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screening CT

Omair Atiq, Jasmin Tiro, Adam C Yopp, Adam Muffler, Jorge A Marrero, Neehar D Parikh, Caitlin Murphy, Katharine McCallister, Amit G Singal
: Although surveillance ultrasound and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) have minimal direct harm, downstream harms from follow-up tests must be weighed against surveillance benefits when determining the value of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening programs. Our study's aims were to characterize prevalence and correlates of surveillance benefits and harms in cirrhosis patients undergoing HCC surveillance. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among patients with cirrhosis followed at a safety-net health system between July 2010 and July 2013...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
S Palladino, M A Keyerleber, R G King, K E Burgess
BACKGROUND: Apocrine gland adenocarcinoma of the anal sac (AGAAS) is associated with high rates of iliosacral lymph node metastasis, which may influence treatment and prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) recently has been shown to be more sensitive than abdominal ultrasound examination (AUS) in affected patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of detection of iliosacral lymphadenomegaly between AUS and computed tomography (CT) in dogs with AGAAS. ANIMALS: Cohort A: A total of 30 presumed normal dogs...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Takaya Kitano, Makoto Kinoshita, Kohki Shimazu, Hiroaki Fushimi, Kenichi Omori, Takanori Hazama
A 87-year-old female presented with subacute progression of cognitive decline. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of brain MRI showed multifocal high-intensity lesions. Thoracic CT image revealed the presence of thymoma, and serum autoantibody screening showed positivity for anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody. Histopathological analysis confirmed type B3 thymoma after thymectomy. The patient received both plasmapheresis and intravenous methylprednisolone therapy, and showed remarkable amelioration of clinical symptoms and MRI abnormal high intensity...
October 21, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Joachim Mikkelsen, Steen Henrik Matzen
INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a recognized risk factor of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as it induces a prothrombotic state through various mechanisms of activation of coagulation. Recognizing occult cancer as a risk factor is equally important. In patients with no known thromboembolic risk factors, utilizing PET/CT as a screening tool may be considered in order to reveal occult malignancy associated with otherwise unexplainable VTE. METHODS: This case report has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Mutimbwa Anaene, Kenneth Soyemi, Rachel Caskey
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) and Neisserria Gonorrhea (GC) and the rates and factors associated with their over-treatment (OT) and under-treatment (UT). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients aged 13-to-24 years who were screened for GC/CT in the ED of a public hospital and were screened for GC/CT. Descriptive statistics were obtained for all variables and a multivariate log binomial regression was performed to ascertain the factors associated with OT and UT...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ingrid Broodman, Jan Lindemans, Jenny van Sten, Rainer Bischoff, Theo M Luider
Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and non-curable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mortality rate. However, the still high false-positive rate of CT screening may harm healthy individuals because of unnecessary follow-up scans and invasive follow-up procedures. Alternatively, false-negative and indeterminate results may harm patients due to the delayed diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh
OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Paul M Foreman, Christoph J Griessenauer, Kimberly P Kicielinski, Philip G R Schmalz, Brandon G Rocque, Matthew R Fusco, Joseph C Sullivan, John P Deveikis, Mark R Harrigan
OBJECTIVE Blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI) represents structural injury to a vessel due to high-energy trauma. The Biffl Scale is a widely accepted grading scheme for these injuries that was developed using digital subtraction angiography. In recent years, screening CT angiography (CTA) has been used to identify patients with TCVI. The reliability of this scale, with injuries assessed using CTA, has not yet been determined. METHODS Seven independent raters, including 2 neurosurgeons, 2 neuroradiologists, 2 neurosurgical residents, and 1 neurosurgical vascular fellow, independently reviewed each presenting CTA of the neck performed in 40 patients with confirmed TCVI and assigned a Biffl grade...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Paolo Prandoni, Enrico Bernardi, Fabio Dalla Valle, Adriana Visonà, Pietro F Tropeano, Carlo Bova, Eugenio Bucherini, Md Shahidul Islam, Andrea Piccioli
Patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) may harbor occult cancer. Whether an extensive diagnostic work-up for cancer has additional value over a more limited screening for detection of underlying malignancy in these patients is controversial. We performed a randomized multicenter trial to assess if in patients with unprovoked VTE, a computed tomography (CT)-based diagnostic strategy including thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic CT in combination with fecal occult blood test yields a higher cancer detection rate than a nonstandardized testing approach based on physicians' clinical judgment and patients' preferences...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Linda Garton, Amalie Dyda, Rebecca Guy, Bronwyn Silver, Skye McGregor, Belinda Hengel, Alice Rumbold, Debbie Taylor-Thomson, Janet Knox, Lisa Maher, John Kaldor, James Ward
Background: Extremely high rates of diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) have been recorded in remote communities across northern and central Australia. Re-testing at 3 months, after treatment administered, of CT or NG is recommended to detect repeat infections and prevent morbidity and ongoing transmission. Methods: Baseline CT and NG laboratory data (2009-2010) from 65 remote health services participating in a cluster randomised trial was used to calculate the proportion of individuals re-tested after an initial CT or NG diagnosis at <2 months (not recommended), 2-4 months (recommended) and 5-12 months and the proportion with repeat positivity on re-test...
October 21, 2016: Sexual Health
Hillary W Garner, Michelle M Paturzo, Gabriela Gaudier, Perry J Pickhardt, Daniel E Wessell
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the variation in attenuation values (expressed as Hounsfield units) for L1 vertebral body trabecular bone at different tube voltages used in dual-energy CT (DECT) and to remind physicians to consider changes in attenuation values when they approach opportunistic screening for osteoporosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent DECT examination of the abdomen and pelvis for suspected urolithiasis were included in the study...
October 20, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Fabiana Policeni, Brittany Pakalniskis, Limin Yang
Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient's left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Hui Zhang, Shucai Zhang
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality currently. Early diagnosis is crucial to the good prognosis of lung cancer. Evidence has shown that low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening can make the decline in the mortality of lung cancer. However, there are still many problems in the screening, such as, high false-positive rates, overdiagnosis and radiation exposure. As another non-invasive tumor screening method, blood-based tumor markers showed a high sensitivity and specificity in early diagnosis of lung cancer in recent years...
October 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Gang Wu, Jun Yang, Tianjing Zhang, John N Morelli, Shivraman Giri, Xiaoming Li, Wenlin Tang
BACKGROUND: The high incidence of renal insufficiency in patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease raises the concern for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) with respect to contrast enhanced MRA. The risk of NSF is eliminated with non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. The purpose of the current study is to compare image quality and diagnostic performance of non-contrast enhanced Quiescent Interval Single Shot (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography at 3 T versus CT angiography for evaluation of lower extremity Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Hyunjung Kim, Jinyoung Kim
Prone position radiotherapy for a small (< 750 cm3) breast is controversial because of the variable benefits for the irradiated heart volume. The objective anatomical parameters related with chest wall shape that can determine the heart dose sparing patients in the prone position.Twenty-one patients underwent CT-simulation in supine and prone position. Dose volume parameters were compared and the objective indexes such as the Haller index, anthropometric index, mid-sternum thickness, and central lung distance (CLD) were evaluated the relationship between the shape of the chest wall and irradiated normal tissue volume in prone position...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Chu-Qiang Qin, Dong-Sheng Huang, Chi Zhang, Bin Song, Jian-Bin Huang, Yue Ding
BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening is a significant impediment to joint implant longevity. Prosthetic wear particles are postulated to play a central role in the onset and progression of periprosthetic osteolysis, leading to aseptic loosening of the prosthesis. METHODS: We investigated the inhibitory effects of a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA that targets the TNF-alpha gene on the particle-induced inflammatory and osteolytic changes via macrophages both in vitro and in vivo...
October 18, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Shigeki Kobayashi, Mayumi Ogura, Naohisa Suzawa, Noriyuki Horiki, Masaki Katsurahara, Toru Ogura, Hajime Sakuma
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the value of (18)F-FDG uptake on screening PET/CT images for the prediction of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. METHODS: Among subjects who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT for cancer screening from April 2005 to November 2015, PET/CT images were analyzed in 88 subjects who had gastrointestinal fiberscopy within 6 months. The volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the fornix, corpus and antrum of the stomach to determine maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Imaging
Shiro Imagama, Noriaki Kawakami, Yuji Matsubara, Taichi Tsuji, Tetsuya Ohara, Yoshito Katayama, Naoki Ishiguro, Tokumi Kanemura
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) at 5 years after L4/5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation and L4/5 decompression surgery using plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with the evaluation of annual changes on MRI. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Methods of evaluation have been inconsistent among studies of ASD...
November 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Matthias Eckert, Philipp Gölitz, Hannes Lücking, Tobias Struffert, Frauke Knossalla, Arnd Doerfler
BACKGROUND: Using flat-detector CT (FD-CT) for stroke imaging has the advantage that both diagnostic imaging and endovascular therapy can be performed directly within the Angio Suite without any patient transfer and time delay. Thus, stroke management could be speeded up significantly, and patient outcome might be improved. But as precondition for using FD-CT as primary imaging modality, a reliable exclusion of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has to be possible. This study aimed to investigate whether optimized native FD-CT, using a newly implemented reconstruction algorithm, may reliably detect ICH in stroke patients...
October 18, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
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