete homozygosity of entire chromosomes in many individuals...
November 20, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148390/rabies-and-distemper-outbreaks-in-smallest-ethiopian-wolf-population
#13
Jorgelina Marino, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Asefa Deressa, Eric Bedin, Alemayehu Bitewa, Fekadu Lema, Gebeyehu Rskay, Ashley Banyard, Anthony R Fooks
Widespread deaths recently devastated the smallest known population of Ethiopian wolves. Of 7 carcasses found, all 3 tested were positive for rabies. Two wolves were subsequently vaccinated for rabies; 1 of these later died from canine distemper. Only 2 of a known population of 13 wolves survived.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119216/concentrations-of-selected-elements-in-liver-tissue-of-grey-wolves-canis-lupus-from-serbia
#14
Srđan Subotić, Željka Višnjić-Jeftić, Aleksandra Penezić, Duško Ćirović
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species and a top predator in the ecosystems that it inhabits. Considering its role in food webs, wolves may be exposed to high concentrations of potentially harmful elements. Therefore liver samples from 28 legally hunted wolves were analyzed for concentrations of 16 elements using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference between the genders only for Li, and there were no differences between individuals caught in different years...
November 8, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117234/compensatory-selection-for-roads-over-natural-linear-features-by-wolves-in-northern-ontario-implications-for-caribou-conservation
#15
Erica J Newton, Brent R Patterson, Morgan L Anderson, Arthur R Rodgers, Lucas M Vander Vennen, John M Fryxell
Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Ontario are a threatened species that have experienced a substantial retraction of their historic range. Part of their decline has been attributed to increasing densities of anthropogenic linear features such as trails, roads, railways, and hydro lines. These features have been shown to increase the search efficiency and kill rate of wolves. However, it is unclear whether selection for anthropogenic linear features is additive or compensatory to selection for natural (water) linear features which may also be used for travel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108020/post-conflict-opponent-affiliation-reduces-victim-re-aggression-in-a-family-group-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos
#16
Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Simona Cafazzo
Post-conflict affiliative interactions have been widely investigated in primates but not extensively in other species. Using the Post Conflict-Matched Control (PC-MC) comparison method, this study investigated the patterns of post-conflict opponent affiliation (POA) of a captive family group of 19 arctic wolves (Canis lupus arctos), investigating the correlation with various factors. We found that POAs occurred mainly in the non-feeding context and more often when the victim was dominant and the aggressor subordinate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101695/vulture-mortality-resulting-from-illegal-poisoning-in-the-southern-balkan-peninsula
#17
Dimitar Parvanov, Emilian Stoynov, Nadya Vangelova, Hristo Peshev, Atanas Grozdanov, Ventseslav Delov, Yavor Iliev
A study was carried out to determine the incidents of illegal poisoning of griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), black vulture (Aegypius monachus), and bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) in the southern Balkan Peninsula between 1982 and 2017. A total of 38 poisoning cases affecting 224 vultures were analyzed to identify their causes and the primary target species for poisoning. Nine different compounds were used in these incidents and the most frequently applied were strychnine, carbamate, and organophosphoros compounds...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101539/first-molecular-identification-of-kobuviruses-in-wolves-canis-lupus-in-italy
#18
Irene Melegari, Vittorio Sarchese, Federica Di Profio, Serena Robetto, Emanuele Carella, Sandra Bermudez Sanchez, Riccardo Orusa, Vito Martella, Fulvio Marsilio, Barbara Di Martino
Canine kobuviruses (CaKoVs) were first identified in diarrhoeic and asymptomatic dogs in 2011 in the USA. Subsequent studies have demonstrated a worldwide distribution of these viruses, but it is not clear if CaKoVs play a role as enteric pathogens of dogs. More recently, CaKoV RNA has been detected in wild carnivores, including red fox, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wolves are susceptible to CaKoV infections. A total of 185 wolf stool samples were collected from necropsied animals and from transects in the Liguria, Piemonte and Valle D'Aosta regions of Italy, and CaKoV RNA was identified in two of these specimens...
November 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084261/modeling-the-relationship-between-wolf-control-and-cattle-depredation
#19
Lyudmyla Kompaniyets, Marc A Evans
Wolf control to reduce cattle depredation is an important issue to ecology and agriculture in the United States. Two recent papers use the same dataset having wolf population characteristics and cattle depredation, but come to opposing conclusions concerning the link between wolf control and cattle depredation. Our paper aims to resolve this issue by using the same dataset and developing a model based on a causal association that would explain the nature of the relationship between wolf control and cattle depredation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078337/importance-of-a-species-socioecology-wolves-outperform-dogs-in-a-conspecific-cooperation-task
#20
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Jonas F L Schwarz, Inga Kostelnik, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
A number of domestication hypotheses suggest that dogs have acquired a more tolerant temperament than wolves, promoting cooperative interactions with humans and conspecifics. This selection process has been proposed to resemble the one responsible for our own greater cooperative inclinations in comparison with our closest living relatives. However, the socioecology of wolves and dogs, with the former relying more heavily on cooperative activities, predicts that at least with conspecifics, wolves should cooperate better than dogs...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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