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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202529/-characteristics-of-cognitive-function-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-versus-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#1
L L Zhang, Y Wang, Y Cheng, N Zhang
Objective: To compare the differences in cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Methods: Thirty-six AD patients and 20 bvFTD patients at mild-to-moderate stage, who were biomarker-confirmed by positron emission tomography (PET), were assessed with a neuropsychological battery and neuropsychiatry inventory (NPI). Cognitive domains, including memory, language, information processing speed and executive function, and behavioral and psychological symptoms were assessed and compared...
December 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183383/the-opioid-epidemic-a-central-role-for-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-opioid-analgesia-and-abuse
#2
REVIEW
Charles P Schaefer, Margaret E Tome, Thomas P Davis
Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood-brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood brain barrier plays a central role in both the benefits and risks of opioid use. The complex physiological responses to opioids that provide the benefits and drive the abuse also needs to be considered in the resolution of the opioid epidemic...
November 29, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180224/a-regulatory-perspective-on-the-evaluation-of-hallucinogen-drugs-for-human-use
#3
REVIEW
Silvia N Calderon, Joshua Hunt, Michael Klein
In recent years, there is renewed interest in the study of various hallucinogens for their potential therapeutic effects. In the United States of America (USA), the abuse potential assessment of a drug is carried out as part of the general safety and efficacy evaluation of a drug. Additionally, the abuse potential assessment is taken under consideration in determining if a drug needs to be subject to controls to minimize the abuse of the drug once on the market. This assessment is conducted for all new drugs with central nervous system (CNS) activity, that are chemically or pharmacologically similar to other drugs with known abuse potential, or drugs that produce psychoactive effects predictive of abuse, such as euphoria and hallucinations...
November 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179227/-on-the-risk-of-dependence-on-gabapentinoids
#4
Udo Bonnet, Norbert Scherbaum
In the last ten years, the prescriptions of the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin increased largely also in Germany. Since several national and international pharmacovigilance-databases have warned for abuse liabilities and overdose fatalities in association with both gabapentinoids, which moreover, became to be sold on internet and black-markets, their addictive power has been subject to an ongoing clinical debate. As pre- and post-approval clinical trials did not reveal significant signs of dependence on gabapentin or pregabalin, we systematically searched in PubMed and Scopus for clinical studies and case reports being associated with abuse of and dependence on these drugs...
November 27, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158882/the-mediating-role-of-a2a-adenosine-receptors-in-the-mitochondrial-pathway-of-apoptotic-hippocampal-cell-death-following-the-administration-of-mdma-in-rat
#5
Masoomeh Bakhshayesh, Fereshteh Golab, Fatemeh Kermanian, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza Katebi, Mansooreh Soleimani, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Ronak Shabani, Elham Movahed, Majid Katebi
Introduction: The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug and a major source of substance abuse, which ultimately leads to sensations of well-being, elation and euphoria, moderate derealization/depersonalization, and cognitive disruptions, as well as intense sensory awareness. The mechanisms involved in memory impairment induced by MDMA are not completely understood. Methods: The current study used 40 Sprague-Dawley rats, weighted 200 to 250 g...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153631/human-abuse-potential-of-brivaracetam-in-healthy-recreational-central-nervous-system-depressant-users
#6
Kerri A Schoedel, Armel Stockis, Edward M Sellers
BACKGROUND: Brivaracetam is a new antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive treatment of focal seizures in adults at a dose of 50-200mg/day taken in two equal doses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse potential of brivaracetam compared with alprazolam (positive control), placebo, and levetiracetam. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy, crossover study in healthy male and female recreational central nervous system (CNS) depressant users aged 18-55years, who could distinguish between the subjective effects of alprazolam 2mg and placebo...
November 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146222/nursing-staff-distress-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-young-onset-dementia-and-late-onset-dementia
#7
Jeannette C L van Duinen-van den IJssel, Ans J M J Mulders, Martin Smalbrugge, Sandra A Zwijsen, Britt Appelhof, Syste U Zuidema, Marjolein E de Vugt, Frans R J Verhey, Christian Bakker, Raymond T C M Koopmans
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between different neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and the level of distress experienced by nurses caring for residents with young-onset dementia (YOD) and (2) to compare these findings with those for nurses caring for residents with late-onset dementia (LOD). DESIGN/SETTING: This is a retrospective study conducted in Dutch long-term care facilities. Data were used from the Behavior and Evolution of Young-ONset Dementia studies (BEYOND) Parts I and II and the WAAL Behavior in Dementia-II (Waalbed-II) study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125226/loperamide-cardiotoxicity-a-brief-review
#8
REVIEW
Tamer Akel, Soad Bekheit
Loperamide is a popular antidiarrheal medication that has been used for many years. It is currently gaining more attention among healthcare professionals due to its increasing potential for side effects. At present, it is considered safe enough to be sold over the counter. In contrast with other opioid agonists, loperamide is a peripherally acting μ-receptor agonist exerting its effects mainly on the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal longitudinal muscle layer. It decreases peristalsis and fluid secretion resulting in longer gastrointestinal transit time...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114502/a-study-on-the-effects-of-exercise-motivation-of-the-elderly-people-on-euphoria
#9
Ah-Ra Oh, Eun-Surk Yi
The present study aimed to empirically determine the relationship between the degree of exercise participation by the elderly people and their euphoria. The analysis results are as follows. First, the difference between the elderly people's participation in the exercises and the euphoria that they have experienced showed that in all low variables of euphoria, the group who participated in the exercises showed a higher level of euphoria than the group who did not participate in the exercises. Second, the analysis of the effects of the elderly people's motivations for exercise participation on euphoria showed that there was a significant relation between the two...
August 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104694/health-effects-associated-with-exposure-to-anesthetic-gas-nitrous-oxide-n2o-in-clinical-hospital-shtip-personel
#10
Bilijana Eftimova, Marija Sholjakova, Dejan Mirakovski, Marija Hadzi-Nikolova
AIM: To show certain health effects associated with acute and chronic exposure to nitrous oxide of staff of the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care at the Clinical Hospital in Shtip. METHODS: A transversal study was conducted, that include 43 health workers (23 - exposed and 20 - unexposed). Personal exposure to nitrous oxide for this group members was assessed through continuous measurement over 8 hours shift within breathing zone of the subjects involved, using handheld electrochemical instrument with datalogging option direct...
October 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077662/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-a-case-report-of-overdose-and-management-of-withdrawal
#11
Jack Diep, David Tian Chin, Somdatta Gupta, Faraz Syed, Ming Xiong, Jianguo Cheng
Kratom is an herb indigenous to Southeast Asia with psychoactive opioid compounds, often used as a treatment for chronic pain or opiate withdrawal symptoms. It is legally and readily available via Internet sales and has been identified as an emerging drug of abuse in the United States. Kratom use has been associated with psychosis, seizures, and even death. At lower doses, kratom acts as a stimulant, while at higher doses, it produces analgesia and euphoria. Here, we describe the successful management of kratom overdose and withdrawal in a young man with negative toxicology screens...
October 26, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052952/factor-structure-of-the-cannabis-experiences-questionnaire-in-a-first-episode-psychosis-sample
#12
Michael L Birnbaum, Sean D Cleary, Claire Ramsay Wan, Luca Pauselli, Michael T Compton
AIM: The Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) was developed to measure the subjective experiences of cannabis use both during and after intoxication. Despite the need to better understand the nature of the complex and significant relationship between cannabis use and early psychosis, this questionnaire has rarely been used in individuals with first-episode psychosis. METHODS: We conducted a set of factor analyses using CEQ data from 194 first-episode psychosis patients who used cannabis in order to uncover the underlying factor structure of the questionnaire and thus the overarching types of psychological experiences during/after using cannabis in young people with psychotic disorders...
October 20, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017623/the-genealogy-of-the-clinical-syndrome-of-mania-signs-and-symptoms-described-in-psychiatric-texts-from-1880-to-1900
#13
K S Kendler
In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956286/all-cause-and-drug-related-medical-events-associated-with-overuse-of-gabapentin-and-or-opioid-medications-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-a-commercially-insured-us-population
#14
Alyssa M Peckham, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
INTRODUCTION: Overuse of gabapentin and/or opioids occurs in a small percentage of patients at > 3-fold labeled dosages. Gabapentin may potentiate opioid effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess patient harm, defined as use of inpatient hospital (IPH) or emergency department (ED) services, associated with overuse of gabapentin with or without concomitant overuse of opioids. DATA SOURCE: Data were sourced from the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial Claims and Encounters database, for the years 2013-2015...
September 27, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937144/ubiquitous-euphorbia-is-anything-but-euphoria-for-the-eye-a-reminder-to-get-any-area-of-contact-with-the-toxic-sap-under-the-tap
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931444/treatment-effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb-761%C3%A2-on-the-spectrum-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Egemen Savaskan, Heiko Mueller, Robert Hoerr, Armin von Gunten, Serge Gauthier
BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials, Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® has been found to be effective in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: To assess the effects of EGb 761® on specific BPSD, we analyzed data from all randomized, placebo-controlled, at least 20-week, trials of EGb 761® enrolling patients with dementia (probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), probable vascular dementia or probable AD with cerebrovascular disease) who had clinically significant BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score at least 6)...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899446/affective-and-emotional-dysregulation-as-pre-dementia-risk-markers-exploring-the-mild-behavioral-impairment-symptoms-of-depression-anxiety-irritability-and-euphoria
#17
Zahinoor Ismail, Jennifer Gatchel, Daniel R Bateman, Ricardo Barcelos-Ferreira, Marc Chantillon, Judith Jaeger, Nancy J Donovan, Moyra E Mortby
BACKGROUND: Affective and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, euphoria, and irritability are common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in pre-dementia and cognitively normal older adults. They comprise a domain of Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI), which describes their emergence in later life as an at-risk state for cognitive decline and dementia, and as a potential manifestation of prodromal dementia. This selective scoping review explores the epidemiology and neurobiological links between affective and emotional symptoms, and incident cognitive decline, focusing on recent literature in this expanding field of research...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886978/nursing-home-residents-with-dementia-and-very-frequent-agitation-a-particular-group
#18
Annelies E Veldwijk-Rouwenhorst, Martin Smalbrugge, Roland Wetzels, Hans Bor, Sytse U Zuidema, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Debby L Gerritsen
OBJECTIVE: Although many nursing home residents with dementia show agitation, hardly any literature is published about very frequent agitation. The WAALBED-III study focuses on the 2-week prevalence and correlates of very frequent agitation in these residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using combined data of four studies. SETTING: One hundred nineteen dementia special care units in twenty-six nursing homes in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand seventy-four residents with dementia...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885454/attenuation-of-early-phase-inflammation-by-cannabidiol-prevents-pain-and-nerve-damage-in-rat-osteoarthritis
#19
Holly T Philpott, Melissa OʼBrien, Jason J McDougall
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (150-175 g) by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 3 mg)...
December 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861507/a-conversion-of-oral-cannabidiol-to-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-seems-not-to-occur-in-humans
#20
Gerhard Nahler, Franjo Grotenhermen, Antonio Waldo Zuardi, José A S Crippa
Cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of hemp, does not bind to CB1 receptors and is therefore devoid of psychotomimetic properties. Under acidic conditions, CBD can be transformed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids. It has been argued that this may occur also after oral administration in humans. However, the experimental conversion of CBD to THC and delta8-THC in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) is a highly artificial approach that deviates significantly from physiological conditions in the stomach; therefore, SGF does not allow an extrapolation to in vivo conditions...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
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