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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198550/birth-injuries-to-growth-plates-a-sheep-in-wolves-clothing
#1
Jerrin Varghese, Matthew Teng, Mingqian Huang, Dvorah Balsam
Growth plate injuries (Salter-Harris type 1 or physeal fractures) of the long bones in the newborn are easily misdiagnosed as joint fractures with dislocations due to their nonossified epiphyses on plain radiographs. Diagnosis with musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is advantageous due to its ability to visualize the nonossified epiphysis. We present two cases of humeral growth plate fractures in newborns, one at the shoulder (proximal humerus) and the other at the elbow (distal humerus). These cases emphasize the importance of quick and noninvasive diagnosis with US to avoid unnecessary intervention...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195213/spatial-assessment-of-wolf-dog-hybridization-in-a-single-breeding-period
#2
C Pacheco, J V López-Bao, E J García, F J Lema, L Llaneza, V Palacios, R Godinho
Understanding the dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization and delineating evidence-based conservation strategies requires information on the spatial extent of wolf-dog hybridization in real-time, which remains largely unknown. We collected 332 wolf-like scats over ca. 5,000km(2) in the NW Iberian Peninsula to evaluate wolf-dog hybridization at population level in a single breeding/pup-rearing season. Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) and 18 ancestry informative markers were used for species and individual identification, and to detect wolf-dog hybrids...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192048/a-serosurvey-of-diseases-of-free-ranging-gray-wolves-canis-lupus-in-minnesota
#3
Michelle Carstensen, John H Giudice, Erik C Hildebrand, J P Dubey, John Erb, Dan Stark, John Hart, Shannon Barber-Meyer, L David Mech, Steve K Windels, Andrew J Edwards
We tested serum samples from 387 free-ranging wolves ( Canis lupus ) from 2007 to 2013 for exposure to eight canid pathogens to establish baseline data on disease prevalence and spatial distribution in Minnesota's wolf population. We found high exposure to canine adenoviruses 1 and 2 (88% adults, 45% pups), canine parvovirus (82% adults, 24% pups), and Lyme disease (76% adults, 39% pups). Sixty-six percent of adults and 36% of pups exhibited exposure to the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum . Exposure to arboviruses was confirmed, including West Nile virus (37% adults, 18% pups) and eastern equine encephalitis (3% adults)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188735/cross-jurisdictional-management-of-a-trophy-hunted-species
#4
Jacob Hochard, David Finnoff
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) are managed for competing uses in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Tourism benefits Yellowstone National Park (YNP) visitors while trophy hunting benefits hunters outside of the park. We investigate the policy scope of gray wolf management across jurisdictional boundaries by incorporating three foundations of the behavioral ecology of wolves: refuge-seeking behavior, optimal foraging group size and territoriality. Tradeoffs between and within consumptive and non-consumptive human benefits and wolf population fitness and life history indicators are quantified as a set of elasticities, providing clear implications to resource managers...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182485/-wolves-canis-lupus-and-dogs-canis-familiaris-differ-in-following-human-gaze-into-distant-space-but-respond-similar-to-their-packmates-gaze-correction-to-werhahn-et-al-2016
#5
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) differ in following human gaze into distant space but respond similar to their packmates' gaze" by Geraldine Werhahn, Zsófia Virányi, Gabriela Barrera, Andrea Sommese and Friederike Range (Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2016[Aug], Vol 130[3], 288-298). In the article, the affiliations for the second and fifth authors should be Wolf Science Center, Ernstbrunn, Austria, and Comparative Cognition, Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna/ Medical University of Vienna/University of Vienna...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180084/italian-wolves-canis-lupus-italicus-altobello-1921-and-molecular-detection-of-taeniids-in-the-foreste-casentinesi-national-park-northern-italian-apennines
#6
Giovanni Poglayen, Francesca Gori, Benedetto Morandi, Roberta Galuppi, Elena Fabbri, Romolo Caniglia, Pietro Milanesi, Marco Galaverni, Ettore Randi, Barbara Marchesi, Peter Deplazes
After centuries of massive decline, the recovery of the wolf (Canis lupus italicus) in Italy is a typical conservation success story. To learn more about the possible role of parasites in the wolves' individual and population health and conservation we used non-invasive molecular approaches on fecal samples to identify individual wolves, pack membership, and the taeniids present, some of which are zoonotic. A total of 130 specimens belonging to 54 wolves from eight packs were collected and examined. Taeniid eggs were isolated using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad1)...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179516/competition-between-apex-predators-brown-bears-decrease-wolf-kill-rate-on-two-continents
#7
Aimee Tallian, Andrés Ordiz, Matthew C Metz, Cyril Milleret, Camilla Wikenros, Douglas W Smith, Daniel R Stahler, Jonas Kindberg, Daniel R MacNulty, Petter Wabakken, Jon E Swenson, Håkan Sand
Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf (Canis lupus) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as a proxy of kill rate...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178279/snow-leopard-and-himalayan-wolf-food-habits-and-prey-selection-in-the-central-himalayas-nepal
#8
Madhu Chetri, Morten Odden, Per Wegge
Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143722/sexually-dimorphic-aggression-indicates-male-gray-wolves-specialize-in-pack-defense-against-conspecific-groups
#9
Kira A Cassidy, L David Mech, Daniel R MacNulty, Daniel R Stahler, Douglas W Smith
Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression...
January 29, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128348/population-expansion-and-individual-age-affect-endoparasite-richness-and-diversity-in-a-recolonising-large-carnivore-population
#10
Ines Lesniak, Ilja Heckmann, Emanuel Heitlinger, Claudia A Szentiks, Carsten Nowak, Verena Harms, Anne Jarausch, Ilka Reinhardt, Gesa Kluth, Heribert Hofer, Oliver Krone
The recent recolonisation of the Central European lowland (CEL) by the grey wolf (Canis lupus) provides an excellent opportunity to study the effect of founder events on endoparasite diversity. Which role do prey and predator populations play in the re-establishment of endoparasite life cycles? Which intrinsic and extrinsic factors control individual endoparasite diversity in an expanding host population? In 53 individually known CEL wolves sampled in Germany, we revealed a community of four cestode, eight nematode, one trematode and 12 potential Sarcocystis species through molecular genetic techniques...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118500/leaf-swallowing-and-parasite-expulsion-in-khao-yai-white-handed-gibbons-hylobates-lar-the-first-report-in-an-asian-ape-species
#11
Claudia Barelli, Michael A Huffman
Leaf swallowing behavior, known as a form of self-medication for the control of nematode and tapeworm infection, occurs widely in all the African great apes (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, P. t. troglodytes, P. t. verus, P. t. vellerosus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla graueri), except mountain gorillas. It is also reported to occur in a similar context across a wide array of other animal taxa including, domestic dogs, wolves, brown bears, and civets. Despite long-term research on Asian great and small apes, this is the first report of leaf swallowing in an Asian species, the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, central Thailand...
March 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105800/re-evaluating-data-quality-of-dog-mitochondrial-y-chromosomal-and-autosomal-snps-genotyped-by-snp-array
#12
Newton O Otecko, Min-Sheng Peng, He-Chuan Yang, Ya-Ping Zhang, Guo-Dong Wang
Quality deficiencies in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses have important implications. We used missingness rates to investigate the quality of a recently published dataset containing 424 mitochondrial, 211 Y chromosomal, and 160 432 autosomal SNPs generated by a semicustom Illumina SNP array from 5 392 dogs and 14 grey wolves. Overall, the individual missingness rate for mitochondrial SNPs was ~43.8%, with 980 (18.1%) individuals completely missing mitochondrial SNP genotyping (missingness rate=1)...
18, 2016: Zool Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105796/the-geographical-distribution-of-grey-wolves-canis-lupus-in-china-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Lu Wang, Ya-Ping Ma, Qi-Jun Zhou, Ya-Ping Zhang, Peter Savolaimen, Guo-Dong Wang
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China, published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China...
18, 2016: Zool Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101368/polymorphisms-in-the-canine-monoamine-oxidase-a-maoa-gene-identification-and-variation-among-five-broad-dog-breed-groups
#14
James Sacco, Andrew Ruplin, Paul Skonieczny, Michael Ohman
BACKGROUND: In humans, reduced activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) due to genetic polymorphisms within the MAOA gene leads to increased brain neurotransmitter levels associated with aggression. In order to study MAOA genetic diversity in dogs, we designed a preliminary study whose objectives were to identify novel alleles in functionally important regions of the canine MAOA gene, and to investigate whether the frequencies of these polymorphisms varied between five broad breed groups (ancient, herding, mastiff, modern European, and mountain)...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064464/ungulate-predation-and-ecological-roles-of-wolves-and-coyotes-in-eastern-north-america
#15
John F Benson, Karen M Loveless, Linda Y Rutledge, Brent R Patterson
Understanding the ecological roles of species that influence ecosystem processes is a central goal of ecology and conservation biology. Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) have ascended to the role of apex predator across much of eastern North America since the extirpation of wolves (Canis spp.) and there has been considerable confusion regarding their ability to prey on ungulates and their ecological niche relative to wolves. Eastern wolves (C. lycaon) are thought to have been the historical top predator in eastern deciduous forests and have previously been characterized as deer specialists that are inefficient predators of moose because of their smaller size relative to gray wolves (C...
January 8, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043382/protozoan-and-helminth-parasite-fauna-of-free-living-croatian-wild-wolves-canis-lupus-analyzed-by-scat-collection
#16
Carlos Hermosilla, Sonja Kleinertz, Liliana M R Silva, Jörg Hirzmann, Djuro Huber, Josip Kusak, Anja Taubert
The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011...
January 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035275/mobility-of-moose-comparing-the-effects-of-wolf-predation-risk-reproductive-status-and-seasonality
#17
Camilla Wikenros, Gyöngyvér Balogh, Håkan Sand, Kerry L Nicholson, Johan Månsson
In a predator-prey system, prey species may adapt to the presence of predators with behavioral changes such as increased vigilance, shifting habitats, or changes in their mobility. In North America, moose (Alces alces) have shown behavioral adaptations to presence of predators, but such antipredator behavioral responses have not yet been found in Scandinavian moose in response to the recolonization of wolves (Canis lupus). We studied travel speed and direction of movement of GPS-collared female moose (n = 26) in relation to spatiotemporal differences in wolf predation risk, reproductive status, and time of year...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032106/canine-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-wild-canines-fox-jackal-and-wolf-in-northeastern-iran-using-parasitological-serological-and-molecular-methods
#18
Mehdi Mohebali, Kourosh Arzamani, Zabiholah Zarei, Behnaz Akhoundi, Homa Hajjaran, Saber Raeghi, Zahra Heidari, Seyed Mousa Motavalli-Haghi, Samira Elikaee, Ahmad Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Zahra Kakoei
BACKGROUND: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT)...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030549/prey-selection-of-scandinavian-wolves-single-large-or-several-small
#19
Håkan Sand, Ann Eklund, Barbara Zimmermann, Camilla Wikenros, Petter Wabakken
Research on large predator-prey interactions are often limited to the predators' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in systems with multiple ungulate species rarely investigated. We evaluated wolf (Canis lupus) prey selection at two different spatial scales, i.e., inter- and intra-territorial, using data from 409 ungulate wolf-kills in an expanding wolf population in Scandinavia. This expansion includes a change from a one-prey into a two-prey system with variable densities of one large-sized ungulate; moose (Alces alces) and one small-sized ungulate; roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002495/space-use-and-habitat-selection-by-resident-and-transient-red-wolves-canis-rufus
#20
Joseph W Hinton, Christine Proctor, Marcella J Kelly, Frank T van Manen, Michael R Vaughan, Michael J Chamberlain
Recovery of large carnivores remains a challenge because complex spatial dynamics that facilitate population persistence are poorly understood. In particular, recovery of the critically endangered red wolf (Canis rufus) has been challenging because of its vulnerability to extinction via human-caused mortality and hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans). Therefore, understanding red wolf space use and habitat selection is important to assist recovery because key aspects of wolf ecology such as interspecific competition, foraging, and habitat selection are well-known to influence population dynamics and persistence...
2016: PloS One
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