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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783279/bone-area-histomorphometry
#1
Janna M Andronowski, Christian Crowder
Quantifying the amount of cortical bone loss is one variable used in histological methods of adult age estimation. Measurements of cortical area tend to be subjective and additional information regarding bone loss is not captured considering cancellous bone is disregarded. We describe whether measuring bone area (cancellous + cortical area) rather than cortical area may improve histological age estimation for the sixth rib. Mid-shaft rib cross-sections (n = 114) with a skewed sex distribution were analyzed...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783163/maternal-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-system-activity-and-stress-during-pregnancy-effects-on-gestational-age-and-infant-s-anthropometric-measures-at-birth
#2
Maria Gilles, Henrike Otto, Isabell A C Wolf, Barbara Scharnholz, Verena Peus, Michael Schredl, Marc W Sütterlin, Stephanie H Witt, Marcella Rietschel, Manfred Laucht, Michael Deuschle
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal stress might be a risk for the developing fetus and may have long-lasting effects on child and adult vulnerability to somatic and psychiatric disease. Over-exposure of the unborn to excess glucocorticoids and subsequent alteration of fetal development is hypothesized to be one of the key mechanisms linking prenatal stress with negative child outcome. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers-to-be (n = 405) in late pregnancy (36...
April 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783160/children-s-sleep-problems-are-associated-with-poorer-student-teacher-relationship-quality
#3
Alex S Holdaway, Stephen P Becker
OBJECTIVE: Children's sleep problems are associated with poorer student functioning in the school environment, including impairment in peer relationships; yet, no studies have examined sleep functioning in relation to the student-teacher relationship. The objective of this study was to examine whether child-rated total sleep problems or specific sleep problem domains (bedtime problems, nighttime problems, or daytime sleepiness) were associated with teacher-rated student-teacher closeness and conflict after controlling for student mental health symptoms known to be associated with both greater sleep problems and poorer student-teacher relationship quality...
December 20, 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783103/sleep-spindles-and-cognitive-performance-across-adolescence-a-meta-analytic-review
#4
C M Reynolds, M A Short, M Gradisar
Higher sleep spindle activity generally relates to better cognitive performance in adults, while studies in children often show the opposite. As children become young adults, there is rapid brain maturation and development of higher-order cognitive functions, and therefore investigations within this age group may elucidate the relationship between spindles and cognition in this developmental period. Twelve studies published between 2009 and 2016 were identified. Meta-analyses revealed a positive relationship between spindles and cognition overall (r = 0...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783094/the-relation-of-parent-alcohol-disorder-to-young-adult-drinking-outcomes-mediated-by-parenting-effects-of-developmentally-limited-versus-persistent-parent-alcohol-disorder
#5
Ariel Sternberg, Danielle Pandika, Kit K Elam, Laurie Chassin
BACKGROUND: Parent alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a well-established risk factor for the development of offspring AUD and is associated with poor parenting. However, few studies have examined heterogeneity in trajectories of parental AUD and its influence on adolescent offspring drinking, and no studies to date have considered the differential risk to offspring conferred by parental AUDs that are limited to early adulthood. Specifically, AUDs limited to the period of emerging adulthood may confer less risk to a child's environment as recovery following emerging adulthood coincides with the typical ages of entry into the parenting role...
April 25, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783087/association-of-t-and-non-t-cell-cytokines-with-anhedonia-role-of-gender-differences
#6
Manish K Jha, Andrew H Miller, Abu Minhajuddin, Madhukar H Trivedi
OBJECTIVE: Among individual depressive symptoms, anhedonia has been reliably associated with activation of the innate immune response. However, it is unclear whether this association extends to T cell cytokines and if gender differentially affects this association. METHOD: Concentrations of T (IL-17, T-helper (Th) 1- and Th2-) and non-T cell cytokines were measured in plasma using the Bioplex Pro™ human cytokine multiplex kit in Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants who provided plasma at baseline (n = 166)...
May 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783085/indoor-black-carbon-and-biomarkers-of-systemic-inflammation-and-endothelial-activation-in-copd-patients
#7
Eric Garshick, Stephanie T Grady, Jaime E Hart, Brent A Coull, Joel D Schwartz, Francine Laden, Marilyn L Moy, Petros Koutrakis
RATIONALE: Evidence linking traffic-related particle exposure to systemic effects in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) patients is limited. OBJECTIVES: Assess relationships between indoor black carbon (BC), a tracer of traffic-related particles, and plasma biomarkers of systemic inflammation and endothelial activation. METHODS: BC was measured by reflectance in fine particle samples over a mean of 7.6 days in homes of 85 COPD patients up to 4 times seasonally over a year...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783068/reliability-of-the-star-excursion-balance-test-and-two-new-similar-protocols-to-measure-trunk-postural-control
#8
Diego López-Plaza, Casto Juan-Recio, David Barbado, Iñaki Ruiz-Pérez, Francisco J Vera-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Although the Star Excursion Balance test (SEBT) has shown a good intra-session reliability the inter-session reliability of this test has not been deeply studied. Furthermore, there is an evident high influence of the lower-limbs in the performance of the SEBT so even if it has been used to measure core stability it is possibly not the most suitable measurement. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were: i) to assess the absolute and relative between-session reliability of the SEBT and two novel variations of this test to assess trunk postural control while sitting, i...
May 18, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783061/enhanced-extinction-of-aversive-memories-in-mice-lacking-sparc-related-protein-containing-immunoglobulin-domains-1-spig1-fstl4
#9
Ryoko Suzuki, Akihiro Fujikawa, Yukio Komatsu, Kazuya Kuboyama, Naomi Tanga, Masaharu Noda
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in synaptic plasticity related to learning and memory. We previously reported that SPARC-related protein-containing immunoglobulin domains 1 (SPIG1, also known as Follistatin-like protein 4, FSTL4) binds to pro-BDNF and negatively regulates BDNF maturation; however, its neurological functions, particularly in learning and memory, have not yet been elucidated. We herein examined the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of Spig1-knockout (Spig1-KO) mice...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783043/developmental-changes-in-the-perception-of-visuotactile-simultaneity
#10
Yi-Chuan Chen, Terri L Lewis, David I Shore, Charles Spence, Daphne Maurer
A simultaneity judgment (SJ) task was used to measure the developmental trajectory of visuotactile simultaneity perception in children (aged 7, 9, 11, and 13 years) and adults. Participants were presented with a visual flash in the center of a computer monitor and a tap on their right index finger (located 20° below the flash) with 13 possible stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Participants reported whether the flash and tap were presented at the same time. Compared with the adult group, children aged 7 and 9 years made more simultaneous responses when the tap led by more than 300 ms and when the flash led by more than 200 ms, whereas they made fewer simultaneous responses at the 0 ms SOA...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783004/-the-thing-that-really-gets-me-is-the-future-symptomatology-in-older-homeless-adults-in-the-hope-home-study
#11
Adam Bazari, Maria Patanwala, Lauren M Kaplan, Colette L Auerswald, Margot B Kushel
CONTEXT: The homeless population is aging. Older homeless adults experience premature development of age-related conditions and an elevated symptom burden. Little is known about symptom experience among older homeless adults. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the experience, understanding, and management of physical, psychological, social (e.g. loneliness), and existential (e.g. regret, loss of dignity) symptoms among older homeless adults. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews from June 2016 through March 2017 with a purposive sample of participants from the HOPE HOME cohort, a longitudinal study of homeless adults ages 50 and older...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782967/deficient-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-il-2-activated-nk-cells-correlates-with-impaired-pgc1-%C3%AE-upregulation-in-elderly-humans
#12
Dante Miranda, Claudia Jara, Sophia Mejias, Viviana Ahumada, Marcelo Cortez-San Martin, Jorge Ibañez, Sandra Hirsch, Margarita Montoya
Immunosenescence has been described as age-associated changes in the immune function which are thought to be responsible for the increased morbidity with age. Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in immune defense against tumor and microbial diseases. Interestingly, aging-related NK cell dysfunction is associated with features of aging such as tumor incidence, reduced vaccination efficacy, and short survival due to infection. It is known that NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782955/loss-of-calretinin-and-parvalbumin-positive-interneurones-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-of-aged-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#13
Fatima Zallo, Emanuela Gardenal, Alexei Verkhratsky, José Julio Rodríguez
Neuronal degeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is linked to impaired calcium homeostasis and to changes in calcium-binding proteins (CBPs). The AD-related modification of neuronal CBPs remains controversial. Here we analyzed the presence and expression of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the hippocampal CA1 neurones of 18 months old 3xTg-AD mice compared to non-Tg animals. We found a layer specific decrease in number of interneurones expressing CR and PV (by 33.7% and 52%, respectively)...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#14
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782936/stratification-of-type-2-diabetes-based-on-routine-clinical-markers
#15
Narges Safai, Ashfaq Ali, Peter Rossing, Martin Ridderstråle
AIMS: We hypothesized that patients with dysregulated type 2 diabetes may be stratified based on routine clinical markers. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, diabetes related clinical measures including age at onset, diabetes duration, HbA1c , BMI, HOMA2-β, HOMA2-IR and GAD65 autoantibodies, were used for sub-grouping patients by K-means clustering and for adjusting. Probability of diabetes complications (95% confidence interval), were calculated using logistic regression...
May 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782935/vitamin-d-status-and-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-the-melbourne-collaborative-cohort-study
#16
Alicia K Heath, Elizabeth J Williamson, Allison M Hodge, Peter R Ebeling, Darryl W Eyles, David Kvaskoff, Kerin O'Dea, Graham G Giles, Dallas R English
AIMS: Inverse associations between vitamin D status and risk of type 2 diabetes observed in epidemiological studies could be biased by confounding and reverse causality. We investigated the prospective association between vitamin D status and type 2 diabetes and the possible role of reverse causality. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS), including a random sample of 628 participants who developed diabetes and a sex-stratified random sample of the cohort (n=1,884)...
May 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782893/quantity-based-analysis-of-household-food-consumption-patterns-and-drivers-the-case-of-israel
#17
Yuval Damari, Meidad Kissinger
The interest in better understanding the characteristics and drivers of food consumption by individuals and social groups has grown in recent years, because of various social, environmental, health and economic issues. Most analyses have focused either on the macro or national scale, using food balance/disappearance data, or on the micro scale, focusing on nutrition analysis in limited groups of individual consumers. While various household characteristics are expected to influence food-purchasing habits, the scope and methodology of most previous studies limited their ability to relate to multiple factors, and integrate all into specific consumption patterns...
May 18, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782873/sleep-divergently-affects-cognitive-and-automatic-emotional-response-in-children
#18
Elaina Bolinger, Jan Born, Katharina Zinke
Sleep enhances memory for emotional experiences, but its influence on the emotional response associated with memories is elusive. Here, we compared the influence of nocturnal sleep on memory for negative and neutral pictures and the associated emotional response in 8-11-year-old children, i.e., an age group with heightened levels of emotional memory-related sleep features. During all sessions, emotional responses as measured by subjective ratings, the late positive potential of the EEG (LPP) and heart rate deceleration (HRD) were recorded...
May 18, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782809/the-effects-of-normal-aging-on-regional-accumulation-of-hyaluronan-and-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-the-mouse-brain
#19
May J Reed, Mamatha Damodarasamy, Jasmine L Pathan, Michelle A Erickson, William A Banks, Robert B Vernon
The brain changes in volume and composition with normal aging. Cellular components of the brain are supported by an extracellular matrix (ECM) comprised largely of hyaluronan (HA) and HA-associated members of the lectican family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We examined regional differences in microvascular density, neuronal and glial markers, and accumulation of HA and CSPGs in mouse brains during normal aging. The cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum of young (4 months), middle-aged (14 months), and aged (24-26 months) brains were analyzed...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782643/lifetime-number-of-years-of-menstruation-as-a-risk-index-for-postmenopausal-endometrial-cancer-in-the-norwegian-women-and-cancer-study
#20
Oxana Gavrilyuk, Tonje Braaten, Elisabete Weiderpass, Idlir Licaj, Eiliv Lund
INTRODUCTION: Lifetime number of years of menstruation (LNYM) reflects a woman's cumulative exposure to endogenous estrogen and can be used as a measure of the combined effect of reproductive factors related to endometrial cancer (EC) risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We aimed to study the association between LNYM and EC risk among postmenopausal women and calculate the population attributable fraction of EC for different LNYM categories. Our study sample consisted of 117 589 women from the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study...
May 21, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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