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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652682/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-a-case-report-of-overdose-and-management-of-withdrawal
#1
Jack Diep, David Tian Chin, Somdatta Gupta, Faraz Syed, Ming Xiong, Jianguo Cheng
Kratom is an herb indigenous to Southeast Asia with psychoactive opioid compounds, often used as a treatment for chronic pain or opiate withdrawal symptoms. It is legally and readily available via Internet sales and has been identified as an emerging drug of abuse in the United States. Kratom use has been associated with psychosis, seizures, and even death. At lower doses, kratom acts as a stimulant, while at higher doses, it produces analgesia and euphoria. Here, we describe the successful management of kratom overdose and withdrawal in a young man with negative toxicology screens...
April 15, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617066/the-mixed-opioid-receptor-antagonist-naltrexone-mitigates-stimulant-induced-euphoria-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-naltrexone
#2
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Leah Feinberg, Sarah Kassabian, Barbara Storch, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Supratherapeutic doses of methylphenidate activate μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. This study assessed whether naltrexone, a mixed μ-opioid antagonist, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (January 2013 to June 2015)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607408/therapeutic-effects-of-prolonged-cannabidiol-treatment-on-psychological-symptoms-and-cognitive-function-in-regular-cannabis-users-a-pragmatic-open-label-clinical-trial
#3
Nadia Solowij, Samantha J Broyd, Camilla Beale, Julie-Anne Prick, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Hendrika van Hell, Chao Suo, Peter Galettis, Nagesh Pai, Shanlin Fu, Rodney J Croft, Jennifer H Martin, Murat Yücel
Introduction: Chronic cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition and elevated psychological symptoms, particularly psychotic-like experiences. While Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is thought to be primarily responsible for these deleterious effects, cannabidiol (CBD) is purported to have antipsychotic properties and to ameliorate cognitive, symptomatic, and brain harms in cannabis users. However, this has never been tested in a prolonged administration trial in otherwise healthy cannabis users...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593537/acute-pharmacological-effects-of-2c-b-in-humans-an-observational-study
#4
Esther Papaseit, Magí Farré, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Marta Torrens, Mireia Ventura, Mitona Pujadas, Rafael de la Torre, Débora González
2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) is a psychedelic phenylethylamine derivative, structurally similar to mescaline. It is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ), 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B ), and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT2C ) receptor partial agonist used recreationally as a new psychoactive substance. It has been reported that 2C-B induces mild psychedelic effects, although its acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics have not yet been fully studied in humans. An observational study was conducted to assess the acute subjective and physiological effects, as well as pharmacokinetics of 2C-B...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581536/neural-activation-to-monetary-reward-is-associated-with-amphetamine-reward-sensitivity
#5
Natania A Crane, Stephanie M Gorka, Jessica Weafer, Scott A Langenecker, Harriet de Wit, K Luan Phan
One known risk factor for drug use and abuse is sensitivity to rewarding effects of drugs. It is not known whether this risk factor extends to sensitivity to non-drug rewards. In this study with healthy young adults, we examined the association between sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of amphetamine and a neural indicator of anticipation of monetary reward. We hypothesized that greater euphorigenic response to amphetamine would be associated with greater neural activation to anticipation of monetary reward (Win > Loss)...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516486/opioid-induced-likeability-and-feeling-good-are-not-associated-with-return-visits-to-an-ed-among-migraine-patients-administered-iv-hydromorphone
#6
Benjamin W Friedman, Alexander Latev, Caron Campbell, Deborah White
BACKGROUND: Parenteral opioids are used in more than 50% of emergency department (ED) visits for migraine. Use of opioids for migraine has been associated with subsequent ED visits, perhaps because of opioid-induced euphoria. In this study, we quantify the extent to which nontherapeutic effects of opioids influence migraine outcomes. We hypothesized that "feeling good" and medication likeability would in fact be associated with receipt of opioids (rather than relief of migraine pain) and that receipt of opioids (rather than relief of migraine pain) would be associated with return visits to the ED...
March 8, 2018: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494783/tianeptine-abuse-and-dependence-in-psychiatric-patients-a-review-of-18-case-reports-in-the-literature
#7
Janusz Springer, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant approved in 25 countries for the treatment of depressive syndromes. Tianeptine abuse among psychiatric patients in the community and at inpatient wards has been increasingly reported in recent years. The purpose of this article is to alert clinicians to tianeptine abuse potential and identify any patterns in the literature. We searched the Academic Search Complete, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, Scopus, and the Social Sciences Citation Index for articles published between 1960-2017 in any language containing the keywords: "tianeptine abuse," "tianeptine misuse," "tianeptine dependence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487480/modulation-of-tryptophan-and-serotonin-metabolism-as-a-biochemical-basis-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-use-and-withdrawal-of-androgenic-anabolic-steroids-and-other-image-and-performance-enhancing-agents
#8
Abdulla A-B Badawy
Modulation of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism may underpin the behavioral effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) and associated image and performance enhancers. Euphoria, arousal, and decreased anxiety observed with moderate use and exercise may involve enhanced cerebral serotonin synthesis and function by increased release of albumin-bound Trp and estrogen-mediated liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition and enhancement of serotonin function. Aggression, anxiety, depression, personality disorders, and psychosis, observed on withdrawal of AAS or with use of large doses, can be caused by decreased serotonin synthesis due to TDO induction on withdrawal, excess Trp inhibiting the 2 enzymes of serotonin synthesis, and increased cerebral levels of neuroactive kynurenines...
2018: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484686/predictors-of-gabapentin-overuse-with-or-without-concomitant-opioids-in-a-commercially-insured-u-s-population
#9
Alyssa M Peckham, Kirk E Evoy, Jordan R Covvey, Leslie Ochs, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests the medical consequences of gabapentin overuse depend on whether gabapentin is abused alone or with opioids to potentiate an opioid "high." The objective of this study was to assess predictors of gabapentin overuse with or without concomitant opioids. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database for 2013 through 2015. Eligibility criteria were gabapentin utilization, with or without opioids, for 120 days or longer throughout a 12-month observation period...
February 27, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475069/in-vitro-model-to-study-cocaine-and-its-contaminants
#10
Aline Steinmetz, Luiza Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Flávia Prezzi, Elizandra Braganhol, Jenifer Saffi, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Helena M T Barros, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
Cocaine is one of the most popular illicit drug worldwide. Due its great addictive potential, which leads to euphoria and hyperactivity, it is considered a public health concern. At the central nervous system, the drug acts inhibiting catecholamine re-uptake. It is now known that in addition to the toxicity of the drug itself, the contaminants present in the street drug have raised concern about the harmful effects on health. Toxicological in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of cocaine correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn lead to oxidative damage to the cells...
February 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461159/evaluation-of-tramadol-for-treatment-of-osteoarthritis-in-geriatric-cats
#11
Alonso G P Guedes, Julie M Meadows, Bruno H Pypendop, Eric G Johnson
OBJECTIVE To evaluate tramadol for treatment of signs of pain and impaired mobility in geriatric cats with osteoarthritis. DESIGN Randomized controlled crossover trial. ANIMALS 24 client-owned geriatric (≥ 10 years old) cats with osteoarthritis. PROCEDURES Otherwise healthy cats with owner-identified mobility impairment and clinical and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis involving at least 1 appendicular joint were enrolled in the study. Cats were treated with tramadol orally at dosages of 0 (placebo), 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg (0, 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457487/dementia-management-strategies-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-of-elderly-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Lais Lopes Delfino, Ricardo Shoiti Komatsu, Caroline Komatsu, Anita Liberalesso Neri, Meire Cachioni
This study aims to investigate the association between management and communication strategies and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms presented by elderly people with Alzheimer's disease. One hundred and thirty-four family caregivers answered a questionnaire with socio-demographic data and questions regarding the care context, the Small Communication Strategies Scale, the Dementia Management Strategy Scale, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Caregivers used the criticism management strategy more when the elderly presented hallucination, agitation, depression, anxiety, irritability, nighttime behavior, and appetite abnormalities...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436490/subthalamic-stimulation-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-results-from-a-long-term-follow-up-cohort-study
#13
Marie Abbes, Eugénie Lhommée, Stéphane Thobois, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Anna Castrioto, Jing Xie, Valérie Fraix, Andrea Kistner, Pierre Pélissier, Éric Seigneuret, Stéphan Chabardès, Patrick Mertens, Emmanuel Broussolle, Elena Moro, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Reports on behavioural outcomes after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease are controversial and limited to short-term data. Long-term observation in a large cohort allows a better counselling and management. METHODS: To determine whether a long-term treatment with subthalamic stimulation induces or reduces impulse control behaviours, neuropsychiatric fluctuations and apathy, 69 patients treated with subthalamic stimulation are prospectively and retrospectively assessed using Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease before and after 3-10 years of stimulation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428124/bipolar-disorder-and-heart-transplantation-a-case-report
#14
Ana María Ramírez-Giraldo, Diana Restrepo
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurrent mood disease that includes symptoms that fluctuate from euphoria to depression. As a mood disorder, itis one of the main contraindications for transplantation procedures. The case is presented of a patient with bipolar disorder who had a heart transplant after a cardiac arrest. Heart transplantation is the treatment of choice in patients with heart failure and arrhythmias that do not respond to conventional treatment. METHODS: Case report and narrative review of literature...
January 2018: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414382/interictal-dysphoric-disorder-further-doubts-about-its-epilepsy-specificity-and-its-independency-from-common-psychiatric-disorders
#15
Kirsten Labudda, Dominik Illies, Christian G Bien, Frank Neuner
PURPOSE: The interictal dysphoric disorder (IDD) is a proposed epilepsy-specific psychiatric condition characterized by a conglomerate of symptoms such as depression, irritability, euphoria, and anxiety. However, there are doubts about IDD as an independent entity and about its presumed epilepsy-specific nature. METHODS: Here, we investigated the association between psychiatric disorders and IDD in 120 patients with epilepsy, also analyzing potential associations between IDD symptoms and epilepsy-related variables...
January 29, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386547/the-preference-choices-of-conopomorpha-sinensis-bradley-lepidoptera-gracilariidae-for-litchi-based-on-its-host-surface-characteristics-and-volatiles
#16
Xiang Meng, Junjie Hu, Yanhua Li, Jianqing Dai, Mingfang Guo, Gecheng Ouyang
Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley is a host-specific pest of Litchi chinensis and Euphoria longan. Here, we demonstrated that C. sinensis has evolved special physical and chemical mechanisms for host plant location that enable it to survive and reproduce. Females favored laying their eggs on the convex surface of litchi fruit that had particular volatile characteristics. Experiments using a H-type olfactometer showed that female C. sinensis were attracted to litchi flowers, tender shoots, immature fruits, and mature fruits, with the highest attraction rate to mature fruits (74...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374567/cannabis-use-lung-cancer-and-related-issues
#17
REVIEW
Emily Stone, James Jett, Graham Warren, K Michael Cummings
The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and for pain management, but studies are limited particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352503/in-vivo-effects-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-agonist-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonist-peptidomimetics-following-acute-and-repeated-administration
#18
Jessica P Anand, Kelsey E Kochan, Anthony F Nastase, Deanna Montgomery, Nicholas W Griggs, John R Traynor, Henry I Mosberg, Emily M Jutkiewicz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mu opioid receptor (μ-receptor) agonists are used for pain management, but produce adverse effects including tolerance, dependence, and euphoria. The co-administration of a μ-receptor agonist with a delta opioid receptor (δ-receptor) antagonist has been shown to produce antinociception with reduced development of some side effects. We characterized the effects of three μ-receptor agonist/δ-receptor antagonist peptidomimetics in vivo after acute and repeated administration to determine if this profile provides a viable alternative to traditional opioid analgesics...
January 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303006/key-interindividual-determinants-in-mdma-pharmacodynamics
#19
REVIEW
E Papaseit, M Torrens, C Pérez-Mañá, R Muga, M Farré
MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative with structural and pharmacological similarities to both amphetamines and mescaline. MDMA produces characteristic amphetamine-like actions (euphoria, well-being), increases empathy, and induces pro-social effects that seem to motivate its recreational consumption and provide a basis for its potential therapeutic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to present the main interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics...
February 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282408/behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-correlates-and-impact-on-caregiver-distress
#20
Adreesh Mukherjee, Atanu Biswas, Arijit Roy, Samar Biswas, Goutam Gangopadhyay, Shyamal Kumar Das
Aims: To evaluate the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), to determine their correlation with types and stages of dementia and patient demographics, and to assess the impact on caregiver distress. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited consecutive dementia patients and caregivers who attended our cognitive clinic. Standard criteria were used to classify types of dementia. BPSD were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and its distress scale was used for caregiver distress...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
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