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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017623/the-genealogy-of-the-clinical-syndrome-of-mania-signs-and-symptoms-described-in-psychiatric-texts-from-1880-to-1900
#1
K S Kendler
In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956286/all-cause-and-drug-related-medical-events-associated-with-overuse-of-gabapentin-and-or-opioid-medications-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-a-commercially-insured-us-population
#2
Alyssa M Peckham, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
INTRODUCTION: Overuse of gabapentin and/or opioids occurs in a small percentage of patients at > 3-fold labeled dosages. Gabapentin may potentiate opioid effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess patient harm, defined as use of inpatient hospital (IPH) or emergency department (ED) services, associated with overuse of gabapentin with or without concomitant overuse of opioids. DATA SOURCE: Data were sourced from the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial Claims and Encounters database, for the years 2013-2015...
September 27, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937144/ubiquitous-euphorbia-is-anything-but-euphoria-for-the-eye-a-reminder-to-get-any-area-of-contact-with-the-toxic-sap-under-the-tap
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931444/treatment-effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb-761%C3%A2-on-the-spectrum-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Egemen Savaskan, Heiko Mueller, Robert Hoerr, Armin von Gunten, Serge Gauthier
BACKGROUND: In randomized controlled trials, Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® has been found to be effective in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: To assess the effects of EGb 761® on specific BPSD, we analyzed data from all randomized, placebo-controlled, at least 20-week, trials of EGb 761® enrolling patients with dementia (probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), probable vascular dementia or probable AD with cerebrovascular disease) who had clinically significant BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score at least 6)...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899446/affective-and-emotional-dysregulation-as-pre-dementia-risk-markers-exploring-the-mild-behavioral-impairment-symptoms-of-depression-anxiety-irritability-and-euphoria
#5
Zahinoor Ismail, Jennifer Gatchel, Daniel R Bateman, Ricardo Barcelos-Ferreira, Marc Chantillon, Judith Jaeger, Nancy J Donovan, Moyra E Mortby
BACKGROUND: Affective and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, euphoria, and irritability are common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in pre-dementia and cognitively normal older adults. They comprise a domain of Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI), which describes their emergence in later life as an at-risk state for cognitive decline and dementia, and as a potential manifestation of prodromal dementia. This selective scoping review explores the epidemiology and neurobiological links between affective and emotional symptoms, and incident cognitive decline, focusing on recent literature in this expanding field of research...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886978/nursing-home-residents-with-dementia-and-very-frequent-agitation-a-particular-group
#6
Annelies E Veldwijk-Rouwenhorst, Martin Smalbrugge, Roland Wetzels, Hans Bor, Sytse U Zuidema, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Debby L Gerritsen
OBJECTIVE: Although many nursing home residents with dementia show agitation, hardly any literature is published about very frequent agitation. The WAALBED-III study focuses on the 2-week prevalence and correlates of very frequent agitation in these residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using combined data of four studies. SETTING: One hundred nineteen dementia special care units in twenty-six nursing homes in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand seventy-four residents with dementia...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885454/attenuation-of-early-phase-inflammation-by-cannabidiol-prevents-pain-and-nerve-damage-in-rat-osteoarthritis
#7
Holly T Philpott, Melissa OʼBrien, Jason J McDougall
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (150-175 g) by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 3 mg)...
September 27, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861507/a-conversion-of-oral-cannabidiol-to-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-seems-not-to-occur-in-humans
#8
Gerhard Nahler, Franjo Grotenhermen, Antonio Waldo Zuardi, José A S Crippa
Cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of hemp, does not bind to CB1 receptors and is therefore devoid of psychotomimetic properties. Under acidic conditions, CBD can be transformed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids. It has been argued that this may occur also after oral administration in humans. However, the experimental conversion of CBD to THC and delta8-THC in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) is a highly artificial approach that deviates significantly from physiological conditions in the stomach; therefore, SGF does not allow an extrapolation to in vivo conditions...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843992/tracking-met-de-addiction-in-lung-cancer-a-road-towards-the-oncogenic-target
#9
REVIEW
S Pilotto, L Carbognin, N Karachaliou, P C Ma, R Rosell, G Tortora, E Bria
The discovery of druggable oncogenic drivers (i.e. EGFR and ALK), along with the introduction of comprehensive tumor genotyping techniques into the daily clinical practice define non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) asa group of heterogeneous diseases, requiring a context-personalized clinico-therapeutical approach. Among the most investigated biomarkers, the MET proto-oncogene has been extensively demonstrated to play a crucial role throughout the lung oncogenesis, unbalancing the proliferation/apoptosis signaling and influencing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the invasive phenotype...
August 20, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822350/baclofen-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#10
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808398/mechanism-of-action-of-isolated-caffeic-acid-and-epicatechin-3-gallate-from-euphorbia-hirta-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Shanmugapriya Perumal, Roziahanim Mahmud, Sabariah Ismail
BACKGROUND: The escalating dominance of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains as infectious pathogen had urged the researchers to look for alternative and complementary drugs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to address the biological targets and probable mechanisms of action underlying the potent antibacterial effect of the isolated compounds from Euphorbia hirta (L.) against P. aeruginosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The action mechanisms of caffeic acid (CA) and epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) on P...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790827/the-effects-of-memantine-on-behavioral-disturbances-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#12
Taro Kishi, Shinji Matsunaga, Nakao Iwata
BACKGROUND: Memantine is effective in the treatment of behavioral disturbances in patients with Alzheimer's disease. It has not yet been fully determined which behavioral disturbances respond best to memantine. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of memantine vs control (placebo or usual care) for the treatment of individual behavioral disturbances (delusion, hallucination, agitation/aggression, dysphoria, anxiety/phobia, euphoria, apathy, disinhibition, irritability/lability, aberrant motor activity/activity disturbances, nighttime disturbance/diurnal rhythm disturbances, and eating disturbances)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762072/sweet-taste-liking-is-associated-with-subjective-response-to-amphetamine-in-women-but-not-men
#13
Jessica Weafer, Nicholas Lyon, Donald Hedeker, Harriet de Wit
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. METHODS: Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0...
July 31, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756397/penile-transplantation-as-an-appropriate-response-to-botched-traditional-circumcisions-in-south-africa-an-argument-against
#14
Keymanthri Moodley, Stuart Rennie
Traditional male circumcision is a deeply entrenched cultural practice in South Africa. In recent times, there have been increasing numbers of botched circumcisions by untrained and unscrupulous practitioners, leading to genital mutilation and often, the need for penile amputation. Hailed as a world's first, a team of surgeons conducted the first successful penile transplant in Cape Town, South Africa in 2015. Despite the euphoria of this surgical victory, concerns about the use of this costly intervention in a context of severe resource constraints have been raised...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753684/erratum-unexpected-serious-cardiac-arrhythmias-in-the-setting-of-loperamide-abuse
#15
Somwail Rasla, Parag Parikh, Peter Hoffmeister, Amy St Amand, Marina K Garas, Amr El Meligy, Taro Minami, Nishant R Shah
Loperamide (Imodium) is a non-prescription opioid receptor agonist available over-the-counter for the treatment of diarrhea. When ingested in excessive doses, loperamide can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and is reported to produce euphoria, central nervous system and respiratory depression, and cardiotoxicity. There is an emerging trend in its use among drug abusers for its euphoric effects or for self-treatment of opioid withdrawal. We report a case of ventricular dysrhythmias associated with loperamide abuse in a 28-year-old man who substituted loperamide for the opioids that he used to abuse...
August 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747065/use-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-to-prevent-recurrent-clozapine-induced-neutropenia-on-drug-rechallenge-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-clinical-recommendations
#16
Nicholas Myles, Hannah Myles, Scott R Clark, Robert Bird, Dan Siskind
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the most effective medication for treatment-refractory schizophrenia; however, its use is contraindicated in people who have had previous clozapine-induced neutropenia. Co-prescription of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor may prevent recurrent neutropenia and allow continuation or rechallenge of clozapine. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Systematic review of literature reporting the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to allow rechallenge or continuation of clozapine in people with previous episodes of clozapine-induced neutropenia...
October 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737225/psychostimulant-effect-of-dopaminergic-treatment-and-addictions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Benoit Delpont, Eugénie Lhommée, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Valérie Fraix, Anna Castrioto, Jean-Louis Quesada, Pierre Pélissier, Andrea Kistner, Sébastien Carnicella, Christian Lüscher, Emmanuel Broussolle, Pierre Pollak, Stéphane Thobois, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Dopamine replacement therapy in PD has been associated with both behavioral addictions and dopamine addiction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential association between l-dopa induced neuropsychiatric fluctuations and addictions in PD. METHODS: A cohort of 102 patients with PD suffering from motor complications of l-dopa treatment was prospectively analyzed. We evaluated dopamine addiction, behavioral addictions, and neuropsychiatric fluctuations using the Ardouin scale of behavior in PD...
July 24, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722022/opioid-release-after-high-intensity-interval-training-in-healthy-human-subjects
#18
Tiina Saanijoki, Lauri Tuominen, Jetro J Tuulari, Lauri Nummenmaa, Eveliina Arponen, Kari Kalliokoski, Jussi Hirvonen
Central opioidergic mechanisms may modulate the positive effects of physical exercise such as mood elevation and stress reduction. How exercise intensity and concomitant effective changes affect central opioidergic responses is unknown. We studied the effects of acute physical exercise on the cerebral μ-opioid receptors (MOR) of 22 healthy recreationally active males using positron emission tomography (PET) and the MOR-selective radioligand [(11)C]carfentanil. MOR binding was measured in three conditions on separate days: after a 60-min aerobic moderate-intensity exercise session, after a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session, and after rest...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689468/a-discussion-of-nursing-students-experiences-of-culture-shock-during-an-international-clinical-placement-and-the-clinical-facilitators-role
#19
Cathy Maginnis, Judith Anderson
AIM: This paper examines the meaning and experience of culture shock for nursing students undertaking an international clinical placement (ICP) and the role of the clinical facilitator. RESULTS: Oberg's four stages of adapting to culture shock were aligned to anecdotal conversations with nursing students on an ICP. All four stages were identified in anecdotal conversations with the students. Support by the accompanying clinical facilitator is pivotalin overcoming culture shock and maximising the learning experience...
July 18, 2017: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686561/-the-concept-of-temperament-and-its-contribution-to-the-understanding-of-the-bipolar-spectrum
#20
I Koufaki, V Polizoidou, K N Fountoulakis
The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,since its foundation by Polybos (4th century B.C.) and the school of Cos, its predominant role in theshaping of the anthropological and humanitarian sciences, until the modern theoretical formulations,such as those proposed by Robert Cloninger and Hagop Akiskal. Secondly, recent literature ispresented, which suggests a strong link of different temperament structures to mental health andpsychopathology...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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