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hippocampus and temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529112/myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-is-up-regulated-in-epileptic-brain-and-contributes-to-experimental-seizures-in-rats
#1
Na Wang, Xiong Han, Haipeng Liu, Ting Zhao, Jie Li, Yan Feng, Xiujuan Mi, Yanke Zhang, Yanan Chen, Xuefeng Wang
Accumulating evidence supports that activation of inflammatory pathways is a crucial factor contributing to the pathogenesis of seizures. In particular, the activation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) system exerts proconvulsant effects in a large variety of seizure models. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein in the signaling cascade elicited by IL-1β. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of MyD88 in rat models of seizures and in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to study the role of MyD88 in epileptic seizures...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501694/4-4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2-disulfonic-acid-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-vasogenic-edema-following-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#3
Tingting Yang, Zhenzhou Lin, Ling Xie, Yao Wang, Suyue Pan
Vasogenic edema induced by blood brain barrier disruption and neuronal loss play an important role in the epileptogenic process. 4,4'- diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) is a commonly used anion channel inhibitor that has been reported to exert an anticonvulsant effect in rat hippocampus in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate whether DIDS could prevent epileptogenic process in rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The tight junction proteins and serum extravasation were examined in the piriform cortex 3days after status epilepticus...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495975/short-term-depression-of-sprouted-mossy-fiber-synapses-from-adult-born-granule-cells
#4
William D Hendricks, Yang Chen, AeSoon L Bensen, Gary L Westbrook, Eric Schnell
Epileptic seizures potently modulate hippocampal adult neurogenesis, and adult-born dentate granule cells contribute to the pathologic retrograde sprouting of mossy fiber axons, both hallmarks of temporal lobe epilepsy. The characteristics of these sprouted synapses, however, have been largely unexplored, and the specific contribution of adult-born granule cells to functional mossy fiber sprouting is unknown, primarily due to technical barriers in isolating sprouted mossy fiber synapses for analysis. Here, we used DcxCreER(T2) transgenic mice to permanently pulse-label age-defined cohorts of granule cells born either before or after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495374/metyrapone-prevents-brain-damage-induced-by-status-epilepticus-in-the-rat-lithium-pilocarpine-model
#5
Luis García-García, Ahmed A Shiha, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Ágata Silván, Pablo Bascuñana, Jens P Bankstahl, Francisca Gomez, Miguel A Pozo
The status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine is a well characterized rodent model of the human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) which is accompanied by severe brain damage. Stress and glucocorticoids markedly contribute to exacerbate neuronal damage induced by seizures but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein we sought to investigate whether a single administration of metyrapone (150 mg/kg, i.p.), an 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, enzyme involved in the peripheral and central synthesis of corticosteroids, had neuroprotective properties in this model...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481152/aspirin-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-the-chronically-epileptic-mice
#6
Kun Zhu, Ming Hu, Bo Yuan, Jian-Xin Liu, Yong Liu
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE...
May 7, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480502/enriched-environment-attenuates-behavioral-seizures%C3%A2-and-depression-in-chronic%C3%A2-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Marigowda Vrinda, Arun Sasidharan, Sahajan Aparna, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Bindu M Kutty, Byrathnahalli S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of TLE, it remains the most common form of refractory epilepsy. Enriched environment (EE) has a beneficial effect in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of EE on cognitive changes in chronic TLE has not been evaluated. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the effects of EE on chronic epilepsy-induced alterations in cognitive functions, electrophysiology, and cellular changes in the hippocampus...
May 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473802/the-subiculum-a-potential-site-of-ictogenesis-in-a-neonatal-seizure-model
#8
Xin-Xin Wang, Yong-Hua Li, Hai-Qing Gong, Pei-Ji Liang, Pu-Ming Zhang, Qin-Chi Lu
Studies have reported that the subiculum is one origin of interictal-like discharges in adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; however, whether the subiculum represents a site of ictogenesis for neonatal seizures remains unclear. In this study, multi-electrode recording techniques were used to record epileptiform discharges induced by low-Mg(2+) or high-K(+) artificial cerebrospinal fluid in neonatal mouse hippocampal slices, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of the epileptiform discharges were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472735/p38-mapk-pathway-mediates-cognitive-damage-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-via-apoptosis-cascade
#9
Qi Huang, Xixia Liu, Yuan Wu, Yuhan Liao, Yiqing Huang, Xing Wei, Meigang Ma
OBJECTIVE: Our group has previously reported the role of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the memory impairment of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats. However, any contribution of p38 MAPK pathways to the cognitive dysfunction of PTZ-kindled rats remains unclear. The objective of this study is to verify the relationship between p38 MAPK pathway and cognitive function of epileptic rats, and discuss probable mechanisms. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were divided into three groups, namely, PTZ, inhibitor, and sham groups...
April 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465556/control-of-in-vivo-ictogenesis-via-endogenous-synaptic-pathways
#10
Hiram Luna-Munguia, Philip Starski, Wu Chen, Stephen Gliske, William C Stacey
The random nature of seizures poses difficult challenges for epilepsy research. There is great need for a reliable method to control the pathway to seizure onset, which would allow investigation of the mechanisms of ictogenesis and optimization of treatments. Our hypothesis is that increased random afferent synaptic activity (i.e. synaptic noise) within the epileptic focus is one endogenous method of ictogenesis. Building upon previous theoretical and in vitro work showing that synaptic noise can induce seizures, we developed a novel in vivo model of ictogenesis...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462087/identification-of-brain-regions-predicting-epileptogenesis-by-serial-18-f-ge-180-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Vera Russmann, Matthias Brendel, Erik Mille, Angela Helm-Vicidomini, Roswitha Beck, Lisa Günther, Simon Lindner, Axel Rominger, Michael Keck, Josephine D Salvamoser, Nathalie L Albert, Peter Bartenstein, Heidrun Potschka
Excessive activation of inflammatory signaling pathways seems to be a hallmark of epileptogenesis. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows in vivo detection of brain inflammation with spatial information and opportunities for longitudinal follow-up scanning protocols. Here, we assessed whether molecular imaging of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) can serve as a biomarker for the development of epilepsy. Therefore, brain uptake of [(18)F]GE-180, a highly selective radioligand of TSPO, was investigated in a longitudinal PET study in a chronic rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458103/changes-in-the-interictal-and-early-postictal-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-parameters-in-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats
#12
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Shunta Mizoguchi, Yoshihiko Yu, Masae Wada, Takayuki Kuwabara, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
OBJECTIVE: The familial spontaneous epileptic cat (FSEC) is thought to be a good genetic model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In the current study, cerebral diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to confirm the functional deficit zone in the FSEC and evaluate the effect of a single seizure on different brain regions. METHODS: Six FSECs and six healthy control cats were used in this study. MRI was performed in the interictal state (resting state for control) and postictal state immediately after the vestibular stimulation-induced generalized epileptic seizure (control cats received the same stimulation as the FSECs)...
April 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448683/magnetic-resonance-imaging-connectivity-for-the-prediction-of-seizure-outcome-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Victoria L Morgan, Dario J Englot, Baxter P Rogers, Bennett A Landman, Ahmet Cakir, Bassel W Abou-Khalil, Adam W Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Currently, approximately 60-70% of patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remain seizure-free 3 years after surgery. The goal of this work was to develop a presurgical connectivity-based biomarker to identify those patients who will have an unfavorable seizure outcome 1-year postsurgery. METHODS: Resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was acquired from 22 unilateral (15 right, 7 left) patients with TLE and 35 healthy controls...
April 27, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444637/phase-dependent-astroglial-alterations-in-li-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-young-rats
#14
Adriana Fernanda K Vizuete, Matheus Mittmann Hennemann, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves, Diogo Losch de Oliveira
Epilepsy prevalence is high in infancy and in the elderly population. Lithium-pilocarpine is widely used to induce experimental animal models of epilepsy, leading to similar neurochemical and morphological alterations to those observed in temporal lobe epilepsy. As astrocytes have been implicated in epileptic disorders, we hypothesized that specific astroglial changes accompany and contribute to epileptogenesis. Herein, we evaluated time-dependent astroglial alterations in the hippocampus of young (27-day-old) rats at 1, 14 and 56 days after Li-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), corresponding to different phases in this model of epilepsy...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441637/subtle-pathological-changes-in-neocortical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Juan G Ochoa, Diana Hentgarden, Audrey Paulzak, Melissa Ogden, Richard Pryson, Markus Lamle, Walter G Rusyniak
This was a prospective observational study to correlate the clinical symptoms, electrophysiology, imaging, and surgical pathology of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without hippocampal sclerosis. We selected consecutive patients with TLE and normal MRI undergoing temporal lobe resection between April and September 2015. Clinical features, imaging, and functional data were reviewed. Intracranial monitoring and language mapping were performed when it was required according to our team recommendation...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441631/up-regulated-baff-and-baff-receptor-expression-in-patients-with-intractable-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-a-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-rat-model
#16
Limin Ma, Ruohan Li, Hao Huang, Jinxian Yuan, Shu Ou, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xi Liu, Yangmei Chen
PURPOSE: Some studies have suggested that BAFF and BAFFR are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and participate in inflammatory and immune associated diseases. However, whether BAFF and BAFFR are involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression of BAFF and BAFFR proteins in the brains of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in a pilocarpine-induced rat model of TLE to identify possible roles of the BAFF-BAFFR signaling pathway in epileptogenesis...
April 8, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439226/the-phosphodiesterase-10a-inhibitor-pf-2545920-enhances-hippocampal-excitability-and-seizure-activity-involving-the-upregulation-of-glua1-and-nr2a-in-post-synaptic-densities
#17
Yanke Zhang, Baobing Gao, Fangshuo Zheng, Shanshan Lu, Yun Li, Yan Xiong, Qin Yang, Yong Yang, Pengfei Fu, Fei Xiao, Xuefeng Wang
Phosphodiesterase regulates the homeostasis of cAMP and cGMP, which increase the strength of excitatory neural circuits and/or decrease inhibitory synaptic plasticity. Abnormally, synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain leads to seizures. A phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor PF-2545920 has recently attracted attention as a potential therapy for neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that PF-2545920 plays an important role in status epilepticus (SE) and investigated the underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438504/agomelatine-protects-against-neuronal-damage-without-preventing-epileptogenesis-in-the-kainate-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Milena Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Rumyana Gesheva, Nikolai Lazarov
Recent studies about the novel antidepressant agomelatine, which is a mixed MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and 5HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist possessing an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective action, suggest that it may have potential to contribute against epileptogenesis and epilepsy-induced memory impairment. In order to ascertain whether protection of some brain structures could suppress epileptogenesis, in the present study, we evaluated the effect of chronic post-status treatment with agomelatine on epileptogenesis, behavioral and neuronal damage induced by kainate acid (KA) status epilepticus (SE)...
April 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436627/-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#19
Liying Chen, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common and severe neurological disorder which is often intractable. It can not only damage the normal structure and function of hippocampus, but also affect the neurogenesis in dentate gyrus (DG). It is well documented from researches on the animal models of TLE that after a latent period of several days, prolonged seizure activity leads to a dramatic increase in mitotic activity in the hippocampal DG. However, cell proliferation returns to baseline levels within 3-4 weeks after status epilepticus (SE)...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436625/-effects-of-crocin-on-hippocampus-rapid-kindling-epilepsy-in-mice
#20
Xiting Wang, Oufeng Tang, Yilu Ye, Mingzhi Zheng, Jue Hu, Zhong Chen, Kai Zhong
Objective: To investigate the effect of crocin on the progression and generalized seizure of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice. Methods: Hippocampus rapid kindling model was established in C57BL/6J mice. The effects of crocin on seizure stage, afterdischarge duration (ADD), number of stimulation in each stage and final state, the incidence of generalized seizure (GS), average seizure stage and ADD were observed. Results: Crocin (20 mg/kg) significantly retarded behavioral seizure stages ( P<0.05) and shortened cumulative ADD ( P<0...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
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