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Andrea Talenti, Dayna L Dreger, Stefano Frattini, Michele Polli, Stefano Marelli, Alexander C Harris, Luigi Liotta, Raffaella Cocco, Andrew N Hogan, Daniele Bigi, Romolo Caniglia, Heidi G Parker, Giulio Pagnacco, Elaine A Ostrander, Paola Crepaldi
Through thousands of years of breeding and strong human selection, the dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ) exists today within hundreds of closed populations throughout the world, each with defined phenotypes. A singular geographic region with broad diversity in dog breeds presents an interesting opportunity to observe potential mechanisms of breed formation. Italy claims 14 internationally recognized dog breeds, with numerous additional local varieties. To determine the relationship among Italian dog populations, we integrated genetic data from 263 dogs representing 23 closed dog populations from Italy, seven Apennine gray wolves, and an established dataset of 161 globally recognized dog breeds, applying multiple genetic methods to characterize the modes by which breeds are formed within a single geographic region...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Lauren Hennelly, Bilal Habib, Holly Root-Gutteridge, Vicente Palacios, Daniela Passilongo
Vocal divergence within species often corresponds to morphological, environmental, and genetic differences between populations. Wolf howls are long-range signals that encode individual, group, and subspecies differences, yet the factors that may drive this variation are poorly understood. Furthermore, the taxonomic division within the Canis genus remains contended and additional data are required to clarify the position of the Himalayan, North African, and Indian wolves within Canis lupus . We recorded 451 howls from the 3 most basal wolf lineages-Himalayan C...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Rachel Dale, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Friederike Range
While food sharing among related individuals can be explained by kin selection, food sharing between unrelated individuals has been more of an evolutionary puzzle. The food-for-sex hypothesis provides an explanation for the occurrence of food sharing among nonkin. However, little is known about the socio-ecological factors that can promote such a commodity exchange. A species mating system is a factor potentially influencing food-for-sex patterns of behavior. Here, we compared wolves, which form pair-bonds, with dogs, which are typically promiscuous in free-ranging contexts, to investigate the effect of reproductive stages on the behavior around a food source in 2 different contexts...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Ines Lesniak, Ilja Heckmann, Mathias Franz, Alex D Greenwood, Emanuel Heitlinger, Heribert Hofer, Oliver Krone
The recent recolonization of Central Europe by the European gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) provides an opportunity to study the dynamics of parasite transmission for cases when a definitive host returns after a phase of local extinction. We investigated whether a newly established wolf population increased the prevalence of those parasites in ungulate intermediate hosts representing wolf prey, whether some parasite species are particularly well adapted to wolves, and the potential basis for such adaptations. We recorded Sarcocystis species richness in wolves and Sarcocystis prevalence in ungulates harvested in study sites with and without permanent wolf presence in Germany using microscopy and DNA metabarcoding...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Randy Atkins, Mi Hye Song, Ashley Sturgeon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
J V López-Bao, R Godinho, C Pacheco, F J Lema, E García, L Llaneza, V Palacios, J Jiménez
Decision-makers in wildlife policy require reliable population size estimates to justify interventions, to build acceptance and support in their decisions and, ultimately, to build trust in managing authorities. Traditional capture-recapture approaches present two main shortcomings, namely, the uncertainty in defining the effective sampling area, and the spatially-induced heterogeneity in encounter probabilities. These limitations are overcome using spatially explicit capture-recapture approaches (SCR). Using wolves as case study, and non-invasive DNA monitoring (faeces), we implemented a SCR with a Poisson observation model in a single survey to estimate wolf density and population size, and identify the locations of individual activity centres, in NW Iberia over 4,378 km2...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
L Mark Elbroch, Anna Kusler
Background: Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management...
2018: PeerJ
Jacey Roche Cerda, Lora Rickard Ballweber
  We confirm the presence of Echinococcus canadensis genotypes G8 and G10 in gray wolves ( Canis lupus) and cervids in Idaho. Our results demonstrated that cystic echinococcosis remains a potential public health issue, indicating the need for regular deworming of domestic dogs, who often act as potential bridge hosts.
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Kadie M Anderson, Mandi W Schook, Karen L Goodrowe, William T Waddell, Karen N Wolf
OBJECTIVE To describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the reproductive tract and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in captive female red wolves (Canis rufus) with and without reproductive tract disease. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 13 adult female red wolves. PROCEDURES Wolves with varying parity and history of contraceptive treatment were anesthetized to facilitate ultrasonographic examination and measurement of the reproductive tract and blood collection for determination of serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in December 2011 and June 2012...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Susumu Tomiya, Julie A Meachen
Recent advances in genomics and palaeontology have begun to unravel the complex evolutionary history of the gray wolf, Canis lupus Still, much of their phenotypic variation across time and space remains to be documented. We examined the limb morphology of the fossil and modern North American gray wolves from the late Quaternary (<ca 70 ka) to better understand their postcranial diversity through time. We found that the late-Pleistocene gray wolves were characterized by short-leggedness on both sides of the Cordilleran-Laurentide ice sheets, and that this trait survived well into the Holocene despite the collapse of Pleistocene megafauna and disappearance of the 'Beringian wolf' from Alaska...
January 2018: Biology Letters
Adam David Morris, Derek Muir, Keith Solomon, Camilla Teixeira, Mark Duric, Xiaowa Wang
The trophodynamics of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative HFRs were investigated in the terrestrial, vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst Region of northern Canada. The greatest concentrations in vegetation (geometric mean of lichens, moss, grasses, willow, and mushrooms) were of the order 2,4,6-tribromophenyl allyl ether (TBP-AE) (10 ng g-1 lw) > BDE47 (5.5 ng g-1 lw) > BDE99 (3.9 ng g-1 lw) > BDE100 (0.82 ng g-1 lw) > 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromobenzene (PBBz) (0...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Francisco J Santiago-Avila, Ari M Cornman, Adrian Treves
Large carnivores, such as gray wolves, Canis lupus, are difficult to protect in mixed-use landscapes because some people perceive them as dangerous and because they sometimes threaten human property and safety. Governments may respond by killing carnivores in an effort to prevent repeated conflicts or threats, although the functional effectiveness of lethal methods has long been questioned. We evaluated two methods of government intervention following independent events of verified wolf predation on domestic animals (depredation) in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA between 1998-2014, at three spatial scales...
2018: PloS One
Barbara Paoletti, Raffaella Iorio, Donato Traversa, Cristina E Di Francesco, Leonardo Gentile, Simone Angelucci, Cristina Amicucci, Roberto Bartolini, Marianna Marangi, Angela Di Cesare
This article reports the results of a copromicroscopic and molecular investigation carried out on faecal samples of wolves (n=37) and brown bears (n=80) collected in two protected national parks of central Italy (Abruzzo Region). Twenty-three (62.2%) samples from wolves were positive for parasite eggs. Eight (34.78%) samples scored positive for single infections, i.e. E. aerophilus (21.74%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (4.34%), Trichuris vulpis (4.34%), T. canis (4.34%). Polyspecific infections were found in 15 samples (65...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
Borja Figueirido, Alejandro Pérez-Ramos, Blaine W Schubert, Francisco Serrano, Aisling B Farrell, Francisco J Pastor, Aline A Neves, Alejandro Romero
During the late Pleistocene of North America (≈36,000 to 10,000 years ago), saber-toothed cats, American lions, dire wolves, and coyotes competed for prey resources at Rancho La Brea (RLB). Despite the fact that the giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus) was the largest land carnivoran present in the fauna, there is no evidence that it competed with these other carnivores for prey at the site. Here, for the first time, we report carious lesions preserved in specimens of A. simus, recovered from RLB. Our results suggest that the population of A...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hanna Granroth-Wilding, Craig Primmer, Meri Lindqvist, Jenni Poutanen, Olaf Thalmann, Jouni Aspi, Jenni Harmoinen, Ilpo Kojola, Toni Laaksonen
BACKGROUND: Carnivores are re-establishing in many human-populated areas, where their presence is often contentious. Reaching consensus on management decisions is often hampered by a dispute over the size of the local carnivore population. Understanding the reproductive dynamics and individual movements of the carnivores can provide support for management decisions, but individual-level information can be difficult to obtain from elusive, wide-ranging species. Non-invasive genetic sampling can yield such information, but makes subsequent reconstruction of population history challenging due to incomplete population coverage and error-prone data...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ecology
Aitor Serres-Armero, Inna S Povolotskaya, Javier Quilez, Oscar Ramirez, Gabriel Santpere, Lukas F K Kuderna, Jessica Hernandez-Rodriguez, Marcos Fernandez-Callejo, Daniel Gomez-Sanchez, Adam H Freedman, Zhenxin Fan, John Novembre, Arcadi Navarro, Adam Boyko, Robert Wayne, Carles Vilà, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Tomas Marques-Bonet
BACKGROUND: Whole genome re-sequencing data from dogs and wolves are now commonly used to study how natural and artificial selection have shaped the patterns of genetic diversity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites and variants in mitochondrial DNA have been interrogated for links to specific phenotypes or signals of domestication. However, copy number variation (CNV), despite its increasingly recognized importance as a contributor to phenotypic diversity, has not been extensively explored in canids...
December 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
Matthew A Mumma, Michael P Gillingham, Chris J Johnson, Katherine L Parker
Predation risk is a driver of species' distributions. Animals can increase risk avoidance in response to fluctuations in predation risk, but questions remain regarding individual variability and the capacity to respond to changes in spatial risk across human-altered landscapes. In northeast British Columbia, Canada, boreal caribou populations declined as roads and seismic lines have increased, which are theorized to increase gray wolf predation. Our goal was to model risk and to evaluate individual variability and the development of risk perception by examining individual risk avoidance in response to reproductive status and age...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Shawn T O'Neil, Joseph K Bump, Dean E Beyer
Understanding landscape patterns in mortality risk is crucial for promoting recovery of threatened and endangered species. Humans affect mortality risk in large carnivores such as wolves ( Canis lupus ), but spatiotemporally varying density dependence can significantly influence the landscape of survival. This potentially occurs when density varies spatially and risk is unevenly distributed. We quantified spatiotemporal sources of variation in survival rates of gray wolves ( C. lupus ) during a 21-year period of population recovery in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Bong Hwan Choi, Hasini I Wijayananda, Soo Hyun Lee, Doo Ho Lee, Jong Seok Kim, Seok Il Oh, Eung Woo Park, Cheul Koo Lee, Seung Hwan Lee
There are various hypotheses on dog domestication based on archeological and genetic studies. Although many studies have been conducted on the origin of dogs, the existing literature about the ancestry, diversity, and population structure of Korean dogs is sparse. Therefore, this study is focused on the origin, diversity and population structure of Korean dogs. The study sample comprised four major categories, including non-dogs (coyotes and wolves), ancient, modern and Korean dogs. Selected samples were genotyped using an Illumina CanineHD array containing 173,662 single nucleotide polymorphisms...
2017: PloS One
Marty Kardos, Mikael Åkesson, Toby Fountain, Øystein Flagstad, Olof Liberg, Pall Olason, Håkan Sand, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Hans Ellegren
Inbreeding (mating between relatives) is a major concern for conservation as it decreases individual fitness and can increase the risk of population extinction. We used whole-genome resequencing of 97 grey wolves (Canis lupus) from the highly inbred Scandinavian wolf population to identify 'identical-by-descent' (IBD) chromosome segments as runs of homozygosity (ROH). This gave the high resolution required to precisely measure realized inbreeding as the IBD fraction of the genome in ROH (F ROH). We found a striking pattern of complete or near-complete homozygosity of entire chromosomes in many individuals...
November 20, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
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