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Cognitive impairment biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936173/combining-spect-and-quantitative-eeg-analysis-for-the-automated-differential-diagnosis-of-disorders-with-amnestic-symptoms
#1
Yvonne Höller, Arne C Bathke, Andreas Uhl, Nicolas Strobl, Adelheid Lang, Jürgen Bergmann, Raffaele Nardone, Fabio Rossini, Harald Zauner, Margarita Kirschner, Amirhossein Jahanbekam, Eugen Trinka, Wolfgang Staffen
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Electroencephalography (EEG) have become established tools in routine diagnostics of dementia. We aimed to increase the diagnostic power by combining quantitative markers from SPECT and EEG for differential diagnosis of disorders with amnestic symptoms. We hypothesize that the combination of SPECT with measures of interaction (connectivity) in the EEG yields higher diagnostic accuracy than the single modalities. We examined 39 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), 69 patients with depressive cognitive impairment (DCI), 71 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 41 patients with amnestic subjective cognitive complaints (aSCC)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934615/working-memory-and-prefrontal-temporal-hemodynamic-responses-during-post-task-period-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a%C3%A2-multi-channel-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#2
Takamasa Noda, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Shiori Setoyama, Eisuke Matsushima
The relationship between cognitive impairments and social dysfunction in schizophrenia is widely accepted. Neuroimaging studies in patients with schizophrenia have demonstrated abnormal function in the prefrontal region during various neurocognitive tasks. However, studies exploring the neural basis of these cognitive impairments are still limited. Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive functional neuroimaging technique used to detect the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934394/microrna-455-3p-as-a-potential-peripheral-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Subodh Kumar, Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) as early detectable peripheral biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To achieve our objective, we assessed miRNAs in serum samples from AD patients and Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects relative to healthy controls. We used Affymetrix microarray analysis and validated differentially expressed miRNAs using qRT-PCR. We further validated miRNA data using AD postmortem brains, amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice and AD cell lines. We identified a gradual upregulation of four miRNAs: miR-455-3p, miR-4668-5p, miR-3613-3p and miR-4674...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934192/metabolomics-and-cognition-in-african-american-adults-in-midlife-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#4
J Bressler, B Yu, T H Mosley, D S Knopman, R F Gottesman, A Alonso, A R Sharrett, L M Wruck, E Boerwinkle
Clinical studies have shown alterations in metabolic profiles when patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia were compared to cognitively normal subjects. Associations between 204 serum metabolites measured at baseline (1987-1989) and cognitive change were investigated in 1035 middle-aged community-dwelling African American participants in the biracial Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Cognition was evaluated using the Delayed Word Recall Test (DWRT; verbal memory), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST; processing speed) and the Word Fluency Test (WFT; verbal fluency) at visits 2 (1990-1992) and 4 (1996-1998)...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#5
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933672/cognitive-impairment-and-the-regional-distribution-of-cerebellar-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Sean M Tobyne, Wilson B Ochoa, J Daniel Bireley, Victoria Mj Smith, Jeroen Jg Geurts, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Eric C Klawiter
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar lesions are often reported in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and have been associated with impaired motor function and cognitive status. However, prior research has primarily focused on summary measures of cerebellar involvement (e.g. total lesion load, gray/white matter volume) and not on the effect of lesion load within specific regions of cerebellar white matter. OBJECTIVE: Spatially map the probability of cerebellar white matter lesion (CWML) occurrence in RRMS and explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and lesion (CWML) location within the cerebellum...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931301/oxidative-stress-assessment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-clinic-setting-study
#7
Andrea Vergallo, Linda Giampietri, Filippo Baldacci, Leda Volpi, Lucia Chico, Cristina Pagni, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Roberto Ceravolo, Gloria Tognoni, Gabriele Siciliano, Ubaldo Bonuccelli
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS) is a physiological age-related brain process, dramatically overexpressed in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, the pathophysiological role of OS in AD pathology has not been clarified yet. OS as a biomarker for AD is a controversial issue. A comparison of previous data is difficult due to a remarkable methodological variability. Most of the previous studies have shown higher levels of OS markers and lower antioxidant power in patients with dementia when compared to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923099/whole-blood-gene-expression-and-white-matter-hyperintensities
#8
Honghuang Lin, Claudia Satizabal, Zhijun Xie, Qiong Yang, Tianxiao Huan, Roby Joehanes, Chengping Wen, Peter J Munson, Alexa Beiser, Daniel Levy, Sudha Seshadri
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are an important biomarker of cumulative vascular brain injury and have been associated with cognitive decline and an increased risk of dementia, stroke, depression, and gait impairments. The pathogenesis of white matter lesions however, remains uncertain. The characterization of gene expression profiles associated with WMH might help uncover molecular mechanisms underlying WMH. METHODS: We performed a transcriptome-wide association study of gene expression profiles with WMH in 3248 participants from the Framingham Heart Study using the Affymetrix Human Exon 1...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922966/plasma-lipids-metabolism-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Alana C Costa, Helena P G Joaquim, Orestes Forlenza, Leda L Talib, Wagner F Gattaz
OBJECTIVES: Expression of phospholipids and related molecules could provide panels of multiple biomarkers searching for the signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to quantify ten phospholipids and simultaneously determine phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in blood of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients. METHODS: Thirty-four AD, 20 MCI and 25 controls were enrolled. The phospholipids where analysed using the AbsoluteIDQ(®) p180 Kit...
September 19, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922152/brain-biomarkers-in-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-models
#10
Yafit Kuttner-Hirshler, Palamadai N Venkatasubramanian, Joan Apolinario, Jacqueline Bonds, Alice M Wyrwicz, Orly Lazarov
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive deterioration. It is thought that the onset of the disease takes place several decades before memory deficits are apparent. Reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis or prognostication of the disease are highly desirable. Neural stem cells (NSC) exist in the adult brain throughout life and give rise to neural progenitor cells (NPC), which differentiate into neurons or glia. The level of NPC proliferation and new neuron formation is significantly compromised in mouse models of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919856/visualizing-hyperactivation-in-neurodegeneration-based-on-prefrontal-oxygenation-a-comparative-study-of-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-controls
#11
Kah Hui Yap, Wei Chun Ung, Esther G M Ebenezer, Nadira Nordin, Pui See Chin, Sandheep Sugathan, Sook Ching Chan, Hung Loong Yip, Masashi Kiguchi, Tong Boon Tang
Background: Cognitive performance is relatively well preserved during early cognitive impairment owing to compensatory mechanisms. Methods: We explored functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) alongside a semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) to investigate any compensation exhibited by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, a group of healthy controls (HC) was studied. A total of 61 volunteers (31 HC, 12 patients with MCI and 18 patients with mild AD) took part in the present study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918757/relationship-between-cognitive-performance-and-measures-of-neurodegeneration-among-hispanic-and-white-non-hispanic-individuals-with-normal-cognition-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#12
Shanna L Burke, Miriam J Rodriguez, Warren Barker, Maria T Greig-Custo, Monica Rosselli, David A Loewenstein, Ranjan Duara
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the presence and severity of potential cultural and language bias in widely used cognitive and other assessment instruments, using structural MRI measures of neurodegeneration as biomarkers of disease stage and severity. METHODS: Hispanic (n=75) and White non-Hispanic (WNH) (n=90) subjects were classified as cognitively normal (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild dementia. Performance on the culture-fair and educationally fair Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) between Hispanics and WNHs was equivalent, in each diagnostic group...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918259/disrupted-structural-and-functional-connectivity-networks-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#13
Jingna Zhang, Ye Zhang, Li Wang, Linqiong Sang, Jun Yang, Rubing Yan, Pengyue Li, Jian Wang, Mingguo Qiu
Local lesions caused by stroke may result in extensive structural and functional reorganization in the brain. Previous studies of this phenomenon have focused on specific brain networks. Here, we aimed to discover abnormalities in whole-brain networks and to explore the decoupling between structural and functional connectivity in patients with stroke. Fifteen ischemic stroke patients and 23 normal controls (NCs) were recruited in this study. A graph theoretical analysis was employed to investigate the abnormal topological properties of structural and functional brain networks in patients with stroke...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918017/efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-tricyclo-dna-antisense-oligonucleotides-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-mouse-model
#14
Karima Relizani, Graziella Griffith, Lucía Echevarría, Faouzi Zarrouki, Patricia Facchinetti, Cyrille Vaillend, Christian Leumann, Luis Garcia, Aurélie Goyenvalle
Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) hold promise for therapeutic splice-switching correction in many genetic diseases. However, despite advances in AON chemistry and design, systemic use of AONs is limited due to poor tissue uptake and sufficient therapeutic efficacy is still difficult to achieve. A novel class of AONs made of tricyclo-DNA (tcDNA) is considered very promising for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a neuromuscular disease typically caused by frameshifting deletions or nonsense mutations in the gene-encoding dystrophin and characterized by progressive muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure in addition to cognitive impairment...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910193/lifestyle-markers-predict-cognitive-function
#15
Steven C Masley, Richard Roetzheim, Gwendolyn Clayton, Angela Presby, Kelley Sundberg, Lucas V Masley
OBJECTIVE: Rates of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are increasing rapidly. None of the current treatment regimens for Alzheimer's disease are effective in arresting progression. Lifestyle choices may prevent cognitive decline. This study aims to clarify which factors best predict cognitive function. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional analysis of 799 men and women undergoing health and cognitive testing every 1 to 3 years at an outpatient center...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902409/binswanger-s-disease-biomarkers-in-the-inflammatory-form-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#16
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a major public health concern because of the increased incidence of vascular disease in the aging population and the impact of vascular disease on Alzheimer's disease. VCID is a heterogeneous group of diseases for which there are no proven treatments. Biomarkers can be used to select more homogeneous populations. Small vessel disease is the most prevalent form of VCID and is the optimal form for treatment trials because there is a progressive course with characteristic pathological changes...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899429/amyloid-independent-atrophy-patterns-predict-time-to-progression-to-dementia-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Mara Ten Kate, Frederik Barkhof, Pieter Jelle Visser, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Betty M Tijms
BACKGROUND: Amyloid pathology in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an important risk factor for progression to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Predicting the onset of dementia is challenging even in the presence of amyloid, as time to progression varies considerably among patients and depends on the onset of neurodegeneration. Survival analysis can account for variability in time to event, but has not often been applied to MRI measurements beyond singular predefined brain regions such as the hippocampus...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899425/the-physiological-determinants-of-low-level-urine-cadmium-an-assessment-in-a-cross-sectional-study-among-schoolchildren
#18
Hongyu Wang, Xavier Dumont, Vincent Haufroid, Alfred Bernard
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in children have reported associations of urinary cadmium (U-Cd), used as biomarker of Cd body burden, with renal dysfunction, retarded growth and impaired cognitive development in children. Little is known, however, about factors influencing U-Cd in children and likely to act as confounders. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study involving 249 schoolchildren (mean age, 5.72 years; 138 boys), we measured the urine concentrations of cadmium, zinc, lead, albumin, alpha1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein, β2-microglobulin and club cell protein (CC16)...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899019/cerebral-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-predicts-amyloid-%C3%AE-related-cognitive-decline
#19
Scott Ayton, Amir Fazlollahi, Pierrick Bourgeat, Parnesh Raniga, Amanda Ng, Yen Ying Lim, Ibrahima Diouf, Shawna Farquharson, Jurgen Fripp, David Ames, James Doecke, Patricia Desmond, Roger Ordidge, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe, Paul Maruff, Victor L Villemagne, Olivier Salvado, Ashley I Bush
See Derry and Kent (doi:10.1093/awx167) for a scientific commentary on this article.The large variance in cognitive deterioration in subjects who test positive for amyloid-β by positron emission tomography indicates that convergent pathologies, such as iron accumulation, might combine with amyloid-β to accelerate Alzheimer's disease progression. Here, we applied quantitative susceptibility mapping, a relatively new magnetic resonance imaging method sensitive to tissue iron, to assess the relationship between iron, amyloid-β load, and cognitive decline in 117 subjects who underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging and amyloid-β positron emission tomography from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study (AIBL)...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884714/-therapeutic-monitoring-and-prediction-of-the-efficacy-of-neurotrophic-treatment-in-patients-with-amnestic-type-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
S I Gavrilova, O M Volpina, I V Kolykhalov, Ya B Fedorova, N D Selezneva, E V Ponomareva, D O Koroev, A V Kamynina
AIM: To perform therapeutic monitoring and prediction of the neurotrophic therapy efficacy in patients with amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in a model of course cerebrolysin therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved a group of 19 elderly patients who met the diagnostic criteria of aMCI. All patients received a course of neurotrophic therapy consisting of 20 intravenous infusions of cerebrolysin (30 ml of cerebrolysin in 100 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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