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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431416/caring-for-critically-injured-children-an-analysis-of-56-pediatric-damage-control-laparotomies
#1
Miguel A Villalobos, Joshua P Hazelton, Rachel L Choron, Lisa Capano-Wehrle, Krystal Hunter, John P Gaughan, Steven E Ross, Mark J Seamon
BACKGROUND: Injury is the leading cause of death in children under 18 years. Damage control principles have been extensively studied in adults but remain relatively unstudied in children. Our primary study objective was to evaluate the use of damage control laparotomy (DCL) in critically injured children. METHODS: An American College of Surgeons-verified Level 1 trauma center review (1996-2013) of pediatric trauma laparotomies was undertaken. Exclusion criteria included: age older than 18 years, laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome or delayed longer than 2 hours after admission...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431415/potential-impact-of-affordable-care-act-related-insurance-expansion-on-trauma-care-reimbursement
#2
John W Scott, Pooja U Neiman, Peter A Najjar, Thomas C Tsai, Kirstin W Scott, Mark G Shrime, David M Cutler, Ali Salim, Adil H Haider
BACKGROUND: Nearly one quarter of trauma patients are uninsured and hospitals recoup less than 20% of inpatient costs for their care. This study examines changes to hospital reimbursement for inpatient trauma care if the full coverage expansion provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) were in effect. METHODS: We abstracted nonelderly adults (ages 18-64 years) admitted for trauma from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample during 2010-the last year before most major ACA coverage expansion policies...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431391/serum-levels-of-lead-mercury-and-cadmium-in-relation-to-coronary-artery-disease-in-the-elderly-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Sedigheh Asgary, Ahmad Movahedian, Mahtab Keshvari, Mahsa Taleghani, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
BACKGROUND: There is a continuing attempt to identify novel factors that can predict the risk of cardiovascular disease beyond the established coronary risk factors. It has been suggested that serum levels of lead, mercury and cadmium are associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate serum concentrations of lead (s-Pb), mercury (s-Hg) and cadmium (s-Cd) in patients with CAD in comparison with those of healthy individuals. The correlation between serum levels of these heavy metals and lipid profile parameters was also investigated...
March 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431368/correlates-of-perceived-stigma-for-people-living-with-epilepsy-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Ying Shi, Shouqi Wang, Jie Ying, Meiling Zhang, Pengcheng Liu, Huanhuan Zhang, Jiao Sun
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy, one of the most common, serious chronic neurological diseases, is accompanied by different levels of perceived stigma that affects people in almost all age groups. This stigma can negatively impact the physical and mental health of people living with epilepsy (PLWE). Good knowledge of perceived stigma for PLWE is important. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the correlates of perceived stigma for PLWE. METHODS: Studies on factors associated with perceived stigma for PLWE, including sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related variables, were searched in PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science...
April 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431345/insights-into-targeting-young-male-drivers-with-anti-speeding-advertising-an-application-of-the-step-approach-to-message-design-and-testing-satmdt
#5
I Lewis, K M White, B Ho, B Elliott, B Watson
In Australia, young drivers aged 17-25 years comprise 13% of the population yet account for 22% of all road deaths with young males over-represented in such trauma. Speeding represents a major contributing factor and advertising campaigns have long focused on promoting anti-speeding messages in the effort to reduce drivers' speeds. Positioned within a larger program of research aimed at developing, piloting, and evaluating a range of theoretically-informed anti-speeding messages, the current study reports results relating to the final phase of the research, the evaluation...
April 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431308/hyperexcitability-of-inferior-colliculus-and-acoustic-startle-reflex-with-age-related-hearing-loss
#6
Binbin Xiong, Ana'am Alkharabsheh, Senthilvelan Manohar, Guang-Di Chen, Ning Yu, Xiaoming Zhao, Richard Salvi, Wei Sun
Chronic tinnitus and hyperacusis often develop with age-related hearing loss presumably due to aberrant neural activity in the central auditory system (CAS) induced by cochlear pathologies. However, the full spectrum of physiological changes that occur in the CAS as a result age-related hearing loss are still poorly understood. To address this issue, neurophysiological measures were obtained from the cochlea and the inferior colliculus (IC) of 2, 6 and 12 month old C57BL/6J mice, a mouse model for early age-related hearing loss...
March 27, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431301/diversity-training-for-the-community-aged-care-workers-a-conceptual-framework-for-evaluation
#7
Arti Appannah, Claudia Meyer, Rajna Ogrin, Sally McMillan, Elizabeth Barrett, Colette Browning
Older Australians are an increasingly diverse population, with variable characteristics such as culture, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and physical capabilities potentially influencing their participation in healthcare. In response, community aged care workers may need to increase skills and uptake of knowledge into practice regarding diversity through appropriate training interventions. Diversity training (DT) programs have traditionally existed in the realm of business, with little research attention devoted to scientifically evaluating the outcomes of training directed at community aged care workers...
March 23, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431295/clove-and-rosemary-essential-oils-and-encapsuled-active-principles-eugenol-thymol-and-vanillin-blend-on-meat-quality-of-feedlot-finished-heifers
#8
Jéssica de Oliveira Monteschio, Kennyson Alves de Souza, Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital, Ana Guerrero, Maribel Velandia Valero, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho Kempinski, Vinícius Cunha Barcelos, Karina Favoreto Nascimento, Ivanor Nunes do Prado
Forty Nellore heifers were fed (73days) with different diets: with or without essential oils (clove and/or rosemary essential oil) and/or active principle blend (eugenol, thymol and vanillin). The pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area and water losses (thawing and drip) were evaluated 24h post mortem on the Longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (14days) was evaluated on the meat cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Treatments had no effect (P>0...
April 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431294/exploring-the-experience-of-episodic-past-future-and-counterfactual-thinking-in-younger-and-older-adults-a-study-of-a-colombian-sample
#9
Felipe De Brigard, Diana Carolina Rodriguez, Patricia Montañés
Although extant evidence suggests that many neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying episodic past, future, and counterfactual thinking overlap, recent results have uncovered differences among these three processes. However, the extent to which there may be age-related differences in the phenomenological characteristics associated with episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking remains unclear. This study used adapted versions of the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire and the Autobiographical Interview in younger and older adults to investigate the subjective experience of episodic past, future and counterfactual thinking...
April 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431290/predicting-success-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-vns-from-eeg-symmetry
#10
REVIEW
Janneke Hilderink, Marleen C Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Anita Geertsema, Janita Glastra-Zwiers, Cecile C de Vos
PURPOSE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has shown to be an effective treatment for drug resistant epilepsy, with achieving more than 50% seizure reduction in one third of the treated patients. In order to predict which patients will profit from VNS, we previously found that a low pairwise derived Brain Symmetry Index (pdBSI) could potentially predict good responders to VNS treatment. These findings however have to be validated before they can be generalized. METHODS: 39 patients (age 18-68 years) with medically intractable epilepsy who were referred for an implanted VNS system were included...
April 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431289/klotho-apoe%C3%AE%C2%B54-cognitive-ability-brain-size-atrophy-and-survival-a-study-in-the-aberdeen-birth-cohort-of-1936
#11
Clarisse F de Vries, Roger T Staff, Sarah E Harris, Dorota Chapko, Daniel S Williams, Polina Reichert, Trevor Ahearn, Christopher J McNeil, Lawrence J Whalley, Alison D Murray
A single copy of klotho allele KL-VS is associated with longevity, better health, increased cognition, and bigger regional brain volume. However, its longitudinal effects on cognition and brain volumes, both global and regional, in late life are unclear. In this study we show that, relative to noncarriers, KL-VS heterozygotes had (1) shorter survival; (2) smaller white matter volumes; (3) slower cognitive decline; and (4) greater right frontal lobe volumes. The KL-VS heterozygote survival and white matter volume disadvantages were unexpected...
March 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431287/age-and-gender-effects-of-11-c-itmm-binding-to-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-type-1-in-healthy-human-participants
#12
Muneyuki Sakata, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishibashi, Kei Wagatsuma, Kenji Ishii, Ming-Rong Zhang, Kiichi Ishiwata
We examined possible age- and gender-related changes in binding of the selective antagonist N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ((11)C-ITMM) to metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 in healthy human brains. Dynamic (11)C-ITMM positron emission tomography scans (90 min) with serial arterial blood sampling were performed in 15 young and 24 older healthy adult volunteers. The total distribution volume (VT) of several brain regions was estimated with 2-tissue compartment model analysis...
March 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431286/age-related-changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-and-intracortical-inhibition-after-upper-extremity-motor-learning-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Kelly M M Berghuis, John G Semmler, George M Opie, Aylin K Post, Tibor Hortobágyi
It is unclear how old age affects the neuronal mechanisms of motor learning. We reviewed the neuronal mechanisms of how healthy old and young adults acquire motor skills as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Quantitative meta-analyses of 11 studies, involving ballistic and visuomotor tasks performed by upper extremity muscles in 132 healthy old and 128 young adults, revealed that the motor practice-induced increase in corticospinal excitability (CSE) is task-dependent but not age-dependent, with an increase in CSE in both age groups after visuomotor but not ballistic training...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431279/cognitive-control-in-action-tracking-the-dynamics-of-rule-switching-in-5-to-8-year-olds-and-adults
#14
Christopher D Erb, Jeff Moher, Joo-Hyun Song, David M Sobel
Recent studies have suggested that dissociable processes featuring distinct types of inhibition support cognitive control in tasks requiring participants to override a prepotent response with a control-demanding alternative response. An open question concerns how these processes support cognitive flexibility in rule-switching tasks. We used a technique known as reach tracking to investigate how 5- to 8-year-olds (Experiment 1) and adults (Experiment 2) select, maintain, and switch between incompatible rule sets in a computerized version of the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS)...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431278/intranasal-oxytocin-does-not-modulate-jumping-to-conclusions-in-schizophrenia-potential-interactions-with-caudate-volume-and-baseline-social-functioning
#15
Fernando Caravaggio, Philip Gerretsen, Wanna Mar, Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Shinichiro Nakajima, Julia Kim, Yusuke Iwata, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) tend to sample less information when making a decision, jumping to conclusions (JTC) without sufficient evidence. This "JTC bias" may be a trait marker of the disease and may not improve with antipsychotic treatment. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test whether intranasal oxytocin could reduce JTC in stable, medicated patients with SCZ and healthy controls (HCs). We also explored whether striatal volume, clinical symptoms, and baseline social functioning (SF) was related to JTC performance...
March 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431248/spontaneous-chitin-accumulation-in-airways-and-age-related-fibrotic-lung-disease
#16
Steven J Van Dyken, Hong-Erh Liang, Ram P Naikawadi, Prescott G Woodruff, Paul J Wolters, David J Erle, Richard M Locksley
The environmentally widespread polysaccharide chitin is degraded and recycled by ubiquitous bacterial and fungal chitinases. Although vertebrates express active chitinases from evolutionarily conserved loci, their role in mammalian physiology is unclear. We show that distinct lung epithelial cells secrete acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase), which is required for airway chitinase activity. AMCase-deficient mice exhibit premature morbidity and mortality, concomitant with accumulation of environmentally derived chitin polymers in the airways and expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431194/closed-form-equation-to-estimate-the-dielectric-properties-of-biological-tissues-as-a-function-of-age
#17
Beadaa Mohammed, Konstanty Bialkowski, Amin Abbosh, Paul C Mills, Andrew P Bradley
Developing microwave systems for biomedical applications requires accurate dielectric properties of biological tissues for reliable modeling before prototyping and subject testing. Dielectric properties of tissues decrease with age due to the change in their water content, but there are no detailed age-dependent data, especially for young tissue-like newborns, in the literature. In this article, an age-dependent formula to predict the dielectric properties of biological tissues was derived. In the proposed method, the variation of water concentration in each type of tissue as a function of age was used to calculate its relative permittivity and conductivity...
April 21, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431186/unfractionated-heparin-versus-low-molecular-weight-heparins-for-avoiding-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-in-postoperative-patients
#18
REVIEW
Daniela R Junqueira, Liliane M Zorzela, Edson Perini
BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction presenting as a prothrombotic disorder related to antibody-mediated platelet activation. It is a paradoxical immune reaction resulting in thrombin generation in vivo, which leads to a hypercoagulable state and the potential to initiate venous or arterial thrombosis. A number of factors are thought to influence the incidence of HIT including the type and preparation of heparin (unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)) and the heparin-exposed patient population, with the postoperative patient population at higher risk...
April 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431158/effects-of-supplementation-level-and-feeding-schedule-of-butyrate-glycerides-on-the-growth-performance-and-carcass-composition-of-broiler-chickens
#19
A Bedford, H Yu, E J Squires, S Leeson, J Gong
Mixed mono- and tributyrate glycerides have been used for effective delivery of butyrate to the gut to benefit broilers. However, limited information is available on the efficacy of butyrate glycerides individually and in combination with different levels and feeding schedules. The present study has first investigated the effects of monobutyrin at inclusion levels of zero, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 ppm on the performance of broilers, and second, the effects of its combination with tributyrin. In the monobutyrin trial, there were no overall significant differences in average daily gain or feed efficiency...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431153/trends-in-absolute-and-relative-educational-inequalities-in-adult-smoking-since-the-early-2000s-the-case-of-germany
#20
Jens Hoebel, Benjamin Kuntz, Lars E Kroll, Jonas D Finger, Johannes Zeiher, Cornelia Lange, Thomas Lampert
Introduction: Since the early 2000s, several tobacco control policies have been implemented in Germany. Current research is inconsistent about how strengthening tobacco control can affect social inequalities in smoking. This study examines whether educational inequalities in adult smoking have widened in Germany since 2003. Methods: Data were used from four cross-sectional national health surveys conducted between 2003-2012 (n=54,197; age=25-69 years). Participants who smoked daily or occasionally were classified as smokers...
April 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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