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Mark Haden, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: MDMB-CHMICA (methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist that has been detected in several recreational drug products in Europe since August 2014. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the prevalence of use, availability, and desired and adverse effects of MDMB-CHMICA. METHODS: Data were collated from published scientific literature, and systematic searches were conducted of publically available Internet sources (the "gray literature"), including websites offering to sell MDMB-CHMICA and Internet discussion forums featuring user reports...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Sara García-Sánchez, Josep Lluís Matalí, María Martín-Fernández, Marta Pardo, Maria Lleras, Carmina Castellano-Tejedor, Josep Maria Haro
Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced...
October 6, 2016: Adicciones
Hui-Chuan Huang, Chien-Hung Chang, Chaur-Jong Hu, Meei-Ling Shyu, Chin-I Chen, Chih-Shan Huang, Hsiu-Ting Tsai, Hsiu-Ju Chang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal effects of psychological distress on the functional recovery among stroke survivors. DESIGN: A longitudinal follow-up study. All participants were interviewed at 5 days after stroke onset, and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after discharge from acute care hospitals. SETTING: Neurology inpatient and outpatient departments and rehabilitation clinics. PARTICIPANTS: First-time stroke participants (N=62) without cognitive impairment, psychiatric disorders, or cancer were recruited...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Kathrin I Mohr
For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Atul S Rathore, L Sathiyanarayanan, Shreekant Deshpande, Kakasaheb R Mahadik
A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Lisham Ashrafioun, Francis A Bonadio, Kyoung Deok Baik, Stacey L Bradbury, Victoria L Carhart, Nicole A Cross, Alan K Davis, Margaret Feuille, Anna R Harper, Jennifer H Lackey, Brent Lang, Kirstin J Lauritsen, Jaclyn Leith, Lawrence A Osborn, Harold Rosenberg, Jacob Stock, Mariya Zaturenskaya
Given the variety and potential toxicity of synthetic cathinones, clinicians and educators would benefit from information about patterns of and motivations for use, frequency of psychosocial consequences, and experience of acute subjective effects. We administered a comprehensive, web-based survey to 104 recreational users of synthetic cathinones. Sixty percent of respondents consumed synthetic cathinones once or more per month, usually snorting or swallowing these drugs, typically at home, usually with others, customarily during the evening and nighttime hours, and often in combination with another drug such as alcohol or marijuana...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Adrian Wong, Alexander Y L Lau, Jie Yang, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Bonnie Y K Lam, Lisa Au, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Winnie C W Chu, Yun-Yun Xiong, Eugene S K Lo, Lorraine S N Law, Thomas W H Leung, Linda C W Lam, Anne Y Y Chan, Yannie O Y Soo, Eric Y L Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are 1) to examine the frequencies of neuropsychiatric symptom clusters in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) by cognitive level and stroke subtype; and 2) to evaluate effect of demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes and amyloid upon neuropsychiatric symptom clusters. METHODS: Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. 518 patients were administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) 3-6 months post index admission...
2016: PloS One
Gian Maria Pacifici
Morphine is an agonist of the µ and k receptors, whose activation results in analgesia. Morphine-like agonists act through the µ opioid receptors to cause pain relief, sedation, euphoria and respiratory depression. Morphine is glucuronidated and sulfated at positions 3 and 6; the plasma concentration ratios correlate positively with birth weight, which probably reflects increased liver weight with increasing birth weight. Moreover, morphine clearance correlates positively with gestational age and birth weight...
August 2016: Clinics
Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Robert Pudlo, Magdalena Jarząb, Agnieszka Szymlak
Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used...
2016: Medycyna Pracy
Laura Lorenzo-López, Carmen de Labra, Ana Maseda, Trinidad Lorenzo, Helena Agrafojo, José Luis Rodríguez-Villamil, Isabel González-Abraldes, José C Millán-Calenti
Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and correlation between its intensity and caregiver distress were evaluated as a function of the care-setting in a cross-sectional study including 72 patient-caregiver dyads. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Caregiver Distress Scale were administered. The most prevalent symptoms were: in the formal care-setting, agitation/aggression and depression/dysphoria (42.4%), and in the informal care-setting, aberrant motor behavior (59.0%). While changes in appetite and eating behaviors, depression/dysphoria and irritability/lability were more prevalent in the formal care-setting (p < ...
September 9, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
Minaleshewa Atlabachew, Sandra Combrinck, Alvaro M Viljoen, Josias H Hamman, Chrisna Gouws
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Khat, the leaves of Catha edulis, is used as a "natural amphetamine-like" stimulant in eastern and southern Africa, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula. Leaves are masticated to elicit a state of euphoria. Although the psychostimulatory effects of the leaves are attributed to the presence of phenylpropylamino alkaloids (i.e. cathinone, cathine and norephedrine) the extent of permeation of these alkaloids across the oral and intestinal mucosa has not been established...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Tomohisa Mori, Tsutomu Suzuki
The subjective effects of drugs are related to the kinds of feelings they produce, such as euphoria or dysphoria. One of the methods that can be used to study these effects is the drug discrimination procedure. Many researchers have been trying to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the discriminative stimulus properties of abused drugs (e.g., alcohol, psychostimulants, and opioids). Over the past two decades, patterns of drug abuse have changed, so that club/recreational drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), ketamine, and cannabinoid, which induce perceptual distortions, like hallucinations, are now more commonly abused, especially in younger generations...
September 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
H G Androcioli, A T Hoshino, M A Pastório, P C Cardoso, P M de Araújo, T A P Fernandes, A O Menezes
We present the first report on Euphoria lurida (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) infestation on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a crop of industrial and medicinal importance. Between September and October 2013-2015 in Paraná State, we observed E. lurida adults feeding on safflower plants from the inception of flower head formation onwards, over an area of approximately 400 m(2). Losses in the productivity of infested plants were estimated between 15 and 50%. The damage was characterized by perforations in the upper portion and at the base of the developing flower heads or open flowers, resulting in withering and abortion of the reproductive structures...
August 23, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Celina Thelberg Kragsfeldt, Christoffer B Nissen, Frans Brandt
We present a case report of an 18-year-old male who was referred to the emergency department with evidence of methaemoglobinaemia. He presented with classic symptoms with peripheral cyanosis and hypoxia. Arterial blood gas showed a methaemoglobin level of 36%. This was caused by ingestion of alkyl nitrate, a widespread party drug called "poppers". When inhaled it causes euphoria, reduced pain and relaxation of the anal sphincter, but oral use may induce life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia. The treatment of choice is the antidote methylene blue...
August 22, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Hiroaki Kazui, Kenji Yoshiyama, Hideki Kanemoto, Yukiko Suzuki, Shunsuke Sato, Mamoru Hashimoto, Manabu Ikeda, Hibiki Tanaka, Yutaka Hatada, Masateru Matsushita, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Etsuro Mori, Satoshi Tanimukai, Kenjiro Komori, Taku Yoshida, Hideaki Shimizu, Teruhisa Matsumoto, Takaaki Mori, Tetsuo Kashibayashi, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Tatsuo Shimomura, Yasunobu Kabeshita, Hiroyoshi Adachi, Toshihisa Tanaka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) negatively impact the prognosis of dementia patients and increase caregiver distress. The aims of this study were to clarify the differences of trajectories of 12 kinds of BPSDs by disease severity in four major dementias and to develop charts showing the frequency, severity, and associated caregiver distress (ACD) of BPSDs using the data of a Japan multicenter study (J-BIRD). METHODS: We gathered Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) data of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 1091), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 249), vascular dementia (VaD; n = 156), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD; n = 102) collected during a 5-year period up to July 31, 2013 in seven centers for dementia in Japan...
2016: PloS One
Jiesheng Kang, David R Compton, Roy J Vaz, David Rampe
Loperamide is a μ-opioid receptor agonist commonly used to treat diarrhea and often available as an over-the-counter medication. Recently, numerous reports of QRS widening accompanied by dramatic QT interval prolongation, torsades de pointe arrhythmia, and death have been reported in opioid abusers consuming large amounts of the drug to produce euphoria or prevent opiate withdrawal. The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms of this cardiotoxicity. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology, we tested loperamide on the cloned human cardiac sodium channel (Nav1...
October 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Irene Aasmul, Bettina Sandgathe Husebo, Elisabeth Flo
CONTEXT: Most people with dementia develop neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), which are distressing for their carers. Untreated pain may increase the prevalence and severity of NPS and thereby staff burden. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between NPS and the impact of individual pain treatment on distress in nursing home staff. METHODS: NH-units were cluster-randomized to an intervention group (33 NH units; n=175) or control group (27 NH units; n=177)...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Christopher J Evans, Catherine M Cahill
Opioid drugs are potent modulators of many physiological and psychological processes. When given acutely, they can elicit the signature responses of euphoria and analgesia that societies have coveted for centuries. Repeated, or chronic, use of opioids induces adaptive or allostatic changes that modify neuronal circuitry and create an altered normality - the "drug-dependent" state. This state, at least that exhibited by those maintained continuously on long-acting opioid drugs such as methadone or buprenorphine, is generally indistinguishable from the drug-naïve state for most overt behaviors...
2016: F1000Research
Raul Martínez-Fernández, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Paul Krack
Only a few years after the introduction of levodopa, the first descriptions of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia related to dopaminergic therapy appeared. In PD, attention turned to their management, that had dampened the euphoria of the "levodopa miracle." It soon became clear that neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sensory features also tend to develop fluctuations after chronic exposure to l-dopa. The diversity of fluctuating nonmotor symptoms, their largely subjective nature, coupled with a frequent lack of insight led to difficulties in identification and quantification...
August 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Mirjana Petrovic, Elka Stefanova, Ljubomir Ziropadja, Tanja Stojkovic, Vladimir S Kostic
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease [PD] is associated with wide variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, although it is primarily considered as a movement disorder. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether PD patients can be meaningfully classified into subgroups according to their neuropsychiatric symptoms, reported by their caregivers. METHODS: Three hundred and sixty PD patients [mean age=63.5, SD=10.3] from the academic clinical setting were assessed with the 12-subscale Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire [NPI]...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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