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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916808/the-effects-of-domestication-and-ontogeny-on-cognition-in-dogs-and-wolves
#1
Michelle Lampe, Juliane Bräuer, Juliane Kaminski, Zsófia Virányi
Cognition is one of the most flexible tools enabling adaptation to environmental variation. Living close to humans is thought to influence social as well as physical cognition of animals throughout domestication and ontogeny. Here, we investigated to what extent physical cognition and two domains of social cognition of dogs have been affected by domestication and ontogeny. To address the effects of domestication, we compared captive wolves (n = 12) and dogs (n = 14) living in packs under the same conditions...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900198/analysis-and-comparison-of-the-wolf-microbiome-under-different-environmental-factors-using-three-different-data-of-next-generation-sequencing
#2
Xiaoyang Wu, Huanxin Zhang, Jun Chen, Shuai Shang, Jiakuo Yan, Yao Chen, Xuexi Tang, Honghai Zhang
Next Generation Sequencing has been widely used to characterize the prevalence of fecal bacteria in many different species. In this study, we attempted to employ a low-cost and high-throughput sequencing model to discern information pertaining to the wolf microbiota. It is hoped that this model will allow researchers to elucidate potential protective factors in relation to endangered wolf species. We propose three high-throughput sequencing models to reveal information pertaining to the micro-ecology of the wolf...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899810/quantity-discrimination-in-canids-dogs-canis-familiaris-and-wolves-canis-lupus-compared
#3
Miletto Petrazzini Maria Elena, Clive D L Wynne
Accumulating evidence indicates that animals are able to discriminate between quantities. Recent studies have shown that dogs' and coyotes' ability to discriminate between quantities of food items decreases with increasing numerical ratio. Conversely, wolves' performance is not affected by numerical ratio. Cross-species comparisons are difficult because of differences in the methodologies employed, and hence it is still unclear whether domestication altered quantitative abilities in canids. Here we used the same procedure to compare pet dogs and wolves in a spontaneous food choice task...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883428/assessing-snp-genotyping-of-noninvasively-collected-wildlife-samples-using-microfluidic-arrays
#4
Alina von Thaden, Berardino Cocchiararo, Anne Jarausch, Hannah Jüngling, Alexandros A Karamanlidis, Annika Tiesmeyer, Carsten Nowak, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes
Noninvasively collected samples are a common source of DNA in wildlife genetic studies. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping using microfluidic arrays is emerging as an easy-to-use and cost-effective methodology. Here we assessed the performance of microfluidic SNP arrays in genotyping noninvasive samples from grey wolves, European wildcats and brown bears, and we compared results with traditional microsatellite genotyping. We successfully SNP-genotyped 87%, 80% and 97% of the wolf, cat and bear samples, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879543/apex-predatory-mammals-as-bioindicator-species-in-environmental-monitoring-of-elements-in-dinaric-alps-croatia
#5
Maja Lazarus, Ankica Sekovanić, Tatjana Orct, Slaven Reljić, Josip Kusak, Jasna Jurasović, Đuro Huber
Tissue element investigations of apex terrestrial mammals are very scarce in Europe. We quantified 16 essential and nonessential elements in the kidney cortex, liver, and muscle tissue of 467 brown bears (Ursus arctos), 125 gray wolves (Canis lupus), one Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and three golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Croatia by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Renal cadmium (0.6% of animals) and lead (1%) and hepatic lead (5%) were found in toxicologically relevant levels for mammals only in bears, while the other elements were within normal range...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876360/all-about-neosporosis-in-brazil
#6
Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Jitender Prakash Dubey, Solange Maria Gennari
Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990's N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N...
August 31, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875080/experimental-moose-reduction-lowers-wolf-density-and-stops-decline-of-endangered-caribou
#7
Robert Serrouya, Bruce N McLellan, Harry van Oort, Garth Mowat, Stan Boutin
The expansion of moose into southern British Columbia caused the decline and extirpation of woodland caribou due to their shared predators, a process commonly referred to as apparent competition. Using an adaptive management experiment, we tested the hypothesis that reducing moose to historic levels would reduce apparent competition and therefor recover caribou populations. Nested within this broad hypothesis were three specific hypotheses: (1) sport hunting could be used to substantially reduce moose numbers to an ecological target; (2) wolves in this ecosystem were primarily limited by moose abundance; and (3) caribou were limited by wolf predation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873090/deficiencies-in-natura-2000-for-protecting-recovering-large-carnivores-a-spotlight-on-the-wolf-canis-lupus-in-poland
#8
Tom A Diserens, Tomasz Borowik, Sabina Nowak, Maciej Szewczyk, Natalia Niedźwiecka, Robert W Mysłajek
If protected areas are to remain relevant in our dynamic world they must be adapted to changes in species ranges. In the EU one of the most notable such changes is the recent recovery of large carnivores, which are protected by Natura 2000 at the national and population levels. However, the Natura 2000 network was designed prior to their recent recovery, which raises the question whether the network is sufficient to protect the contemporary ranges of large carnivores. To investigate this question we evaluated Natura 2000 coverage of the three wolf Canis lupus populations in Poland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865771/can-skull-form-predict-the-shape-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-a-study-using-geometric-morphometrics-on-the-skulls-of-wolves-and-domestic-dogs
#9
Stefan Curth, Martin S Fischer, Kornelius Kupczik
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) conducts and restrains masticatory movements between the mammalian cranium and the mandible. Through this functional integration, TMJ morphology in wild mammals is strongly correlated with diet, resulting in a wide range of TMJ variations. However, in artificially selected and closely related domestic dogs, dietary specialisations between breeds can be ruled out as a diversifying factor although they display an enormous variation in TMJ morphology. This raises the question of the origin of this variation...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845717/characterization-and-minimization-of-the-stress-response-to-trapping-in-free-ranging-wolves-canis-lupus-insights-from-physiology-and-behavior
#10
Nuno Santos, Helena Rio-Maior, Mónia Nakamura, Sara Roque, Ricardo Brandão, Francisco Álvares
OBJECTIVES: Wildlife capture is an essential management tool that induces a reactive homeostasis response in the captured animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the reactive homeostatic response to trapping in free-ranging wolves and assess the mitigation achieved by reducing the duration of restraint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Making use of wolves captured for ecological research as a model for wildlife acute stress, we characterize 25 reactive homeostasis mediators and we assess the effect on these mediators of reducing the duration of restraint in trap by using remote trap activation alarms...
August 28, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842717/three-dimensional-geometric-morphometric-analysis-of-fossil-canid-mandibles-and-skulls
#11
Abby Grace Drake, Michael Coquerelle, Pavel A Kosintsev, Olga P Bachura, Mikhail Sablin, Andrei V Gusev, Lacey S Fleming, Robert J Losey
Much of the fossil record for dogs consists of mandibles. However, can fossil canid mandibles be reliably identified as dogs or wolves? 3D geometric morphometric analysis correctly classifies 99.5% of the modern dog and wolf mandibles. However, only 4 of 26 Ust'-Polui fossil mandibles, a Russian Arctic site occupied from 250BCE to 150CE, were identified as dogs and none of the 20 Ivolgin mandibles, an Iron Age site in southern Russia, were identified as dogs. Three of the Ust'-Polui mandibles and 8 of the Ivolgin mandibles were identified as wolves...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841859/a-gja9-frameshift-variant-is-associated-with-polyneuropathy-in-leonberger-dogs
#12
Doreen Becker, Katie M Minor, Anna Letko, Kari J Ekenstedt, Vidhya Jagannathan, Tosso Leeb, G Diane Shelton, James R Mickelson, Cord Drögemüller
BACKGROUND: Many inherited polyneuropathies (PN) observed in dogs have clinical similarities to the genetically heterogeneous group of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathies in humans. The canine disorders collectively show a variable expression of progressive clinical signs and ages of onset, and different breed prevalences. Previously in the Leonberger breed, a variant highly associated with a juvenile-onset PN was identified in the canine orthologue of a CMT-associated gene...
August 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831079/fear-or-food-abundance-of-red-fox-in-relation-to-occurrence-of-lynx-and-wolf
#13
Camilla Wikenros, Malin Aronsson, Olof Liberg, Anders Jarnemo, Jessica Hansson, Märtha Wallgren, Håkan Sand, Roger Bergström
Apex predators may affect mesopredators through intraguild predation and/or supply of carrion from their prey, causing a trade-off between avoidance and attractiveness. We used wildlife triangle snow-tracking data to investigate the abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) occurrence as well as land composition and vole (Microtus spp.) density. Data from the Swedish wolf-monitoring system and VHF/GPS-collared wolves were used to study the effect of wolf pack size and time since wolf territory establishment on fox abundance...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829636/kleptoparasitism-and-scavenging-can-stabilize-ecosystem-dynamics
#14
Stefano Focardi, Massimo Materassi, Giacomo Innocenti, Duccio Berzi
Scavenging is ubiquitous in nature, but its implications have rarely been investigated. We used camera traps on wolf kills to investigate the role of scavenging on predator and multiprey dynamics in a northern Apennine system in Italy. In contrast to North American systems, the omnivorous wild boar successfully competes with wolves for the meat of their kills. We developed a deterministic, multitrophic web model (wolf, vegetation, deer, and wild boar), tunable through a parameter that governs the impact of prey sharing between wolves and wild boar...
September 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812696/skeletal-trauma-reflects-hunting-behaviour-in-extinct-sabre-tooth-cats-and-dire-wolves
#15
Caitlin Brown, Mairin Balisi, Christopher A Shaw, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
Skeletal-injury frequency and distribution are likely to reflect hunting behaviour in predatory vertebrates and might therefore differ between species with distinct hunting modes. Two Pleistocene predators from the Rancho La Brea asphalt seeps, the sabre-tooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, and dire wolf, Canis dirus, represent ambush and pursuit predators, respectively. On the basis of a collection of over 1,900 pathological elements, the frequency of traumatic injury across skeletal elements in these two species was calculated...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807305/evaluation-of-the-priocheck%C3%A2-trichinella-aad-kit-for-the-digestion-and-recovery-of-larvae-in-pork-horse-meat-and-wild-meat
#16
Kelly Konecsni, Cheryl Scheller, Brad Scandrett, Patrik Buholzer, Alvin Gajadhar
The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800774/angiostrongylus-vasorum-in-wolves-in-italy-prevalence-and-pathological-findings
#17
Claudio De Liberato, Goffredo Grifoni, Raniero Lorenzetti, Roberta Meoli, Cristiano Cocumelli, Antonio Mastromattei, Francesco Scholl, Pasquale Rombolà, Pietro Calderini, Gianpaolo Bruni, Claudia Eleni
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode residing in the heart and pulmonary vessels of dogs and wild carnivores. In Europe the red fox is its reservoir, while only three records from wolves have been published. Angiostrongylus vasorum has a worldwide distribution, and many pieces of evidence demonstrate that it is spreading from endemic areas to new ones. In Italy, A. vasorum was reported with increasing frequency in dogs and foxes in the last decades, and now it is considered endemic throughout the country...
August 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776031/structural-variants-in-genes-associated-with-human-williams-beuren-syndrome-underlie-stereotypical-hypersociability-in-domestic-dogs
#18
Bridgett M vonHoldt, Emily Shuldiner, Ilana Janowitz Koch, Rebecca Y Kartzinel, Andrew Hogan, Lauren Brubaker, Shelby Wanser, Daniel Stahler, Clive D L Wynne, Elaine A Ostrander, Janet S Sinsheimer, Monique A R Udell
Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of morphologic traits (for example, body size and coat color) in dogs and wolves, the genetic basis of their behavioral divergence is poorly understood. An integrative approach using both behavioral and genetic data is required to understand the molecular underpinnings of the various behavioral characteristics associated with domestication. We analyze a 5-Mb genomic region on chromosome 6 previously found to be under positive selection in domestic dog breeds...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766059/protective-immune-response-of-oral-rabies-vaccine-in-stray-dogs-corsacs-and-steppe-wolves-after-a-single-immunization
#19
K Zhugunissov, Ye Bulatov, D Taranov, Z Yershebulov, Zh Koshemetov, Ye Abduraimov, Zh Kondibayeva, A Samoltyrova, Zh Amanova, B Khairullin, A Sansyzbay
In this study the safety and protective immunity of an oral rabies vaccine, based on the live, modified rabies virus strain VRC-RZ2, was examined in stray dogs (Canis Sp.), corsacs (Vulpes corsac) and steppe wolves (Canis lupus campestris). In the safety group (dogs, n=6; corsacs, n=3; wolves, n=3) which was vaccinated with a 10-times field dose/animal, no animals showed any signs of disease or changes in behavior or appetite during the period of clinical observation, similar to the animals in the negative control group...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765081/intranasal-oxytocin-and-a-polymorphism-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-are-associated-with-human-directed-social-behavior-in-golden-retriever-dogs
#20
Mia E Persson, Agaia J Trottier, Johan Bélteky, Lina S V Roth, Per Jensen
The oxytocin system may play an important role in dog domestication from the wolf. Dogs have evolved unique human analogue social skills enabling them to communicate and cooperate efficiently with people. Genomic differences in the region surrounding the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene have previously been associated with variation in dogs' communicative skills. Here we have utilized the unsolvable problem paradigm to investigate the effects of oxytocin and OXTR polymorphisms on human-directed contact seeking behavior in 60 golden retriever dogs...
August 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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