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screening CT

Joseph P Herbert, Sidish S Venkataraman, Ali H Turkmani, Liang Zhu, Marcia L Kerr, Rajan P Patel, Irma T Ugalde, Stephen A Fletcher, David I Sandberg, Charles S Cox, Ryan S Kitagawa, Arthur L Day, Manish N Shah
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) at a busy Level 1 trauma center and to develop a tool for accurately predicting pediatric BCVI and the need for diagnostic testing. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected database of pediatric patients who had sustained blunt trauma (patient age range 0-15 years) and were treated at a Level 1 trauma center between 2005 and 2015. Digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, or CT angiography was used to confirm BCVI...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
D Valenzuela, F Moya, M Luco, J L Tapia
50 years ago, Northway described Broncopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants exposed to mechanical ventilation. Since then, their survival has increased, nevertheless a "new BPD" has appeared and its incidence has not diminished. One of the characteristics of this pathology is the the abnormal vascular remodeling, which in its most severe expression is known as Pulmonary Hyper tension (PH); with an incidence of 17% in patients with BPD, which is proportional to the severity of the disease (33% in severe BPD), and as mortality factor (up to 48% 2-year mortality in PH-BPD)...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Xiaopeng Yang, Jae Do Yang, Hee Chul Yu, Younggeun Choi, Kwangho Yang, Tae Beom Lee, Hong Pil Hwang, Sungwoo Ahn, Heecheon You
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Manual tracing of the right and left liver lobes from computed tomography (CT) images for graft volumetry in preoperative surgery planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is common at most medical centers. This study aims to develop an automatic system with advanced image processing algorithms and user-friendly interfaces for liver graft volumetry and evaluate its accuracy and efficiency in comparison with a manual tracing method. METHODS: The proposed system provides a sequential procedure consisting of (1) liver segmentation, (2) blood vessel segmentation, and (3) virtual liver resection for liver graft volumetry...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Mario Silva, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, Colin Jacobs, Giovanni Capretti, Francesco Ciompi, Bram van Ginneken, Ugo Pastorino, Nicola Sverzellati
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and visual reading for the detection of subsolid nodules (SSNs) in volumetrl measuremic low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective visual detection (VD) and manuaent of SSN were performed in the 2303 baseline volumetric LDCTs of the Multicenter Italian Lung Detection trial. Baseline and 2- and 4-year LDCTs underwent retrospective CAD analysis, subsequently reviewed by 2 experienced thoracic radiologists...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Hong Truong, Leonard G Gomella, Mathew L Thakur, Edouard J Trabulsi
PURPOSE: Current approaches to prostate cancer screening and diagnosis are plagued with limitations in diagnostic accuracy. There is a compelling need for biomolecular imaging that will not only detect prostate cancer early but also distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions accurately. In this topic paper, we review evidence that supports further investigation of VPAC1-targeted PET/CT imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer. METHODS: A non-systematic review of Medline/PubMed was performed...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Juan A Muñoz-Largacha, Katrina A Steiling, Hasmeena Kathuria, Marjory Charlot, Carmel Fitzgerald, Kei Suzuki, Virginia R Litle
BACKGROUND: Safety net hospitals provide care mostly to low-income, uninsured, and vulnerable populations, in whom delays in cancer screening are established barriers. Socioeconomic barriers might pose important challenges to the success of a lung cancer screening program at a safety net hospital. We aimed to determine screening follow-up compliance, rates of diagnostic and treatment procedures, and the rate of cancer diagnosis in patients classified as category 4 by the Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS 4)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Juan García de la Concepción, Martín Ávalos, Pedro Cintas, José Luis Jiménez
Computational strategies have gained increasing impact in the de novo design of large molecular sets targeted to a desired application. Here, we show that DFT-assisted theoretical analyses of cycloadditions involving mesoionic dipoles and strained cycloalkynes unveil a series of unexplored mesomeric betaines as vastly superior candidates for orthogonal applications. Thus, isosydnones, thiosydnones, and a six-membered homolog in particular, 6-oxo-1,3-oxazinium-4-olate, do exhibit enhanced reactivity with respect to sydnones, the archetypal mesoionic ring employed so far in orthogonal chemistry...
March 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Erkan Gokce, Murat Beyhan
Objective: The nuchal ligament (NL) extends from the external occipital protuberance and median nuchal line to the spinous process of the 7th cervical vertebrae. In this study, we evaluated the incidence, location level, and size of ossifications of the NL (ONL) in patients who underwent cervical computed tomography (CT) for various reasons. Materials and Methods: The present study included 481 patients (187 females and 294 males) who underwent cervical CT from February 2011 to November 2016 due to reasons such as trauma, cervical spondylosis, neck pain, and screening for metastasis...
February 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
C L Shannon, C C Bristow, N A Hoff, A Wynn, M Nguyen, A Medina-Marino, J Cabeza, A W Rimoin, J D Klausner
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections during pregnancy are linked with adverse birth outcomes. However, few countries have prenatal CT, NG, or TV screening programs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of CT, NG, and TV screening and treatment among pregnant women across six low-to-middle income countries. METHODS: A total 1,817 pregnant women were screened for CT, NG, and TV in Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Haiti, South Africa, and Vietnam...
March 9, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Qinghua Zhou, Yaguang Fan, Ying Wang, Youlin Qiao, Guiqi Wang, Yunchao Huang, Xinyun Wang, Ning Wu, Guozheng Zhang, Xiangpeng Zheng, Hong Bu, Yin Li, Sen Wei, Liang'an Chen, Chengping Hu, Yuankai Shi, Yan Sun
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in China. The results from a randomized controlled trial using annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in specific high-risk groups demonstrated a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality. The aim of tihs study is to establish the China National lung cancer screening guidelines for clinical practice. METHODS: The China lung cancer early detection and treatment expert group (CLCEDTEG) established the China National Lung Cancer Screening Guideline with multidisciplinary representation including 4 thoracic surgeons, 4 thoracic radiologists, 2 medical oncologists, 2 pulmonologists, 2 pathologist, and 2 epidemiologist...
February 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Joost M Costerus, Matthijs C Brouwer, Marieke E S Sprengers, Stefan D Roosendaal, Arie van der Ende, Diederik van de Beek
Background: It is unclear how often lumbar puncture (LP) is complicated by cerebral herniation in patients with bacterial meningitis and whether cranial CT can be used to identify patients at risk for herniation. Methods: We performed a nationwide prospective cohort study of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis from 2006 to 2014 and identified patients with clinical deterioration possibly caused by LP. For systematic evaluation of contraindications for LP on cranial CT, these patients were matched to patients in the cohort without deterioration...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Giuseppe Maiolino, Michele Battistel, Giulio Barbiero, Valeria Bisogni, Gian Paolo Rossi
BACKGROUND: We herein report on a 20 years old woman with stage I hypertension, who was found to carry a renin-producing tumor (RPT). METHODS: Due to her young age, the patient underwent screening measurement of plasma renin and aldosterone, abdominal computed tomography (CT) angiography, and selective renal vein renin assessment to identify secondary hypertension. RESULTS: The patient was screened for secondary causes of hypertension and was diagnosed with secondary aldosteronism...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Morgan Schellenberg, Kenji Inaba, James M Bardes, Nicholas Orozco, Jessica Chen, Caroline Park, Tarina Kang, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Portable chest x-ray (CXR) and extended FAST (EFAST) screen patients for thoracic injury in the trauma bay. It is unclear if one test alone is sufficient, if both are required, or if the two investigations are complementary. Study objectives were to define the combined diagnostic yield of EFAST and CXR among stable blunt thoracic trauma patients and to determine if a normal EFAST and CXR might obviate the need for CT scan of the chest. METHODS: All blunt trauma patients ≥15 years presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center in 2016 were screened...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
D Rebello, D Anjelly, D J Grand, J T Machan, M D Beland, M S Furman, J Shapiro, N LeLeiko, B E Sands, M Mallette, R Bright, H Moniz, M Merrick, S A Shah
Bone disease is prevalent among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), though bone density screening remains underutilized. We used CT scans performed for other indications in IBD patients to identify and monitor osteopenia using CT attenuation values at the lumbar spine. Significant rates of bone disease were detected which would have otherwise gone undiagnosed. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis affects about 14-42% of patients with IBD. Though screening is recommended in IBD patients with risk factors, it remains underutilized...
March 8, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Josep Brocal, Steven De Decker, Roberto José-López, Julien Guevar, Maria Ortega, Tim Parkin, Gert Ter Haar, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana
Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) are common in brachycephalic 'screw-tailed' dogs; they can be associated with neurological deficits and a genetic predisposition has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiography as a screening method for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic 'screw-tailed' dogs by comparing it with CT. Forty-nine dogs that had both radiographic and CT evaluations of the thoracic vertebral column were included. Three observers retrospectively reviewed the images independently to detect CVMs...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Record
Anne Bettina Beeskow, Hans-Jonas Meyer, Katrin Schierle, Alexey Surov
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic gastric tissue can be found in the entire gastrointestinal tract. It is usually located in the upper intestine. Rarely, it can be found in the gallbladder. This study describes several clinically, imaging features as well as histopathology findings of heterotopic gastric tissue in gallbladder (HGM). METHODS: The radiologic database of 1 tertiary university hospital was retrospectively screened for HGM. Additionally, a systemic review of the Medline database was conducted to identify previously published cases reports...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Natalie E Parks, Gaurav Goyal, Ronald S Go, Jay Mandrekar, W Oliver Tobin
Background: We describe the neuroradiologic features of a cohort of patients with Erdheim-Chester disease. Methods: We assessed patients at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 1, 1990, and July 31, 2016, with pathologically confirmed Erdheim-Chester disease (n = 53). Results: Neuroimaging, including head CT (n = 17), brain MRI (n = 39), orbital MRI (n = 15), and spine MRI (n = 16), was available for 42 participants. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range 46-66) with higher male prevalence (33:20)...
February 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Keiran D Clement, Andreas Luhmann, Michael Sj Wilson, Pradeep Patil
We report a case of a young woman admitted electively for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, and again three days post-operatively as an emergency with profuse vomiting and abdominal pain. She underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, and a small gastric perforation was found at the site of the fundoplication and this was suture-repaired. On both admissions, she was "screened" for pregnancy as per current guidelines. On the second admission, following a CT scan, she was found to have a gravid uterus with a foetus of 16-18 weeks' gestation...
January 1, 2018: Scottish Medical Journal
Michael Meier-Schroers, Alois Martin Sprinkart, Manuel Becker, Rami Homsi, Daniel Thomas
PURPOSE:  To determine the suitability of T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI for the assessment of pulmonary emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  60 participants in a lung cancer screening program (30 subjects with pulmonary emphysema, and 30 control subjects without emphysema) were included for this retrospective study. All subjects were examined with low-dose CT (LDCT) and MRI within the screening program. The use of a T2-weighted PROPELLER sequence for the assessment of emphysema was analyzed and correlated with the results of LDCT...
March 7, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Gui Tran, Paul Cowling, Toby Smith, Julie Bury, Adam Lucas, Andrew Barr, Sarah R Kingsbury, Philip G Conaghan
OBJECTIVE: Shoulder symptoms are common and imaging is being increasingly used to help with management. However, the relationship between imaging and symptoms remain unclear. This review aims to understand the relationship between imaging-detected pathologies, symptoms and their persistence. METHODS: A systematic review using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane and grey literature was conducted to April 2017. The cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between imaging-detected abnormalities and symptoms were analysed and associations qualitatively characterised by a best evidence synthesis based on study design, covariate adjustment and the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)...
March 7, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
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