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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231300/detection-and-partial-discrimination-of-atypical-and-classical-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathies-in-cattle-and-primates-using-real-time-quaking-induced-conversion-assay
#1
Etienne Levavasseur, Anne-Gaëlle Biacabe, Emmanuel Comoy, Audrey Culeux, Katarina Grznarova, Nicolas Privat, Steve Simoneau, Benoit Flan, Véronique Sazdovitch, Danielle Seilhean, Thierry Baron, Stéphane Haïk
The transmission of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE) through contaminated meat product consumption is responsible for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. More recent and atypical forms of BSE (L-BSE and H-BSE) have been identified in cattle since the C-BSE epidemic. Their low incidence and advanced age of onset are compatible with a sporadic origin, as are most cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Transmissions studies in primates and transgenic mice expressing a human prion protein (PrP) indicated that atypical forms of BSE may be associated with a higher zoonotic potential than classical BSE, and require particular attention for public health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230234/nasal-infestation-by-linguatula-serrata-in-a-dog-in-the-uk-a-case-report
#2
E Villedieu, R F Sanchez, R E Jepson, G Ter Haar
A two-year-old, female neutered, cross-breed dog imported from Romania was diagnosed with nasal infestation of Linguatula serrata after she sneezed out an adult female. The dog was presented with mucopurulent/sanguinous nasal discharge, marked left-sided exophthalmia, conjunctival hyperaemia and chemosis. Computed tomography and left frontal sinusotomy revealed no further evidence of adult parasites. In addition, there was no evidence of egg shedding in the nasal secretions or faeces. Clinical signs resolved within 48 hours of sinusotomy, and with systemic broad-spectrum antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229221/the-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides-and-the-raccoon-procyon-lotor-their-role-and-impact-of-maintaining-and-transmitting-zoonotic-diseases-in-austria-central-europe
#3
Tanja Duscher, Adnan Hodžić, Walter Glawischnig, Georg G Duscher
The neozoan species raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) are widespread in Europe and potential vectors of many diseases that can threaten human and domestic animal health. Facing a further spread of these species, it is important to know about (i) pathogens imported and/or (ii) pathogens acquired in the new habitat. Thus, we investigated the parasite fauna of wild raccoon dogs and raccoons from Austria, at the edge of their new distribution range. The eight examined raccoons were nearly free of pathogens including Baylisascaris procyonis, and thus assumed to have a low epidemiological impact, so far...
February 23, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229042/an-investigation-of-parasitic-infections-and-review-of-molecular-characterization-of-the-intestinal-protozoa-in-nonhuman-primates-in-china-from-2009-to-2015
#4
Junqiang Li, Haiju Dong, Rongjun Wang, Fuchang Yu, Yayun Wu, Yankai Chang, Chenrong Wang, Meng Qi, Longxian Zhang
Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP) populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228923/rodent-species-distribution-and-hantavirus-seroprevalence-in-residential-and-forested-areas-of-sarawak-malaysia
#5
Nur Elfieyra Syazana Hamdan, Yee Ling Ng, Wei Bin Lee, Cheng Siang Tan, Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Yee Ling Chong
Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking...
January 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#6
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224031/first-report-of-tasmanian-sheep-strain-g2-genotype-isolated-from-iranian-goat-using-the-high-resolution-melting-hrm-analysis
#7
Ahmad Hosseini-Safa, Mohammad Ali Mohag Hegh, Nader Pestechian, Maryam Ganji, Rasoul Mohammadi, Reza Mahmoudi Lamouki, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad
AIM: The present study was aimed to evaluate E. granulosus genotypes isolated from goats using HRM analysis in Isfahan province. BACKGROUND: Cystic echincoccosis, so-called hydatidosis, is widespread infection caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. This is an important zoonotic disease worldwide, especially in the developing countries such as Iran. To date, molecular studies mainly based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences have identified distinct genotypes termed G1-G10 which can differ in some characteristics such as the growth and infectivity to different intermediate hosts or the survival rate in the definitive hosts that are important for the development of control strategies...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222719/descriptive-study-of-enteric-zoonoses-in-ontario-canada-from-2010-2012
#8
Yvonne Whitfield, Karen Johnson, Leigh Hobbs, Dean Middleton, Badal Dhar, Linda Vrbova
BACKGROUND: Contact with animals and their environment has long been recognized as an important source of enteric zoonoses. However, there are limited data available on the burden of illness associated with specific types of animals in Canada. This study describes the overall burden of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2012. METHODS: Confirmed cases of seven enteric zoonotic diseases (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, listeriosis, salmonellosis, verotoxin-producing E...
February 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221843/campylobacter-spp-prevalence-and-levels-in-raw-milk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
T Christidis, K D M Pintar, A J Butler, A Nesbitt, M K Thomas, B Marshall, F Pollari
Campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal disease internationally, contributing significantly to the enteric illness burden. Cases have been associated with the consumption of raw milk, a behavior that has garnered attention recently. Estimates of the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk are lacking, which hinders risk assessment attempts. This article is a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported prevalence and levels of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in the raw milk of cows, goats, and sheep in Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220151/prioritizing-zoonotic-diseases-in-ethiopia-using-a-one-health-approach
#10
Emily G Pieracci, Aron J Hall, Radhika Gharpure, Abraham Haile, Elias Walelign, Asefa Deressa, Getahun Bahiru, Meron Kibebe, Henry Walke, Ermias Belay
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has the second largest human population in Africa and the largest livestock population on the continent. About 80% of Ethiopians are dependent on agriculture and have direct contact with livestock or other domestic animals. As a result, the country is vulnerable to the spread of zoonotic diseases. As the first step of the country's engagement in the Global Health Security Agenda, a zoonotic disease prioritization workshop was held to identify significant zoonotic diseases of mutual concern for animal and human health agencies...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219812/detection-and-molecular-diversity-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-sheltered-dogs-and-cats-in-northern-spain
#11
Horacio Gil, Lourdes Cano, Aida de Lucio, Begoña Bailo, Marta Hernández de Mingo, Guillermo A Cardona, José A Fernández-Basterra, Juan Aramburu-Aguirre, Nuria López-Molina, David Carmena
Domestic dogs and cats may act as natural reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic pathogens, including the enteric parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., the most relevant protozoan species causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was conducted in an animal rescue centre in the province of Álava (Northern Spain). A total of 194 and 65 faecal dropping samples from individual dogs and cats, respectively, were collected between November 2013 and June 2016...
February 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219746/application-of-high-throughput-sequencing-to-whole-rabies-viral-genome-characterisation-and-its-use-for-phylogenetic-re-evaluation-of-a-raccoon-strain-incursion-into-the-province-of-ontario
#12
Susan A Nadin-Davis, Adam Colville, Hannah Trewby, Roman Biek, Leslie Real
Raccoon rabies remains a serious public health problem throughout much of the eastern seaboard of North America due to the urban nature of the reservoir host and the many challenges inherent in multi-jurisdictional efforts to administer co-ordinated and comprehensive wildlife rabies control programmes. Better understanding of the mechanisms of spread of rabies virus can play a significant role in guiding such control efforts. To facilitate a detailed molecular epidemiological study of raccoon rabies virus movements across eastern North America, we developed a methodology to efficiently determine whole genome sequences of hundreds of viral samples...
February 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219415/genotyping-and-investigating-capsular-polysaccharide-synthesis-gene-loci-of-non-serotypeable-streptococcus-suis-isolated-from-diseased-pigs-in-canada
#13
Han Zheng, Xiaotong Qiu, David Roy, Mariela Segura, Pengchen Du, Jianguo Xu, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent. Most clinical S. suis strains express capsular polysaccharides (CPS), which can be typed by antisera using the coagglutination test. In this study, 79 S. suis strains recovered from diseased pigs in Canada and which could not be typed using antisera were further characterized by capsular gene typing and sequencing. Four patterns of cps locus were observed: (1) fifteen strains were grouped into previously reported serotypes but presented several mutations in their cps loci, when compared to available data from reference strains; (2) seven strains presented a complete deletion of the cps locus, which would result in an inability to synthesize capsule; (3) forty-seven strains were classified in recently described novel cps loci (NCLs); and (4) ten strains carried novel NCLs not previously described...
February 20, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219407/development-of-dirofilaria-immitis-and-dirofilaria-repens-in-aedes-japonicus-and-aedes-geniculatus
#14
Cornelia Silaghi, Relja Beck, Gioia Capelli, Fabrizio Montarsi, Alexander Mathis
BACKGROUND: The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D...
February 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218712/epidemiology-of-classic-and-novel-human-astrovirus-gastroenteritis-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Diem-Lan Vu, Albert Bosch, Rosa M Pintó, Susana Guix
Since they were identified in 1975, human astroviruses have been considered one of the most important agents of viral acute gastroenteritis in children. However, highly divergent astroviruses infecting humans have been recently discovered and associated with extra-intestinal infections. The report of cases of fatal meningitis and encephalitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals, has broadened their disease spectrum. Although zoonotic transmission among animal and human astroviruses has not been clearly recognized, the genetic similarity between some human and animal viruses makes it likely to occur...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217934/population-dynamics-of-wild-rodents-induce-stochastic-fadeouts-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen
#16
Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Tagliapietra, Sarah E Perkins, Heidi C Hauffe, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected intermittently since 2001, until an outbreak emerged in 2010. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of the recent outbreak using a computational model that accounts for seasonal changes of the host population and territorial behavior...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216188/rationale-and-support-for-a-one-health-program-for-canine-vaccination-as-the-most-cost-effective-means-of-controlling-zoonotic-rabies-in-endemic-settings
#17
REVIEW
Robert P Lavan, Alasdair I MacG King, David J Sutton, Kaan Tunceli
Although dog vaccination has been demonstrated to reduce and eliminate rabies in humans, during meetings there are often calls for further pilot studies. The assembled data proves that a widespread approach is now required. While zoonotic rabies has a minimal presence in developed nations, it is endemic throughout most of Asia and Africa, where it is considered to be a neglected tropical disease. In these areas, rabies causes an estimated annual mortality of at least 55,000 human deaths. Worldwide rabid dogs are the source of the vast majority of human rabies exposures...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215871/disease-behaviours-of-sows-naturally-infected-with-taenia-solium-in-tanzania
#18
Chiara Trevisan, Maria Vang Johansen, Ernatus Martin Mkupasi, Helena Aminel Ngowi, Björn Forkman
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium lodging in the central nervous system. Both humans and pigs can get NCC. The impact of the disease in pigs has so far been little explored. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of NCC on social and feeding behaviours as well as the pattern of activity as indicators of reduced welfare in naturally infected sows. In total 13 T. solium naturally infected and 15 non-infected control sows were videotaped for 2 consecutive weeks using close circuit television cameras at research facilities at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215193/the-impact-of-livestock-manure-control-policy-on-human-leptospirosis-in-republic-of-korea-using-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#19
S Ryu, C L Lau, B C Chun
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that the pathogen can be transmitted to humans through the excretions of infected animals. In the Republic of Korea, the Livestock Manure Control Act was enforced in September 2007 to improve underground water hygiene. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Livestock Manure Control Policy on the incidence and the trend of human leptospirosis. An interrupted time series analysis using the monthly incidence of leptospirosis was conducted based on data derived from the Korean National Surveillance System between January 1999 and January 2015...
February 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213899/human-influence-and-biotic-homogenization-drive-the-distribution-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-in-natural-habitats
#20
Adriana Cabal, Joaquin Vicente, Julio Alvarez, Jose Angel Barasona, Mariana Boadella, Lucas Dominguez, Christian Gortazar
Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the only known zoonotic intestinal E. coli pathotype. However, there are other intestinal pathotypes that can cause disease in humans, whose presence has been seldom investigated. Thus, our aim was to identify the effects of anthropic pressure and of wild and domestic ungulate abundance on the distribution and diversity of the main human E. coli pathotypes and nine of their representative virulence genes (VGs). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the direct detection and quantification of the genus-specific gene uidA, nine E...
February 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
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