keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Wolves

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912242/deciphering-the-origin-of-dogs-from-fossils-to-genomes
#1
Adam H Freedman, Robert K Wayne
Understanding the timing and geographic context of dog origins is a crucial component for understanding human history, as well as the evolutionary context in which the morphological and behavioral divergence of dogs from wolves occurred. A substantial challenge to understanding domestication is that dogs have experienced a complicated demographic history. An initial severe bottleneck was associated with domestication followed by postdivergence gene flow between dogs and wolves, as well as population expansions, contractions, and replacements...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904806/dominance-relationships-in-a-family-pack-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos-the-influence-of-competition-for-food-age-and-sex
#2
Simona Cafazzo, Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini
BACKGROUND: Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898670/gray-wolf-exposure-to-emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-wisconsin-with-comparison-to-domestic-dogs-and-humans
#3
Rocio F Jara, Adrian P Wydeven, Michael D Samuel
World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876612/lethal-distemper-in-badgers-meles-meles-following-epidemic-in-dogs-and-wolves
#4
Daria Di Sabatino, Gabriella Di Francesco, Guendalina Zaccaria, Daniela Malatesta, Luca Brugnola, Maurilia Marcacci, Ottavio Portanti, Fabrizio De Massis, Giovanni Savini, Liana Teodori, Enzo Ruggieri, Iolanda Mangone, Pietro Badagliacca, Alessio Lorusso
Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important conservation threat to many wild carnivores. A large distemper epidemic sustained by an Arctic-lineage strain occurred in Italy in 2013, mainly in the Abruzzi region, causing overt disease in domestic and shepherd dogs, Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) and other wild carnivores. Two badgers were collected by the end of September 2015 in a rural area of the Abruzzi region and were demonstrated to be CDV-positive by real time RT-PCR and IHC in several tissues...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859195/energetic-costs-of-mange-in-wolves-estimated-from-infrared-thermography
#5
P C Cross, E S Almberg, C G Haase, P J Hudson, S K Maloney, M C Metz, A J Munn, P Nugent, O Putzeys, D R Stahler, A C Stewart, D W Smith
Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with a data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811300/comparative-locomotor-costs-of-domestic-dogs-reveal-energetic-economy-of-wolf-like-breeds
#6
C M Bryce, T M Williams
The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers, and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796488/the-cattle-wolf-dilemma-interactions-among-three-protected-species
#7
Nir Becker, Yanay Farja
This paper utilizes economic valuation to offer a new perspective on livestock rancher-predator conflicts. While most studies have considered losses to the species directly involved, i.e., cattle and wolves (Canis lupus), we take into account other species that are threatened by efforts to protect livestock. In this case, vultures (Gyps fulvus) and gazelles (Gazella gazella), both endangered species, are either poisoned (vultures) or suffer from habitat fragmentation (gazelles) in the Upper Galilee region in Israel...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736990/dog-breed-differences-in-visual-communication-with-humans
#8
Akitsugu Konno, Teresa Romero, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Atsuko Saito, Toshikazu Hasegawa
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730367/expert-based-versus-habitat-suitability-models-to-develop-resistance-surfaces-in-landscape-genetics
#9
Pietro Milanesi, R Holderegger, R Caniglia, E Fabbri, M Galaverni, E Randi
Landscape genetics aims to investigate functional connectivity among wild populations by evaluating the impact of landscape features on gene flow. Genetic distances among populations or individuals are generally better explained by least-cost path (LCP) distances derived from resistance surfaces than by simple Euclidean distances. Resistance surfaces reflect the cost for an organism to move through particular landscape elements. However, determining the effects of landscape types on movements is challenging...
October 11, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705096/the-occurrence-of-trichinella-spp-in-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-in-different-regions-of-poland-current-data
#10
Aleksandra Cybulska, Aleksandra Kornacka, Justyna Bień, Katarzyna Goździk, Elżbieta Kalisińska, Natalia Łanocha-Arendarczyk, Halina Budis, Bogumiła Pilarczyk, Władysław Cabaj, Bożena Moskwa
Trichinellosis is one of the most widespread parasitic zoonoses. Trichinella Owen, 1835 nematodes are found in pigs, horses, and humans in the domestic cycle, and in many carnivores and omnivores in the sylvatic cycle, such as wild boars, red foxes, raccoon dogs, and wolves. Carnivores are known to be involved in the circulation of Trichinella nematodes and they act as a reservoir in the sylvatic environment. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes in Poland...
November 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697630/aic-and-the-challenge-of-complexity-a-case-study-from-ecology
#11
Remington J Moll, Daniel Steel, Robert A Montgomery
Philosophers and scientists alike have suggested Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), and other similar model selection methods, show predictive accuracy justifies a preference for simplicity in model selection. This epistemic justification of simplicity is limited by an assumption of AIC which requires that the same probability distribution must generate the data used to fit the model and the data about which predictions are made. This limitation has been previously noted but appears to often go unnoticed by philosophers and scientists and has not been analyzed in relation to complexity...
September 30, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682639/wolf-population-genetics-in-europe-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-suggestions-for-conservation-and-management
#12
Maris Hindrikson, Jaanus Remm, Malgorzata Pilot, Raquel Godinho, Astrid Vik Stronen, Laima Baltrūnaité, Sylwia D Czarnomska, Jennifer A Leonard, Ettore Randi, Carsten Nowak, Mikael Åkesson, José Vicente López-Bao, Francisco Álvares, Luis Llaneza, Jorge Echegaray, Carles Vilà, Janis Ozolins, Dainis Rungis, Jouni Aspi, Ladislav Paule, Tomaž Skrbinšek, Urmas Saarma
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is an iconic large carnivore that has increasingly been recognized as an apex predator with intrinsic value and a keystone species. However, wolves have also long represented a primary source of human-carnivore conflict, which has led to long-term persecution of wolves, resulting in a significant decrease in their numbers, genetic diversity and gene flow between populations. For more effective protection and management of wolf populations in Europe, robust scientific evidence is crucial...
September 28, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682156/the-geographical-distribution-and-prevalence-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-in-animals-in-the-european-union-and-adjacent-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Antti Oksanen, Mar Siles-Lucas, Jacek Karamon, Alessia Possenti, Franz J Conraths, Thomas Romig, Patrick Wysocki, Alice Mannocci, Daniele Mipatrini, Giuseppe La Torre, Belgees Boufana, Adriano Casulli
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide a systematic review on the geographical distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive and intermediate hosts in the European Union (EU) and adjacent countries (AC). The relative importance of the different host species in the life-cycle of this parasite was highlighted and gaps in our knowledge regarding these hosts were identified. METHODS: Six databases were searched for primary research studies published from 1900 to 2015...
September 28, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660373/managing-more-than-the-mean-using-quantile-regression-to-identify-factors-related-to-large-elk-groups
#14
Angela Brennan, Paul C Cross, Scott Creel
Animal group size distributions are often right-skewed, whereby most groups are small, but most individuals occur in larger groups that may also disproportionately affect ecology and policy. In this case, examining covariates associated with upper quantiles of the group size distribution could facilitate better understanding and management of large animal groups.We studied wintering elk groups in Wyoming, where group sizes span several orders of magnitude, and issues of disease, predation and property damage are affected by larger group sizes...
December 2015: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611784/training-reduces-stress-in-human-socialised-wolves-to-the-same-degree-as-in-dogs
#15
Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range, César Ades, Jördis Kristin Scheidegger, Erich Möstl, Kurt Kotrschal
The welfare of animals in captivity is of considerable societal concern. A major source of stress, especially for wild animals, is the lack of control over their environment, which includes not being able to avoid contact with human beings. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that interactions with human beings may improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. Here, we investigated the behavioural (behaviours indicative of cooperation or stress) and physiological (variations in salivary cortisol concentrations) effects of the increasingly used practice of training wild animals as a way to facilitate handling and/or as behavioural enrichment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604904/paramyosin-of-canine-onchocerca-lupi-usefulness-for-the-diagnosis-of-a-neglected-zoonotic-disease
#16
Bronwyn Campbell, Helder Cortes, Giada Annoscia, Alessio Giannelli, Antonio Parisi, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Luís Cardoso, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Of increasing importance to the medical and veterinary communities is the zoonotic filarioid nematode Onchocerca lupi. Onchocercosis, thus far found in wolves, dogs, cats and humans, is diagnosed via skin snips to detect microfilariae and surgical removal of adults from the eye of the host. These methods are time-consuming, laborious and invasive, highlighting the need for new tools for the diagnosis of O. lupi in susceptible hosts. Symptoms related to the presence of the adults in the eye can range from none apparent to severe, including blindness...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602005/exploring-differences-in-dogs-and-wolves-preference-for-risk-in-a-foraging-task
#17
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Ingo Besserdich, Corinna Kratz, Friederike Range
Both human and non-humans species face decisions in their daily lives which may entail taking risks. At the individual level, a propensity for risk-taking has been shown to be positively correlated with explorative tendencies, whereas, at the species level a more variable and less stable feeding ecology has been associated with a greater preference for risky choices. In the current study we compared two closely related species; wolves and dogs, which differ significantly in their feeding ecology and their explorative tendencies...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601640/in-group-defense-out-group-aggression-and-coordination-failures-in-intergroup-conflict
#18
Carsten K W De Dreu, Jörg Gross, Zsombor Méder, Michael Giffin, Eliska Prochazkova, Jonathan Krikeb, Simon Columbus
Intergroup conflict persists when and because individuals make costly contributions to their group's fighting capacity, but how groups organize contributions into effective collective action remains poorly understood. Here we distinguish between contributions aimed at subordinating out-groups (out-group aggression) from those aimed at defending the in-group against possible out-group aggression (in-group defense). We conducted two experiments in which three-person aggressor groups confronted three-person defender groups in a multiround contest game (n = 276; 92 aggressor-defender contests)...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591755/a-pedigree-based-map-of-recombination-in-the-domestic-dog-genome
#19
Christopher L Campbell, Claude Bhérer, Bernice E Morrow, Adam R Boyko, Adam Auton
Meiotic recombination in mammals has been shown to largely cluster into hotspots, which are targeted by the chromatin modifier PRDM9. The canid family, including wolves and dogs, has undergone a series of disrupting mutations in this gene, rendering PRDM9 inactive. Given the importance of PRDM9 it is of great interest to learn how its absence in the dog genome affects patterns of recombination placement. We have used genotypes from domestic dog pedigrees to generate sex-specific genetic maps of recombination in this species...
September 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570207/canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Azar Shokri, Mahdi Fakhar, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi
Visceral leishmaniasis is considered an endemic zoonosis in some parts of Iran and dogs are main reservoirs, which play role in the transmission cycle of human leishmaniasis. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1982 to 2015 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, Iran medex and Scientific Information Database (SID)...
August 26, 2016: Acta Tropica
keyword
keyword
70421
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"