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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148390/rabies-and-distemper-outbreaks-in-smallest-ethiopian-wolf-population
#1
Jorgelina Marino, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Asefa Deressa, Eric Bedin, Alemayehu Bitewa, Fekadu Lema, Gebeyehu Rskay, Ashley Banyard, Anthony R Fooks
Widespread deaths recently devastated the smallest known population of Ethiopian wolves. Of 7 carcasses found, all 3 tested were positive for rabies. Two wolves were subsequently vaccinated for rabies; 1 of these later died from canine distemper. Only 2 of a known population of 13 wolves survived.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119216/concentrations-of-selected-elements-in-liver-tissue-of-grey-wolves-canis-lupus-from-serbia
#2
Srđan Subotić, Željka Višnjić-Jeftić, Aleksandra Penezić, Duško Ćirović
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species and a top predator in the ecosystems that it inhabits. Considering its role in food webs, wolves may be exposed to high concentrations of potentially harmful elements. Therefore liver samples from 28 legally hunted wolves were analyzed for concentrations of 16 elements using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference between the genders only for Li, and there were no differences between individuals caught in different years...
November 8, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117234/compensatory-selection-for-roads-over-natural-linear-features-by-wolves-in-northern-ontario-implications-for-caribou-conservation
#3
Erica J Newton, Brent R Patterson, Morgan L Anderson, Arthur R Rodgers, Lucas M Vander Vennen, John M Fryxell
Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Ontario are a threatened species that have experienced a substantial retraction of their historic range. Part of their decline has been attributed to increasing densities of anthropogenic linear features such as trails, roads, railways, and hydro lines. These features have been shown to increase the search efficiency and kill rate of wolves. However, it is unclear whether selection for anthropogenic linear features is additive or compensatory to selection for natural (water) linear features which may also be used for travel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108020/post-conflict-opponent-affiliation-reduces-victim-re-aggression-in-a-family-group-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos
#4
Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Simona Cafazzo
Post-conflict affiliative interactions have been widely investigated in primates but not extensively in other species. Using the Post Conflict-Matched Control (PC-MC) comparison method, this study investigated the patterns of post-conflict opponent affiliation (POA) of a captive family group of 19 arctic wolves (Canis lupus arctos), investigating the correlation with various factors. We found that POAs occurred mainly in the non-feeding context and more often when the victim was dominant and the aggressor subordinate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101695/vulture-mortality-resulting-from-illegal-poisoning-in-the-southern-balkan-peninsula
#5
Dimitar Parvanov, Emilian Stoynov, Nadya Vangelova, Hristo Peshev, Atanas Grozdanov, Ventseslav Delov, Yavor Iliev
A study was carried out to determine the incidents of illegal poisoning of griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), black vulture (Aegypius monachus), and bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) in the southern Balkan Peninsula between 1982 and 2017. A total of 38 poisoning cases affecting 224 vultures were analyzed to identify their causes and the primary target species for poisoning. Nine different compounds were used in these incidents and the most frequently applied were strychnine, carbamate, and organophosphoros compounds...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101539/first-molecular-identification-of-kobuviruses-in-wolves-canis-lupus-in-italy
#6
Irene Melegari, Vittorio Sarchese, Federica Di Profio, Serena Robetto, Emanuele Carella, Sandra Bermudez Sanchez, Riccardo Orusa, Vito Martella, Fulvio Marsilio, Barbara Di Martino
Canine kobuviruses (CaKoVs) were first identified in diarrhoeic and asymptomatic dogs in 2011 in the USA. Subsequent studies have demonstrated a worldwide distribution of these viruses, but it is not clear if CaKoVs play a role as enteric pathogens of dogs. More recently, CaKoV RNA has been detected in wild carnivores, including red fox, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wolves are susceptible to CaKoV infections. A total of 185 wolf stool samples were collected from necropsied animals and from transects in the Liguria, Piemonte and Valle D'Aosta regions of Italy, and CaKoV RNA was identified in two of these specimens...
November 3, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084261/modeling-the-relationship-between-wolf-control-and-cattle-depredation
#7
Lyudmyla Kompaniyets, Marc A Evans
Wolf control to reduce cattle depredation is an important issue to ecology and agriculture in the United States. Two recent papers use the same dataset having wolf population characteristics and cattle depredation, but come to opposing conclusions concerning the link between wolf control and cattle depredation. Our paper aims to resolve this issue by using the same dataset and developing a model based on a causal association that would explain the nature of the relationship between wolf control and cattle depredation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078337/importance-of-a-species-socioecology-wolves-outperform-dogs-in-a-conspecific-cooperation-task
#8
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Jonas F L Schwarz, Inga Kostelnik, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
A number of domestication hypotheses suggest that dogs have acquired a more tolerant temperament than wolves, promoting cooperative interactions with humans and conspecifics. This selection process has been proposed to resemble the one responsible for our own greater cooperative inclinations in comparison with our closest living relatives. However, the socioecology of wolves and dogs, with the former relying more heavily on cooperative activities, predicts that at least with conspecifics, wolves should cooperate better than dogs...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075457/territory-surveillance-and-prey-management-wolves-keep-track-of-space-and-time
#9
Ulrike E Schlägel, Evelyn H Merrill, Mark A Lewis
Identifying behavioral mechanisms that underlie observed movement patterns is difficult when animals employ sophisticated cognitive-based strategies. Such strategies may arise when timing of return visits is important, for instance to allow for resource renewal or territorial patrolling. We fitted spatially explicit random-walk models to GPS movement data of six wolves (Canis lupus; Linnaeus, 1758) from Alberta, Canada to investigate the importance of the following: (1) territorial surveillance likely related to renewal of scent marks along territorial edges, to reduce intraspecific risk among packs, and (2) delay in return to recently hunted areas, which may be related to anti-predator responses of prey under varying prey densities...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074881/rancher-reported-efficacy-of-lethal-and-non-lethal-livestock-predation-mitigation-strategies-for-a-suite-of-carnivores
#10
J D Scasta, B Stam, J L Windh
Pastoralists have dealt with livestock losses from predators for millennia, yet effective mitigation strategies that balance wildlife conservation and sustainable agriculture are still needed today. In Wyoming, USA, 274 ranchers responded to a retrospective survey, and rated the efficacy of predation mitigation strategies for foxes, dogs, coyotes, wolves, bobcats, mountain lions, bears, and birds (buzzards, eagles, hawks, ravens). Rancher reported efficacy of mitigation varied by predator species, mitigation strategy, and lethality of strategies, but not livestock type...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068083/threats-to-biodiversity-from-cumulative-human-impacts-in-one-of-north-america-s-last-wildlife-frontiers
#11
Nancy Shackelford, Rachel J Standish, William Ripple, Brian M Starzomski
Land-use change is the largest proximate threat to biodiversity, yet remains one of the most complex to manage. In British Columbia (BC), where large mammals roam extensive tracts of intact habitat, continued land-use development is of global concern. Extant mammal diversity in BC is unrivalled in North America owing, in part, to its unique position at the intersection of alpine, boreal and temperate biomes. Despite high conservation values, understanding of cumulative ecological impacts from human development is limited...
October 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063140/biocide-selective-tolc-independent-efflux-pumps-in-enterobacteriaceae
#12
Carmine J Slipski, George G Zhanel, Denice C Bay
Bacterial resistance to biocides used as antiseptics, dyes, and disinfectants is a growing concern in food preparation, agricultural, consumer manufacturing, and health care industries, particularly among Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, some of the most common community and healthcare-acquired bacterial pathogens. Biocide resistance is frequently associated with antimicrobial cross-resistance leading to reduced activity and efficacy of both antimicrobials and antiseptics. Multidrug resistant efflux pumps represent an important biocide resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048263/capture-and-immobilization-of-african-wolves-canis-lupaster-in-the-ethiopian-highlands
#13
Tariku Mekonnen Gutema, Anagaw Atickem, Alemayehu Lemma, Afework Bekele, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Dietmar Zinner, Wenche Kristin Farstad, Jon M Arnemo, Nils C Stenseth
We captured 14 individual African wolves (Canis lupaster) a total of 16 times in the Ethiopian Highlands in April 2015 and March 2016 by using rubber-lined foothold traps and immobilized them with dexmedetomidine-ketamine. Traps were baited with sheep meat and surveyed every 2 h. Capture efficiency (number of captures per number of visits) was 0.94, and capture rate (number of captures per number of trap nights) was 0.24. Trapped wolves were immobilized with 0.025 mg/kg dexmedetomidine and 8-10 mg/kg ketamine on the basis of respective estimated body mass...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046813/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-microsatellites-in-the-canine-glutathione-s-transferase-pi-1-gstp1-gene-promoter
#14
James Sacco, Sarah Mann, Keller Toral
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms within the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene affect the elimination of toxic xenobiotics by the GSTP1 enzyme. In dogs, exposure to environmental chemicals that may be GSTP1 substrates is associated with cancer. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variability in the GSTP1 promoter in a diverse population of 278 purebred dogs, compare the incidence of any variants found between breeds, and predict their effects on gene expression...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044203/neomorphosis-and-heterochrony-of-skull-shape-in-dog-domestication
#15
Madeleine Geiger, Allowen Evin, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Dominic Gascho, Cornelia Mainini, Christoph P E Zollikofer
The overall similarity of the skull shape of some dog breeds with that of juvenile wolves begs the question if and how ontogenetic changes such as paedomorphosis (evolutionary juvenilisation) played a role in domestication. Here we test for changes in patterns of development and growth during dog domestication. We present the first geometric morphometric study using ontogenetic series of dog and wolf crania, and samples of dogs with relatively ancestral morphology and from different time periods. We show that patterns of juvenile-to-adult morphological change are largely similar in wolves and domestic dogs, but differ in two ways...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042574/size-variation-under-domestication-conservatism-in-the-inner-ear-shape-of-wolves-dogs-and-dingoes
#16
Anita V Schweizer, Renaud Lebrun, Laura A B Wilson, Loïc Costeur, Thomas Schmelzle, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra
A broad sample of wolves, dingoes, and domesticated dogs of different kinds and time periods was used to identify changes in size and shape of the organs of balance and hearing related to domestication and to evaluate the potential utility of uncovered patterns as markers of domestication. Using geometric morphometrics coupled with non-invasive imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions, we exposed and compared complex structures that remain largely conserved. There is no statistically significant difference in the levels of shape variation between prehistoric and modern dogs...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040727/whole-genome-sequencing-of-african-dogs-provides-insights-into-adaptations-against-tropical-parasites
#17
Yan-Hu Liu, Lu Wang, Tao Xu, Xiaomin Guo, Yang Li, Ting-Ting Yin, He-Chuan Yang, Hu Yang, Adeniyi C Adeola, Oscar J Sanke, Newton O Otecko, Meng Wang, Yaping Ma, Olaogun S Charles, Mikkel-Holger S Sinding, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, José Alfredo Samaniego, Anders J Hansen, Carlos Fernandes, Philippe Gaubert, Jane Budd, Philip M Dawuda, Eli Knispel Rueness, Lubin Jiang, Weiwei Zhai, M T P Gilbert, Min-Sheng Peng, Xiaopeng Qi, Guo-Dong Wang, Ya-Ping Zhang
Natural selection in domestic dogs is of great interest in evolutionary biology since dogs have migrated to every inhabited continent of the world alongside humans, and adapted to diverse environments. Here, we explored their demographic history and genetic basis of adaptation to the tropical African environment using whole genome analyses of 19 African indigenous dogs from Nigeria. Demographic analysis suggests that the ancestors of these dogs migrated into Africa from Eurasia 14,000 years ago and underwent a severe founder effect before population expansion...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987040/-history-of-the-study-epidemiology-of-the-disease-and-characterization-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-infection
#18
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
From the beginning of the twentieth century interest in tick-borne borreliosis continues to be an important diagnostic and therapeutic problem. In 1977, in Lyme and Old Lyme, Cunnecticut, in the United States, arthritis and skin lesions were described in 12 children, which were associated with tick bites. The name of the place was called a syndrome of Lyme disease. Dr Willy Burgdorfer observed microaerophilic Gram-negative bacteria (Spirochetes) with a diameter of 0.3-0.5 µm and a length of about 20-30 µm, which were isolated from the tick colon...
September 29, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983270/intranasal-oxytocin-treatment-increases-eye-gaze-behavior-toward-the-owner-in-ancient-japanese-dog-breeds
#19
Miho Nagasawa, Misato Ogawa, Kazutaka Mogi, Takefumi Kikusui
Dogs acquired unique cognitive abilities during domestication, which is thought to have contributed to the formation of the human-dog bond. In European breeds, but not in wolves, a dog's gazing behavior plays an important role in affiliative interactions with humans and stimulates oxytocin secretion in both humans and dogs, which suggests that this interspecies oxytocin and gaze-mediated bonding was also acquired during domestication. In this study, we investigated whether Japanese breeds, which are classified as ancient breeds and are relatively close to wolves genetically, establish a bond with their owners through gazing behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973042/oca2-splice-site-variant-in-german-spitz-dogs-with-oculocutaneous-albinism
#20
Madleina Caduff, Anina Bauer, Vidhya Jagannathan, Tosso Leeb
We investigated a German Spitz family where the mating of a black male to a white female had yielded three puppies with an unexpected light brown coat color, lightly pigmented lips and noses, and blue eyes. Combined linkage and homozygosity analysis based on a fully penetrant monogenic autosomal recessive mode of inheritance identified a critical interval of 15 Mb on chromosome 3. We obtained whole genome sequence data from one affected dog, three wolves, and 188 control dogs. Filtering for private variants revealed a single variant with predicted high impact in the critical interval in LOC100855460 (XM_005618224...
2017: PloS One
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