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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630899/comment-on-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-shows-two-endemic-species-of-north-american-wolf-are-admixtures-of-the-coyote-and-gray-wolf
#1
Paul A Hohenlohe, Linda Y Rutledge, Lisette P Waits, Kimberly R Andrews, Jennifer R Adams, Joseph W Hinton, Ronald M Nowak, Brent R Patterson, Adrian P Wydeven, Paul A Wilson, Brad N White
Whole-genome data do not support a recent hybrid origin for red and eastern wolves.
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602652/domestication-does-not-explain-the-presence-of-inequity-aversion-in-dogs
#2
Jennifer L Essler, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Friederike Range
Sensitivity to inequity is thought to be an important mechanism for recognizing undesirable cooperative partners and thus crucial for the evolution of human cooperation [1]. This link may not be unique to humans, as cooperative non-human primates also react to unequal outcomes [2], whereas non-cooperative species do not [3]. Although this hypothesis has not been tested in non-primate species, studies revealed that pet dogs show a limited form of inequity aversion, responding to reward, but not quality inequity [4-6]...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585433/reconsidering-the-distribution-of-gray-wolves
#3
Greger Larson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555834/effects-of-breeder-turnover-and-harvest-on-group-composition-and-recruitment-in-a-social-carnivore
#4
David E Ausband, Michael S Mitchell, Lisette P Waits
1.Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition, and recruitment. 2.Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding gray wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758)...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549194/disentangling-timing-of-admixture-patterns-of-introgression-and-phenotypic-indicators-in-a-hybridizing-wolf-population
#5
M Galaverni, R Caniglia, L Pagani, E Fabbri, A Boattini, E Randi
Hybridization is a natural or anthropogenic process that can deeply affect the genetic make-up of populations, possibly decreasing individual fitness but sometimes favouring local adaptations. The population of Italian wolves (Canis lupus), after protracted demographic declines and isolation, is currently expanding in anthropic areas, with documented cases of hybridization with stray domestic dogs. However, identifying admixture patterns in deeply introgressed populations is far from trivial. In this study, we used a panel of 170,000 SNPs analysed with multivariate, Bayesian and local ancestry reconstruction methods to identify hybrids, estimate their ancestry proportions and timing since admixture...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539521/harvest-and-group-effects-on-pup-survival-in-a-cooperative-breeder
#6
David E Ausband, Michael S Mitchell, Carisa R Stansbury, Jennifer L Stenglein, Lisette P Waits
Recruitment in cooperative breeders can be negatively affected by changes in group size and composition. The majority of cooperative breeding studies have not evaluated human harvest; therefore, the effects of recurring annual harvest and group characteristics on survival of young are poorly understood. We evaluated how harvest and groups affect pup survival using genetic sampling and pedigrees for grey wolves in North America. We hypothesized that harvest reduces pup survival because of (i) reduced group size, (ii) increased breeder turnover and/or (iii) reduced number of female helpers...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539204/nurses-perceptions-of-caring-for-parents-of-children-with-chronic-medical-complexity-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#7
Gabrielle Denis-Larocque, Karl Williams, Isabelle St-Sauveur, Margaret Ruddy, Janet Rennick
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of caring for parents of children with medical complexity [CMC] in the pediatric intensive care unit [PICU]. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore nurses' perceptions of caring for parents of CMC in the PICU. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten nurses. Interview data were collected and analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. FINDINGS: Nurses revealed that their experiences of caring for parents of CMC evolved over time as they learned to tailor a caregiving partnership based on trust...
May 20, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489863/combining-phylogenetic-and-demographic-inferences-to-assess-the-origin-of-the-genetic-diversity-in-an-isolated-wolf-population
#8
Luca Montana, Romolo Caniglia, Marco Galaverni, Elena Fabbri, Atidje Ahmed, Barbora Černá Bolfíková, Sylwia D Czarnomska, Ana Galov, Raquel Godinho, Maris Hindrikson, Pavel Hulva, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Maja Jelenčič, Miroslav Kutal, Urmas Saarma, Tomaž Skrbinšek, Ettore Randi
The survival of isolated small populations is threatened by both demographic and genetic factors. Large carnivores declined for centuries in most of Europe due to habitat changes, overhunting of their natural prey and direct persecution. However, the current rewilding trends are driving many carnivore populations to expand again, possibly reverting the erosion of their genetic diversity. In this study we reassessed the extent and origin of the genetic variation of the Italian wolf population, which is expanding after centuries of decline and isolation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478814/fragrance-compounds-the-wolves-in-sheep-s-clothings
#9
Seema Patel
In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. The link between fragrances as and the multiplicity of pathogens remained latent for decades. However, now this health hazard and its role in homeostasis breakdown is getting attention...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443051/social-behavior-of-pet-dogs-is-associated-with-peripheral-oxtr-methylation
#10
Giulia Cimarelli, Zsófia Virányi, Borbála Turcsán, Zsolt Rónai, Mária Sasvári-Székely, Zsófia Bánlaki
Oxytocin is a key modulator of emotional processing and social cognitive function. In line with this, polymorphisms of genes involved in oxytocin signaling, like the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, are known to influence social behavior in various species. However, to date, no study has investigated environmental factors possibly influencing the epigenetic variation of the OXTR gene and its behavioral effects in dogs. Pet dogs form individualized and strong relationships with their owners who are central figures in the social environment of their dogs and therefore might influence the methylation levels of their OXTR gene...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440021/global-patterns-and-trends-in-human-wildlife-conflict-compensation
#11
Jeremy Ravenelle, Philip J Nyhus
Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation challenge, and compensation for wildlife damage is a widely used economic tool to mitigate this conflict. The effectiveness of this management tool is widely debated. The relative importance of factors associated with compensation success is unclear and little is known about global geographic or taxonomic differences in the application of compensation programs. We carried out a review of the compensation scholarship to examine geographic and taxonomic gaps, analyze patterns of positive and negative comments related to compensation, and assess the relative magnitude of global compensation payments...
April 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429096/differences-in-problem-solving-between-canid-populations-do-domestication-and-lifetime-experience-affect-persistence
#12
Lauren Brubaker, Sandipan Dasgupta, Debottam Bhattacharjee, Anindita Bhadra, Monique A R Udell
Past research has suggested that a variety of factors, phylogenetic and ontogenetic, play a role in how canines behave during problem-solving tasks and the degree to which the presence of a human influences their problem-solving behaviour. While comparisons between socialized wolves and domestic dogs have commonly been used to tease apart these predictive factors, in many cases a single dog population, often pets, have been used for these comparisons. Less is understood about how different populations of dogs may behave when compared with wolves, or with each other, during an independent problem-solving task...
July 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422169/the-role-of-domestication-and-experience-in-looking-back-towards-humans-in-an-unsolvable-task
#13
Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Akshay Rao, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range
A key element thought to have changed during domestication is dogs' propensity to communicate with humans, particularly their inclination to gaze at them. A classic test to measure this is the 'unsolvable task', where after repeated successes in obtaining a reward by object-manipulation, the animal is confronted with an unsolvable version of the task. 'Looking back' at humans has been considered an expression of dogs seeking help. While it occurs more in dogs than in socialized wolves, the level of exposure to human communication also appears to play a role...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380532/effects-of-a-simulated-wolf-encounter-on-brain-and-blood-biomarkers-of-stress-related-psychological-disorders-in-beef-cows-with-or-without-previous-exposure-to-wolves
#14
R F Cooke, L R Mehrkam, R S Marques, K D Lippolis, D W Bohnert
This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376903/the-prevalence-and-impact-of-babesia-canis-and-theileria-sp-in-free-ranging-grey-wolf-canis-lupus-populations-in-croatia
#15
Ana Beck, Doroteja Huber, Adam Polkinghorne, Andrea Gudan Kurilj, Valerija Benko, Vladimir Mrljak, Slaven Reljić, Josip Kusak, Irena Reil, Relja Beck
BACKGROUND: Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. are important emerging causes of disease in dogs. Alongside these domesticated hosts, there is increasing recognition that these piroplasms can also be found in a range of wild animals with isolated reports describing the presence of these pathogen in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and captive grey wolves (Canis lupus). The prevalence and impact of these infections in free-ranging populations of canids are unknown. To gain a better insight into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of piroplasm infections in free-ranging grey wolves, pathological and molecular investigations into captive and free-ranging grey wolves in Croatia were performed...
April 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373601/an-epigenetic-aging-clock-for-dogs-and-wolves
#16
Michael J Thompson, Bridgett vonHoldt, Steve Horvath, Matteo Pellegrini
Several articles describe highly accurate age estimation methods based on human DNA-methylation data. It is not yet known whether similar epigenetic aging clocks can be developed based on blood methylation data from canids. Using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing, we assessed blood DNA-methylation data from 46 domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris) and 62 wild gray wolves (C. lupus). By regressing chronological dog age on the resulting CpGs, we defined highly accurate multivariate age estimators for dogs (based on 41 CpGs), wolves (67 CpGs), and both combined (115 CpGs)...
March 28, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363056/novel-radiographic-technique-for-pregnancy-detection-in-the-maned-wolf-chrysocyon-brachyurus-without-anesthesia
#17
Copper Aitken-Palmer, Dipl A C Z M, Lisa H Ware, Lacey Braun, Kenneth Lang, Priscilla H Joyner
Maned wolves ( Chrysocyon brachyurus ) maintained in ex situ populations challenge veterinarians and managers with high neonatal mortality and parental incompetence. These challenges led to the development of a novel diagnostic approach for pregnancy detection using radiographic imaging without anesthesia or sedation. To do this, a specialized crate was constructed to easily contain a single maned wolf, allowing the capture of lateral projection radiographic images of the abdomen prior to and throughout a 66-day pregnancy (days 20, 34, 48, and 55 of 66)...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360396/phylogenetic-analysis-of-tibetan-mastiffs-based-on-mitochondrial-hypervariable-region-i
#18
Zhanjun Ren, Huiling Chen, Xuejiao Yang, Chengdong Zhang
Recently, the number of Tibetan mastiffs, which is a precious germplasm resource and cultural heritage, is decreasing sharply. Therefore, the genetic diversity of Tibetan mastiffs needs to be studied to clarify its phylogenetics relationships and lay the foundation for resource protection, rational development and utilization of Tibetan mastiffs. We sequenced hypervariable region I of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 110 individuals from Tibet region and Gansu province. A total of 12 polymorphic sites were identified which defined eight haplotypes of which H4 and H8 were unique to Tibetan population with H8 being identified first...
March 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267780/the-eurasian-otter-lutra-lutra-as-a-potential-host-for-rickettsial-pathogens-in-southern-italy
#19
Mario Santoro, Nicola D'Alessio, Anna Cerrone, Maria Gabriella Lucibelli, Giorgia Borriello, Gaetano Aloise, Clementina Auriemma, Nunzia Riccone, Giorgio Galiero
Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are zoonotic tick-borne diseases of canids caused by the intracellular obligate bacteria Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia species respectively. In this study, we investigated using standard and real-time PCR and sequencing, the occurrence and molecular characterization of E. canis and Rickettsia species in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) from the southern Italian population. Samples were screened by using molecular assays also for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Clamydophyla spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263421/modelling-moose-forest-interactions-under-different-predation-scenarios-at-isle-royale-national-park-usa
#20
Nathan R De Jager, Jason J Rohweder, Brian R Miranda, Brian R Sturtevant, Timothy J Fox, Mark C Romanski
Loss of top predators may contribute to high ungulate population densities and chronic over-browsing of forest ecosystems. However, spatial and temporal variability in the strength of interactions between predators and ungulates occurs over scales that are much shorter than the scales over which forest communities change, making it difficult to characterize trophic cascades in forest ecosystems. We applied the LANDIS-II forest succession model and a recently developed ungulate browsing extension to model how the moose population could interact with the forest ecosystem of Isle Royale National Park, USA, under three different wolf predation scenarios...
March 6, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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