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hippocampus and temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672844/longitudinal-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-toward-identification-of-optimal-treatment-windows
#1
Duc-Loc Nguyen, Catriona Wimberley, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fabien Caillé, Géraldine Pottier, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Viviane Bouilleret
OBJECTIVE: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, with a specific history that often begins with status epilepticus due to various neurological insults followed by a silent period. During this period, before the first seizure occurs, a specific lesion develops, described as unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). It is still challenging to determine which drugs, administered at which time point, will be most effective during the formation of this epileptic process...
April 19, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668721/ultra-high-field-mri-of-human-hippocampi-morphological-and-multiparametric-differentiation-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-subtypes
#2
Clarissa Gillmann, Roland Coras, Karl Rössler, Arnd Doerfler, Michael Uder, Ingmar Blümcke, Tobias Bäuerle
The aim of the present study is to differentiate subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using ex vivo ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Included were 14 surgically resected hippocampi of patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The resected hippocampi were histologically categorized into subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS type 1 (n = 10), HS type 2 (n = 2) and no-HS (n = 2)) and subsequently scanned on a preclinical 7T MRI acquiring T2-weighted morphology, relaxometry and diffusion tensor imaging...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665128/a-role-for-astrocyte-derived-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-the-degeneration-of-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
A Kodam, D Ourdev, M Maulik, J Hariharakrishnan, M Banerjee, Y Wang, S Kar
Kainic acid, an analogue of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, can trigger seizures and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and other limbic structures in a manner that mirrors the neuropathology of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying mechanisms associated with the neurotoxicity remain unclear. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease, can mediate toxicity by activating glutamatergic NMDA receptors, it is likely that the enhanced glutamatergic transmission that renders hippocampal neurons vulnerable to kainic acid treatment may involve Aβ peptides...
April 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653337/investigation-of-microstructural-abnormalities-in-white-and-gray-matter-around-hippocampus-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-tle
#4
Yixin Bao, Ruqian He, Qingyi Zeng, Pan Zhu, Rongyuan Zheng, Huiqin Xu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIALS: Totally, 19 patients with TLE with HS and 23 patients with TLE without HS were included. Fiber tracking fibers focused on the parahippocampal cingulum (PHC), cingulate gyrus (CG), and fornix (FORX). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were obtained, and hippocampal volumes were measured...
April 10, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649646/simultaneous-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-secondary-dystonia-after-anterior-temporal-lobectomy-and-amygdalohippocampectomy
#5
Lily Rasouli, Jonathan J Rasouli, Fedor Panov, Ji Yeoun Yoo, Patricia E McGoldrick, Saadi Ghatan
BACKGROUND: The relationship between temporal lobe epilepsy and focal limb dystonia is a well-recognized phenomenon, yet its pathogenesis and anatomical foundation are not well understood. Here, we describe two patients with refractory focal epilepsy and contralateral focal limb dystonia whose seizures and dystonic symptoms simultaneously resolved after anterior temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy (ATLAH). CASE DESCRIPTION: We identified two patients within the Mount Sinai Health system with improvement in dystonia after medial temporal lobectomy...
April 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625197/a-single-subconvulsant-dose-of-domoic-acid-at-mid-gestation-does-not-cause-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-mice
#6
Fanny Demars, Kristen Clark, Megan S Wyeth, Emily Abrams, Paul S Buckmaster
Harmful blooms of domoic acid (DA)-producing algae are a problem in oceans worldwide. DA is a potent glutamate receptor agonist that can cause status epilepticus and in survivors, temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, one-time low-dose in utero exposure to DA was reported to cause hippocampal damage and epileptiform activity, leading to the hypothesis that unrecognized exposure to DA from contaminated seafood in pregnant women can damage the fetal hippocampus and initiate temporal lobe epileptogenesis. However, development of epilepsy (i...
April 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620688/effects-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-on-spontaneous-seizures-and-neuronal-viability-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Shaun E Gruenbaum, Roni Dhaher, Amedeo Rapuano, Hitten P Zaveri, Amber Tang, Nihal de Lanerolle, Tore Eid
BACKGROUND: The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine have recently emerged as a potential novel treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. Blood-derived BCAAs can readily enter the brain, where they contribute to glutamate biosynthesis and may either suppress or trigger acute seizures. However, the effects of BCAAs on chronic (ie, spontaneous recurrent) seizures and epilepsy-associated neuron loss are incompletely understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen rats with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were randomized into 2 groups that could drink, ad libitum, either a 4% solution of BCAAs in water (n=8) or pure water (n=8)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620007/ictal-spitting-in-non-dominant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-an-anatomo-electrophysiological-correlation
#8
Marcos Quevedo-Diaz, Adrià Tauste Campo, Manel Vila-Vidal, Alessandro Principe, Miguel Ley, Rodrigo Rocamora
We report a patient presenting drug-resistant, non-dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with ictal spitting and prosopometamorphopsia, both extremely rare semiologies. Second-phase pre-surgical monitoring was performed using SEEG due to lesion-negative imaging and the rare semiology. The seizure onset zone was delimited to the right anterior hippocampus and the temporobasal cortex, with the propagation zone within the entorhinal cortex. Interestingly, direct electrical stimulation to the entorhinal cortex, which was reproduced in a number of trials, evoked spitting without leading to seizures or post-discharges...
April 5, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610762/hippocampal-pathophysiology-commonality-shared-by-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-psychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Soichiro Nakahara, Megumi Adachi, Hiroyuki Ito, Mitsuyuki Matsumoto, Katsunori Tajinda, Theo G M van Erp
Accumulating evidence points to the association of epilepsy, particularly, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Among these illnesses, the hippocampus is considered the regional focal point of the brain, playing an important role in cognition, psychosis, and seizure activity and potentially suggesting common etiologies and pathophysiology of TLE and schizophrenia. In the present review, we overview abnormal network connectivity between the dentate gyrus (DG) and the Cornus Ammonis area 3 (CA3) subregions of the hippocampus relative to the induction of epilepsy and schizophrenia...
2018: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596151/a-novel-online-fluorescence-method-for-in-vivo-measurement-of-hydrogen-peroxide-during-oxidative-stress-produced-in-a-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-model
#10
Kenia Pardo-Peña, Ana Sánchez-Lira, Juan C Salazar-Sánchez, Alberto Morales-Villagrán
Status epilepticus (SE) can result in an overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which contributes to oxidative stress and brain injury during different phases of epileptogenesis and seizures. In this study, we measured the extracellular H2O2 concentration in the rat hippocampus in a temporal lobe epilepsy model. A new fluorescent technique for measuring H2O2in vivo simultaneously with electroencephalography recording was tested. The method consists of mixing microdialysate with an enzymatic reactor to produce a fluorescent compound...
March 28, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593494/antiepileptogenic-effect-of-subchronic-palmitoylethanolamide-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-epilepsy
#11
Julia M Post, Sebastian Loch, Raissa Lerner, Floortje Remmers, Ermelinda Lomazzo, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Research on the antiepileptic effects of (endo-)cannabinoids has remarkably progressed in the years following the discovery of fundamental role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in controlling neural excitability. Moreover, an increasing number of well-documented cases of epilepsy patients exhibiting multi-drug resistance report beneficial effects of cannabis use. Pre-clinical and clinical research has increasingly focused on the antiepileptic effectiveness of exogenous administration of cannabinoids and/or pharmacologically induced increase of eCBs such as anandamide (also known as arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA])...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587280/inhibition-of-cgkii-suppresses-seizure-activity-and-hippocampal-excitation-by-regulating-the-postsynaptic-delivery-of-glua1
#12
Juan Gu, Xin Tian, Wei Wang, Qin Yang, Peijia Lin, Yuanlin Ma, Yan Xiong, Demei Xu, Yanke Zhang, Yong Yang, Shanshan Lu, Zijun Lin, Jing Luo, Fei Xiao, Xuefeng Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The imbalance between excitation and inhibition is a defining feature of epilepsy. GluA1 is an AMPA receptor subunit that can strengthen excitatory synaptic transmission when upregulated in the postsynaptic membrane, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. cGKII, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, regulates the GluA1 levels at the plasma membrane. METHODS: To explore the role of cGKII in epilepsy, we investigated the expression of cGKII in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a pilocarpine-induced rat model and then performed behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological analyses by applying either a cGKII agonist or inhibitor in the hippocampus of the animal model...
March 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583046/quantitative-analysis-of-brain-perfusion-parameters-in-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy-by-use-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Antje Hartmann, Clea von Klopmann, Ines E Lautenschläger, Volkher B Scholz, Martin J Schmidt
OBJECTIVE To quantitatively analyze brain perfusion parameters in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) by use of MRI and to compare those findings with brain perfusion parameters for healthy dogs. ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs with IE. PROCEDURES For each dog, standard MRI and perfusion-weighted imaging (before and after injection of gadoteric acid contrast medium) sequences of the brain were obtained during the interictal period by means of the same protocol used in a comparable study of healthy dogs. Time of contrast medium arrival, time to peak contrast enhancement, mean contrast transit time, and cerebral blood flow were calculated for the caudate nucleus, thalamus, piriform lobe, hippocampus, semioval center, and temporal cerebral cortex...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582466/unique-cell-tropism-of-hhv-6b-in-an-infantile-autopsy-case-of-primary-hhv-6b-encephalitis
#14
Hiroaki Miyahara, Kouki Miyakawa, Haruto Nishida, Shinji Yano, Tomoko Sonoda, So-Ichi Suenobu, Tatsuro Izumi, Tsutomu Daa, Kenji Ihara
Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is known to cause primary encephalitis in the frontal lobes/cerebral hemisphere or reactivated encephalitis in the hippocampus, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. HHV-6B has also been detected in hippocampal samples in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A 1 year and 3 months old female, who had been clinically diagnosed with exanthema subitum and febrile convulsion, was found dead on the third day after onset. Macroscopic findings showed massive brain edema. Microscopic examination revealed gemistocytic astrocytes and ballooned oligodendrocytes in the frontal white matter, along with neuronal cell death with microglial infiltration in the frontal cortex...
March 26, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572865/hippocampal-subfield-segmentation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-relation-to-outcomes
#15
B A K Kreilkamp, B Weber, S B Elkommos, M P Richardson, S S Keller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and surgical outcome correlates of preoperative hippocampal subfield volumes in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multisequence segmentation technique. METHODS: We recruited 106 patients with TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent conventional T1-weighted and T2 short TI inversion recovery MRI. An automated hippocampal segmentation algorithm was used to identify twelve subfields in each hippocampus...
March 23, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571151/folate-homeostasis-in-epileptic-rats
#16
Aniv Mann, Emma Portnoy, Hadas Han, Dorrit Inbar, Dana Blatch, Miriam Shmuel, Tamir Ben-Hur, Sara Eyal, Dana Ekstein
Folate is involved in metabolic processes and it has been implicated in both aggravation and amelioration of seizures. The aim of the current work was to study the effect of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on the plasma and brain concentrations of folate and on its uptake carriers in the brain - the reduced folate carrier (RFC), folate receptor α (FRα) and proton coupled folate transporter (PCFT). We utilized the rat lithium pilocarpine model for TLE. Approximately two months following status epilepticus, rats with spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) were sacrificed for brain and plasma folate concentration analyses and folate uptake carrier expression studies...
March 16, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570385/stereotactic-laser-ablation-of-amygdala-and-hippocampus-using-a-leksell-stereotactic-frame
#17
Ahmed J Awad, Ha S Nguyen, Elsa Arocho-Quinones, Ninh Doan, Wade Mueller, Sean M Lew
Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy are resistant to medical therapy, particularly in those with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. While there are several surgical modalities, efforts have been focused on developing safer and minimally invasive techniques. In this video, the authors present the case of a 45-year-old woman with a 2-year history of refractory left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent MRI-guided laser ablation of amygdala and hippocampus. There were no perioperative complications...
April 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565514/correlation-between-nurr1-expression-and-drug-resistance-in-the-brain-of-rats-with-epilepsy
#18
H-Y Li, F Liu, H-R Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between nuclear receptor related 1 (Nurr1) expression and drug resistance in the brain of rats with epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected, and the animal model of epilepsy was established by electrical stimulation. These rats were randomly divided into the control group and the drug-resistant group. The model of drug-resistant epilepsy was screened with phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbital (PB); the hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex tissues were isolated from rats; the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels of Nurr1 in the hippocampus and cortex tissues of the two groups of rats were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560767/protective-effect-of-compound-danshen-salvia-miltiorrhiza-dripping-pills-alone-and-in-combination-with-carbamazepine-on-kainic-acid-induced-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#19
Chen Jia, Shanshan Han, Liming Wei, Xiangji Dang, Qianqian Niu, Mengyu Chen, Boqun Cao, Yuting Liu, Haisheng Jiao
CONTEXT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and is associated with cognitive impairment. The modern Chinese medicine, compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDP), is clinically effective in treating epilepsy and improving cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the protective effects of CDDP alone and in combination with carbamazepine (CBZ) on kainic acid-induced TLE and cognitive impairment in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (sham operated), model, CDDP, CBZ and combined...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555850/electrophysiological-evidence-for-the-development-of-a-self-sustained-large-scale-epileptic-network-in-the-kainate-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit.We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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