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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645861/protective-effect-of-lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-on-dextromethorphan-induced-mood-impairment-and-neurogenesis-suppression
#1
Kevin Kai-Ting Po, Joseph Wai-Hin Leung, Jackie Ngai-Man Chan, Timothy Kai-Hang Fung, Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña, Emily Lok-Lam Sin, Kwok-Fai So, Benson Wui-Man Lau, Andrew Man-Hong Siu
Dextromethorphan (DXM) is one of the common drugs abused by adolescents. It is the active ingredient found in cough medicine which is used for suppressing cough. High dosage of DXM can induce euphoria, dissociative effects and even hallucinations. Chronic use of DXM may also lead to depressive-related symptoms. Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. A recent study has shown the potential beneficial effect of Lycium barbarum to reduce depression-like behavior...
June 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641132/heritability-of-lifetime-ecstasy-use
#2
Karin J H Verweij, Jorien L Treur, Annabel Vreeker, Tibor M Brunt, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jacqueline M Vink
BACKGROUND: Ecstasy is a widely used psychoactive drug that users often take because they experience positive effects such as increased euphoria, sociability, elevated mood, and heightened sensations. Ecstasy use is not harmless and several immediate and long term side effects have been identified. Lifetime ecstasy use is likely to be partly influenced by genetic factors, but no twin study has determined the heritability. Here, we apply a classical twin design to a large sample of twins and siblings to estimate the heritability of lifetime ecstasy use...
June 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640990/opiate-antagonists-do-not-interfere-with-the-clinical-benefits-of-stimulants-in-adhd-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-the-mixed-opioid-receptor-antagonist-naltrexone
#3
Thomas J Spencer, Pradeep Bhide, Jinmin Zhu, Stephen V Faraone, Maura Fitzgerald, Amy M Yule, Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Anna M Hall, Ariana J Koster, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate activates μ-opioid receptors, which are linked to euphoria. μ-Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may attenuate the euphoric effects of stimulants, thereby minimizing their abuse potential. This study assessed whether the combination of naltrexone with methylphenidate is well-tolerated while preserving the clinical benefits of stimulants in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of naltrexone in adults with DSM-IV ADHD receiving open treatment with a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate from January 2013 to July 2015...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632523/frontotemporal-dementia-presenting-as-gambling-disorder-when-a-psychiatric-condition-is-the-clue-to-a-neurodegenerative-disease
#4
Giacomo Tondo, Fabiola De Marchi, Emanuela Terazzi, Marta Sacchetti, Roberto Cantello
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, the most common form of frontotemporal dementia, is characterized by executive dysfunction and changes in personality and behavior, sometimes with associated psychiatric disorders. We report a man who suddenly developed a gambling disorder when he was 55 years old. A year later he developed personality changes of agitation, euphoria, and disinhibition, along with binge eating and dysthymia. He did not improve on paroxetine 40 mg/day. Two years after the onset of his symptoms, he came to our clinic for evaluation...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631397/the-effects-and-toxicity-of-cathinones-from-the-users-perspectives-a-qualitative-study
#5
Sulaf Assi, Nargilya Gulyamova, Paul Kneller, David Osselton
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the users' perspectives regarding the effects and toxicity of cathinones. METHODS: A systematic search of Internet discussion forums yielded 303 threads relevant to the research objectives. The threads were analysed by conventional content analysis where concepts were developed from codes and themes. RESULTS: The study identified 3 main themes in relation to cathinone use, effects, and toxicity...
June 20, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623378/carotid-stenting-in-neuroradiology-a%C3%A2-short-journey-from-the-past-to-current-debates
#6
REVIEW
Joachim Berkefeld, Marlies Wagner, Richard du Mesnil
After a period of stagnation due to negative results of randomized trials for patients with symptomatic stenosis, the relevance of carotid artery stenting (CAS) is increasing again. CAS has become an important and evidence-based part of interventional stroke treatment. Our ability to manage acute recanalization of carotid occlusions and other niche indications properly led some skeptical neurologists to trust in carotid intervention for elective cases as well. The evolution of CAS from initial euphoria to more realistic views under consideration of trial results and guidelines is reviewed...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612450/perception-of-emotional-climate-in-a-revolution-test-of-a-multistage-theory-of-revolution-in-the-tunisian-context
#7
Bernard Rimé, Vincent Yzerbyt, Abdelwahab Mahjoub
Participation in social movements and collective action depends upon people's capacity to perceive their societal context. We examined this question in the context of Arab Spring revolutions. In a classic theory of revolution highlighting the role of collective emotions, Brinton (1938) claimed that revolutions, far from chaos, proceed in an orderly sequence involving four stages: euphoria, degradation, terror, and restoration. The emotional climate (EC) as perceived by ordinary Tunisian citizens (2,699 women and 3,816 men) was measured during the 4 years of the Tunisian revolution...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597920/a-case-of-nonfatal-intoxication-associated-with-the-recreational-use-of-diphenidine
#8
Enrico Gerace, Elena Bovetto, Daniele Di Corcia, Marco Vincenti, Alberto Salomone
Diphenidine is a dissociative drug that shows several psychotropic effects including euphoria, shifts in perception of reality, hallucinations, and transient anterograde amnesia. In this study, a case of acute intoxication occurring after diphenidine intake is reported. A 30-year-old Caucasian male was hospitalized after he was found in a confused and agitated state and unable to communicate. The physical examination displayed tachycardia, miotic pupils, and increased both body temperature and respiratory rate...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597537/the-challenge-of-complex-drug-use-associated-use-of-codeine-containing-medicines-and-new-psychoactive-substances-in-a-european-cross-sectional-online-population
#9
Andreas Kimergård, Michelle Foley, Zoe Davey, Elle Wadsworth, Colin Drummond, Paolo Deluca
OBJECTIVE: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines in combination with new psychoactive substances (NPS) is inadequately described. This study characterises codeine consumption amongst NPS users and non-NPS users to provide warning of health issues. METHODS: Online survey conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. RESULTS: Out of 340 respondents, residing in a country in Europe and using codeine recently, 63.8% were female. Mean age: 34.9 years (SD = 12...
June 9, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588963/-once-there-is-life-there-is-hope-ebola-survivors-experiences-behaviours-and-attitudes-in-sierra-leone-2015
#10
Emilie Karafillakis, Mohamed F Jalloh, Azizeh Nuriddin, Heidi J Larson, Jimmy Whitworth, Shelley Lees, Kathy M Hageman, Paul Sengeh, Mohammad B Jalloh, Rebecca Bunnell, Dianna D Carroll, Oliver Morgan
BACKGROUND: In Sierra Leone, over 4000 individuals survived Ebola since the outbreak began in 2014. Because Ebola survivorship was largely unprecedented prior to this outbreak, little is known about survivor experiences during and post illness. METHODS: To assess survivors' experiences and attitudes related to Ebola, 28 in-depth interviews and short quantitative surveys with survivors from all four geographic regions of Sierra Leone were conducted in May 2015. RESULTS: Survivor experiences, emotions and attitudes changed over time as they moved from disease onset to treatment, discharge and life post-discharge...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579345/efficacy-and-safety-of-midazolam-and-ketamine-in-paediatric-upper-endoscopy
#11
Ahmet Basturk, Reha Artan, Aygen Yılmaz
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Upper endoscopy can be successfully carried out in children under deep sedation and anaesthesia. However, the best method of upper endoscopy for children who require gastrointestinal intervention has yet to be defined. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of the sedation induced by intravenous midazolam and ketamine during upper endoscopy in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included patients ages 3-18years who had undergone upper endoscopy...
June 1, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578250/increased-in-synthetic-cannabinoids-related-harms-results-from-a-longitudinal-web-based-content-analysis
#12
Francois R Lamy, Raminta Daniulaityte, Ramzi W Nahhas, Monica J Barratt, Alan G Smith, Amit Sheth, Silvia S Martins, Edward W Boyer, Robert G Carlson
BACKGROUND: Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRA), also known as "K2" or "Spice," have drawn considerable attention due to their potential of abuse and harmful consequences. More research is needed to understand user experiences of SCRA-related effects. We use semi-automated information processing techniques through eDrugTrends platform to examine SCRA-related effects and their variations through a longitudinal content analysis of web-forum data. METHOD: English language posts from three drug-focused web-forums were extracted and analyzed between January 1st 2008 and September 30th 2015...
June 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561068/gamma-hydroxybutyrate-increases-resting-state-limbic-perfusion-and-body-and-emotion-awareness-in-humans
#13
Oliver G Bosch, Fabrizio Esposito, Michael M Havranek, Dario Dornbierer, Robin von Rotz, Philipp Staempfli, Boris B Quednow, Erich Seifritz
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABA-B receptor agonist inducing a broad spectrum of subjective effects including euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. It is used as treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders including narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal, but is also a drug of abuse. Non-medical users report enhancement of body and emotion awareness during intoxication. However, the neuronal underpinnings of such awareness alterations under GHB are unknown so far. The assessment of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) enables the elucidation of drug-induced functional brain alterations...
May 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557133/pharmacological-and-toxicological-effects-of-catha-edulis-f-khat
#14
REVIEW
Ephrem Engidawork
Khat chewing is deeply rooted in the culture and tradition of communities in khat belt countries, and its consumption is spread to other countries through the suitcase trade. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge on the chemistry, social, pharmacology and toxicology of khat and its use. Khat produces effect invariably in every system, which is harmful or beneficial in some instances. Harmful effects are observed in heavy users, although firm evidence is lacking. Chewing khat acutely elicits states of euphoria, which is followed by low mood...
May 30, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550642/post-heroin-dose-tissue-distribution-of-6-monoacetylmorphine-6-mam-with-maldi-imaging
#15
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Nirmala D Gopal, Tricia Naicker, Hendrik G Kruger, Thavendran Govender
Heroin is an illicit opioid drug which is commonly abused and leads to dependence and addiction. Heroin is considered a pro-drug and is rapidly converted to its major active metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which mediates euphoria and reward through the stimulation of opioid receptors in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and localization of 6-MAM in the healthy Sprague Dawley rat brain following intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of heroin (10 mg/kg), using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI), in combination with quantification via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544011/changing-trends-in-the-use-of-kratom-mitragyna-speciosa-in-southeast-asia
#16
Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Ornella Corazza, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu
OBJECTIVE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa. Korth) is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. This review paper aims to describe the trends of kratom use in Southeast Asia. DESIGN: A literature review search was conducted through ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-five articles illustrating kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia were reviewed. RESULTS: Kratom has long been used by rural populations in Southeast Asia as a remedy for common ailments, to fight fatigue from hard manual work, as a drink during social interaction among men, and in village religious functions...
May 24, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529734/differential-regulation-of-mouse-and-human-mu-opioid-receptor-gene-depends-on-the-single-stranded-dna-structure-of-its-promoter-and-%C3%AE-complex-protein-1
#17
Dong-Sun Lee, Ping-Yee Law, Wei Ln, Horace H Loh, Kyu Young Song, Hack Sun Choi
The Mu opioid receptor (MOR) mediates various functions of opioid-induced analgesia, euphoria and respiratory depression, and is a major target of opioid analgesics. Understanding of MOR gene expression among species is important for understanding its analgesic function in humans. In the current study, the polypyrimidine/polypurine (PPy/u) region, a key element of MOR gene expression, was compared in humans and mice. The mouse PPy/u element is highly homologous to its human element (84%), and the mouse MOR (mMOR) reporter drives luciferase activity 35-fold more effectively than the human MOR (hMOR) reporter...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503110/pediatric-mania-the-controversy-between-euphoria-and-irritability
#18
Giulia Serra, Mai Uchida, Claudia Battaglia, Maria Pia Casini, Lavinia De Chiara, Joseph Biederman, Stefano Vicari, Janet Wozniak
Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders and associated with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide. While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified. We reviewed the available studies on the phenomenology of pediatric mania with the aim of summarizing the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these two types of pediatric mania...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494108/selective-%C3%AE%C2%BA-opioid-receptor-partial-agonist-hs666-produces-potent-antinociception-without-inducing-aversion-after-i-c-v-administration-in-mice
#19
Mariana Spetea, Shainnel O Eans, Michelle L Ganno, Aquilino Lantero, Michael Mairegger, Lawrence Toll, Helmut Schmidhammer, Jay P McLaughlin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The κ opioid (KOP) receptor has a central role in modulating neurotransmission in central and peripheral neuronal circuits that subserve pain and other behavioural responses. Although KOP agonists do not produce euphoria or lead to respiratory suppression, they induce dysphoria and sedation. We hypothesized that brain-penetrant KOP receptor ligands possessing biased agonism towards G protein signalling over β-arrestin2 recruitment would produce robust antinociception with fewer liabilities of use...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484399/biochemical-benefits-diagnosis-and-clinical-risks-evaluation-of-kratom
#20
REVIEW
Dimy Fluyau, Neelambika Revadigar
BACKGROUND: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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