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Sika virus

Mohammad S Khuroo, Mehnaaz S Khuroo, Naira S Khuroo
Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, Mario García, Beatriz Suay, María Luisa Mateos-Lindemann
Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits...
June 28, 2015: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Junke Xia, Hang Zeng, Lin Liu, Yulin Zhang, Peng Liu, Jiabao Geng, Lin Wang, Ling Wang, Hui Zhuang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically...
November 2015: Archives of Virology
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Si-Yuan Qin, Yuan Zhang, Qing-Feng Meng, Jing Jiang, Gui-Lian Yang, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single stranded RNA, nonenveloped virus, belongs to the genus Hepevirus, in the family of Hepeviridae. In this study, 46 (5.43%) out of the 847 serum samples from sika deer (Cervus nippon) were detected as seropositive with hepatitis E virus (HEV) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These samples were collected from Inner Mongolia and Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China, between October 2012 and October 2013. Seroprevalence of HEV infection in male and female deer was 4...
2015: BioMed Research International
Monika Kubankova, Petr Kralik, Jiri Lamka, Vladimir Zakovcik, Marek Dolanský, Petra Vasickova
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic...
March 15, 2015: Food and Environmental Virology
R Frontoso, G L Autorino, K G Friedrich, H Li, C Eleni, C Cocumelli, P Di Cerbo, G Manna, M T Scicluna
In July 2011, in a zoological garden in Rome, Italy, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal, systemic disease of Artiodactyla, was suspected on the basis of neurological signs and gross lesions observed in a banteng, the first animal to die of this infection. An MCF type-specific PCR with subsequent sequencing of the PCR amplicon confirmed the aetiological agent as ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). Biological samples were collected from the dead animals for gross, histological, bacteriological, virological and serological examinations...
January 19, 2015: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yugang Gao, Xueliang Zhao, Pu Zang, Qun Liu, Gongqing Wei, Lianxue Zhang
The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer...
2014: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
M Larska, M K Krzysiak, A Jabłoński, J Kęsik, M Bednarski, J Rola
Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos)...
March 2015: Zoonoses and Public Health
Yuki Kameo, Yumiko Nagao, Yohei Nishio, Hiroshi Shimoda, Hitoshi Nakano, Kazuo Suzuki, Yumi Une, Hiroshi Sato, Masayuki Shimojima, Ken Maeda
In the spring of 2007, seven raccoon dogs and a weasel were captured near the city of Tanabe in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The causative agent of the animals' death 1-2 days after capture was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by virus isolation, immunostaining with an anti-CDV polyclonal antibody, and a commercially available CDV antigen-detection kit. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated the isolated viruses belong to genotype Asia-1 and possess the substitution from tyrosine (Y) to histidine (H) at position 549 that is associated with the spread of CDV to non-canine hosts...
January 27, 2012: Veterinary Microbiology
Yugang Gao, Shijie Wang, Rui Du, Quankai Wang, Changjiang Sun, Nan Wang, Pengju Zhang, Lianxue Zhang
BACKGROUND: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer...
2011: Virology Journal
Yong-Liang Lei, Xiao-Guang Wang, Xiao-Yan Tao, Hao Li, Sheng-Li Meng, Xiu-Ying Chen, Fu-Ming Liu, Bi-Feng Ye, Qing Tang
Based on sequencing the full-length genomes of four Chinese Ferret-Badger and dog, we analyze the properties of rabies viruses genetic variation in molecular level, get the information about rabies viruses prevalence and variation in Zhejiang, and enrich the genome database of rabies viruses street strains isolated from China. Rabies viruses in suckling mice were isolated, overlapped fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and full-length genomes were assembled to analyze the nucleotide and deduced protein similarities and phylogenetic analyses from Chinese Ferret-Badger, dog, sika deer, vole, used vaccine strain were determined...
January 2010: Bing du Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Virology
Yong-Liang Lei, Xiao-Guang Wang, Fu-Ming Liu, Xiu-Ying Chen, Bi-Feng Ye, Jian-Hua Mei, Jin-Quan Lan, Qing Tang
OBJECTIVE: Based on sequencing the full-length genomes of two Chinese Ferret-Badger, we analyzed the properties of rabies viruses genetic variation in molecular level to get information on prevalence and variation of rabies viruses in Zhejiang, and to enrich the genome database of rabies viruses street strains isolated from Chinese wildlife. METHODS: Overlapped fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and full-length genomes were assembled to analyze the nucleotide and deduced protein similarities and phylogenetic analyses of the N genes from Chinese Ferret-Badger, sika deer, vole, dog...
August 2009: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
X J Meng
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, belongs to the family Hepeviridae. At least four major genotypes of HEV have been recognized: genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans and associated with epidemics in developing countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and infect humans and several other animals in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from swine, chickens, sika deer, mongeese, and rabbits. The genome of HEV consists of three open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1 codes for nonstructural proteins, ORF2 codes for capsid protein, and ORF3 codes for a small multifunctional protein...
March 2010: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
K Yokoi, H Okazaki, K Inahara, S Hatama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2009: Veterinary Record
Yun-Jiao Zhao, Li Guo, Ying Huang, Li-Shi Zhang, Ai-Dong Qian
One DRV strain was isolated from Sika Deer brain and sequenced. Nine overlapped gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR through 3'-RACE and 5'-RACE method, and the complete DRV genome sequence was assembled. The length of the complete genome is 11863bp. The DRV genome organization was similar to other rabies viruses which were composed of five genes and the initiation sites and termination sites were highly conservative. There were mutated amino acids in important antigen sites of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein...
May 2008: Bing du Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Virology
Y Matsuura, M Suzuki, K Yoshimatsu, J Arikawa, I Takashima, M Yokoyama, H Igota, K Yamauchi, S Ishida, D Fukui, G Bando, M Kosuge, H Tsunemitsu, C Koshimoto, K Sakae, M Chikahira, S Ogawa, T Miyamura, N Takeda, T C Li
We examined 976 sika deer serum samples, 159 liver tissue samples and 88 stool samples collected from 16 prefectures in Japan, and performed ELISA and RT-PCR assays to detect antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA, respectively. Although 25 (2.6%) of 976 samples were positive for anti-HEV IgG, the antibody titers were very low. The OD values ranged between 0.018 and 0.486, forming a single distribution rather than a bimodal distribution, suggesting that the antibody detected in this study was not induced by HEV infection, or that deer have low sensitivity to HEV...
2007: Archives of Virology
Claro Yu, Carl Zimmerman, Roger Stone, Ronald E Engle, William Elkins, Glenn A Nardone, Suzanne U Emerson, Robert H Purcell
Recent reports from Japan implicated wild Sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E to humans. Seroprevalence studies were performed to determine if imported feral populations of Sika deer in Maryland and Virginia posed a similar risk of transmitting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hunters collected blood on filter paper discs from freshly killed deer. The discs were desiccated and delivered to a collection point. The dried filters were weighed to estimate the amount of blood absorbed and were eluted and collected in one tube via a novel extraction system...
June 2007: Journal of Virological Methods
Timothy B Crawford, Hong Li, Stuart R Rosenburg, Robert W Norhausen, Michael M Garner
Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses...
September 15, 2002: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
S S Nielsen, L Roensholt, V Bitsch
Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available...
July 2000: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
K Frölich, H Li, U Müller-Doblies
A total of 486 serum samples collected from several species of both free-living and captive cervids in Germany was examined for antibodies against malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)-associated viruses (MCFV) by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA). Eleven (2%) of these samples were positive for antibodies against MCFV. Among 157 serum samples collected from 16 different species of captive deer including four (7%) of 54 fallow deer and one (7%) of 14 sika deer (Cervus nippon) were seropositive...
October 1998: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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