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hippocampus and temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427858/mice-with-conditional-neurod1-knockout-display-reduced-aberrant-hippocampal-neurogenesis-but-no-change-in-epileptic-seizures
#1
Rebecca Brulet, Jingfei Zhu, Mahafuza Aktar, Jenny Hsieh, Kyung-Ok Cho
Adult neurogenesis is significantly increased in the hippocampus of rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). These adult-generated neurons have recently been shown to play a contributing role in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). In order to eventually target pro-epileptic adult neurogenesis in the clinical setting, it will be important to identify molecular players involved in the control of aberrant neurogenesis after seizures. Here, we focused on NeuroD1 (ND1), a member of the bHLH family of transcription factors previously shown to play an essential role in the differentiation and maturation of adult-generated neurons in the hippocampus...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425097/seizure-frequency-correlates-with-loss-of-dentate-gyrus-gabaergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Paul S Buckmaster, Emily Abrams, Xiling Wen
Epilepsy occurs in one of 26 people. Temporal lobe epilepsy is common and can be difficult to treat effectively. It can develop after brain injuries that damage the hippocampus. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involving the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been proposed. The present study evaluated a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy to test which pathological changes in the dentate gyrus correlate with seizure frequency and help prioritize potential mechanisms for further study. FVB mice (n = 127) that had experienced status epilepticus after systemic treatment with pilocarpine 31 - 61 d earlier were video-monitored for spontaneous, convulsive seizures 9 h/d every day for 24 - 36 d...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414967/pharmacodynamics-of-remifentanil-induced-intracranial-spike-activity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Hans Hogenhaven, Andrea P Lee, Flemming Find Madsen, Bo Jespersen, Jannick Brennum, Lennart Derm, Finn Borgbjerg Moltke
Patients with medically refractory epilepsy may benefit from resective epilepsy surgery. However even the best centers experience surgical failures. It is therefore important to find techniques that may aid in neurosurgical planning of epileptic focus resection. Recordings of electrical brain activity with EEG during seizures reveal abnormal cortical hypersynchronization. Between seizures the EEG often shows interictal depolarizing phenomena such as spikes reflecting an irritable focus of the brain. In the present study we investigated the effect of intravenous remifentanil on the spike activity in the temporal neocortex and hippocampus...
March 31, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405902/mitophagy-in-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#4
Mengqian Wu, Xinyu Liu, Xiaosa Chi, Le Zhang, Weixi Xiong, Siew Mun Vance Chiang, Dong Zhou, Jinmei Li
This study aimed to determine if there is an association between mitophagy and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. During epilepsy surgery, we collected tissue samples from the hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes of rTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (as diagnosed by a pathologist). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the ultrastructural features of the tissue. To probe for mitophagy, we used fluorescent immunolabeling to determine if mitochondrial and autophagosomal markers colocalized...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403176/faster-flux-of-neurotransmitter-glutamate-during-seizure-evidence-from-13c-enrichment-of-extracellular-glutamate-in-kainate-rat-model
#5
Keiko Kanamori
The objective is to examine how the flux of neurotransmitter glutamate from neurons to the extracellular fluid, as measured by the rate of 13C enrichment of extracellular glutamate (GLUECF), changes in response to seizures in the kainate-induced rat model of temporal-lobe epilepsy. Following unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainate, GLUECF was collected by microdialysis from the CA1/CA3 region of awake rats, in combination with EEG recording of chronic-phase recurrent seizures and intravenous infusion of [2,5-13C]glucose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398014/brain-responsive-neurostimulation-in-patients-with-medically-intractable-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Eric B Geller, Tara L Skarpaas, Robert E Gross, Robert R Goodman, Gregory L Barkley, Carl W Bazil, Michael J Berg, Gregory K Bergey, Sydney S Cash, Andrew J Cole, Robert B Duckrow, Jonathan C Edwards, Stephan Eisenschenk, James Fessler, Nathan B Fountain, Alicia M Goldman, Ryder P Gwinn, Christianne Heck, Aamar Herekar, Lawrence J Hirsch, Barbara C Jobst, David King-Stephens, Douglas R Labar, James W Leiphart, W Richard Marsh, Kimford J Meador, Eli M Mizrahi, Anthony M Murro, Dileep R Nair, Katherine H Noe, Yong D Park, Paul A Rutecki, Vicenta Salanova, Raj D Sheth, Donald C Shields, Christopher Skidmore, Michael C Smith, David C Spencer, Shraddha Srinivasan, William Tatum, Paul C Van Ness, David G Vossler, Robert E Wharen, Gregory A Worrell, Daniel Yoshor, Richard S Zimmerman, Kathy Cicora, Felice T Sun, Martha J Morrell
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin. METHODS: Subjects with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393712/therapeutic-role-of-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2a-sv2a-in-modulating-epileptogenesis
#7
Yukihiro Ohno, Kentaro Tokudome
Dysfunction of synaptic neurotransmitter release is closely involved in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a membrane protein specifically expressed in synaptic vesicles and it modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release in the brain. Since 1) SV2A-knockout mice exhibit severe convulsive seizures, 2) SV2A expression in the brain is reportedly altered in various epileptic disorders both in animal models (e.g., kindling and genetic models) and humans (e...
April 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390940/ginkgo-biloba-l-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-associated-neurological-conditions-in-lithium-pilocarpine-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-through-inhibition-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway-hyperactivation
#8
Arindam Ghosh Mazumder, Pallavi Sharma, Vikram Patial, Damanpreet Singh
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) has been widely used in traditional medicine for variety of neurological conditions particularly behavioral and memory impairments. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was envisaged to explore the effect of a standardized fraction of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBbf) in rat model of lithium-pilocarpine induced spontaneous recurrent seizures, and associated behavioral impairments and cognitive deficit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats showing appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures following lithium pilocarpine (LiPc)-induced status epilepticus (SE) were treated with different doses of GBbf or vehicle for subsequent 4 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382749/feline-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-review-of-the-experimental-literature
#9
REVIEW
S Kitz, J G Thalhammer, U Glantschnigg, M Wrzosek, A Klang, P Halasz, M N Shouse, A Pakozdy
Accumulating evidence suggests that epileptic seizures originating from the temporal lobe (TL) occur in cats. Typically, affected animals have clinically focal seizures with orofacial automatisms including salivation, facial twitching, lip smacking, chewing, licking, and swallowing. Motor arrest and autonomic and behavioral signs also may occur. Many affected cats have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes within the hippocampus or histopathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis or necrosis. From the 1950s to the 1980s, cats frequently were used as animal models for neurophysiological experiments and electrophysiological studies, from which important basic knowledge about epilepsy originated, but which has been rarely cited in clinical veterinary studies...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374921/intracerebral-delivery-of-the-m2-polarizing-cytokine-interleukin-13-using-mesenchymal-stem-cell-implants-in-a-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-mice
#10
Idrish Ali, Stephanie Aertgeerts, Debbie Le Blon, Daniele Bertoglio, Chloe Hoornaert, Peter Ponsaerts, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVES: Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We aimed to evaluate whether intracerebral transplantation of interleukin 13-producing mesenchymal stem cells (IL-13 MSCs) induces an M2 microglia/macrophage activation phenotype in the hippocampus with an epileptogenic insult, thereby providing a neuroprotective environment with reduced epileptogenesis. METHODS: Genetically engineered syngeneic IL-13 MSCs or vehicle was injected within the hippocampus 1 week before the intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) in C57BL/6J mice...
April 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370719/brain-structure-and-organization-five-decades-after-childhood-onset-epilepsy
#11
Camille Garcia-Ramos, Sam Bobholz, Kevin Dabbs, Bruce Hermann, Juho Joutsa, Juha O Rinne, Mira Karrasch, Vivek Prabhakaran, Shlomo Shinnar, Matti Sillanpää
The purpose of this project was to characterize brain structure and organization in persons with active and remitted childhood onset epilepsy 50 years after diagnosis compared with healthy controls. Participants from a population-based investigation of uncomplicated childhood onset epilepsy were followed up 5 decades later. Forty-one participants had a history of childhood onset epilepsy (mean age of onset = 5.2 years, current chronological age = 56.0 years) and were compared with 48 population-based controls (mean age = 55...
April 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340432/reorganization-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampal-networks-associated-with-memory-performance-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Hong Li, Caihong Ji, Lujia Zhu, Peiyu Huang, Biao Jiang, Xiaojun Xu, Jianzhong Sun, Zhong Chen, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Shuang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of functional demarcation of hippocampal network and its relationship with memory performance in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS: Resting state fMRI data were acquired from fifteen left mTLE patients, fourteen right mTLE patients and twenty healthy subjects. We explore the hippocampal-cortical alterations and corresponding inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) across anterior and posterior hippocampal networks...
May 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332054/a-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-mouse-model
#13
Duveau Venceslas, Roucard Corinne
Among the different forms of epilepsies, mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common and represents the main pharmaco-resistant form of epilepsy. There is therefore an urgent need to better understand this form of epilepsy to develop better anti-epileptic drugs. Many rodent models are mimicking some aspects of the human temporal lobe epilepsy but only few are addressing most of the human mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy. In this article, we describe the main characteristics of a mouse of model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320269/status-epilepticus-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-in-rat-hippocampus-and-is-followed-by-changes-in-expression-of-nmda-receptors
#14
T Y Postnikova, O E Zubareva, A A Kovalenko, K K Kim, L G Magazanik, A V Zaitsev
Cognitive deficits and memory loss are frequent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Persistent changes in synaptic efficacy are considered as a cellular substrate underlying memory processes. Electrophysiological studies have shown that the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in the cortex and hippocampus may undergo substantial changes after seizures. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for these changes are not clear. In this study, we investigated the properties of short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal slices 24 h after pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279512/intracranial-video-eeg-monitoring-in-presurgical-evaluation-of-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#15
Marlena Hupalo, Rafal Wojcik, Dariusz J Jaskolski
OBJECTIVE: Reviewing our experience in intracranial video-EEG monitoring in the presurgical evaluation of patients with refractory epilepsy. METHODS: We report on 62 out of 202 (31%) patients with refractory epilepsy, who underwent a long term video-EEG monitoring (LTM). The epileptogenic zone (EZ) was localised either based on the results of LTM or after intracranial EEG recordings from depth, subdural or foramen ovale electrodes. The decision on the location of the electrodes was based upon semiology of the seizures, EEG findings and the lesions visualised in MRI brain scan...
March 2, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267150/ablation-of-neuropsin-neuregulin-1-signaling-imbalances-erbb4-inhibitory-networks-and-disrupts-hippocampal-gamma-oscillation
#16
M Kawata, S Morikawa, S Shiosaka, H Tamura
Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons are pivotal for the processing of information in healthy brain, whereas the coordination of these functions is seriously disrupted in diseased brain. How these interneurons in the hippocampus participate in pathological functions remains unclear. We previously reported that neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling, which is actuated by neuropsin, is important for coordinating brain plasticity. Neuropsin cleaves mature NRG1 (bound to extracellular glycosaminoglycans) in response to long-term potentiation or depression, liberating a soluble ligand that activates its receptor, ErbB4...
March 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250018/genome-wide-analysis-of-differential-rna-editing-in-epilepsy
#17
Prashant Kumar Srivastava, Marta Bagnati, Andree Delahaye-Duriez, Jeong-Hun Ko, Maxime Rotival, Sarah R Langley, Kirill Shkura, Manuela Mazzuferi, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan van Eyll, Patrik Foerch, Jacques Behmoaras, Rafal M Kaminski, Enrico Petretto, Michael R Johnson
The recoding of genetic information through RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity, but the extent and significance of RNA editing in disease is poorly understood. In particular, few studies have investigated the relationship between RNA editing and disease at a genome-wide level. Here, we developed a framework for the genome-wide detection of RNA sites that are differentially edited in disease. Using RNA-sequencing data from 100 hippocampi from mice with epilepsy (pilocarpine-temporal lobe epilepsy model) and 100 healthy control hippocampi, we identified 256 RNA sites (overlapping with 87 genes) that were significantly differentially edited between epileptic cases and controls...
March 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242958/intranasal-delivery-of-mir-146a-mimics-delayed-seizure-onset-in-the-lithium-pilocarpine-mouse-model
#18
Hua Tao, Jianghao Zhao, Tingting Liu, Yujie Cai, Xu Zhou, Huaijie Xing, Yan Wang, Mingkang Yin, Wangtao Zhong, Zhou Liu, Keshen Li, Bin Zhao, Haihong Zhou, Lili Cui
Unveiling the key mechanism of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) for the development of novel treatments is of increasing interest, and anti-inflammatory miR-146a is now considered a promising molecular target for TLE. In the current study, a C57BL/6 TLE mouse model was established using the lithium-pilocarpine protocol. The seizure degree was evaluated according to the Racine scale, and level 5 was considered the threshold for generalized convulsions. Animals were sacrificed to analyze the hippocampus at three time points (2 h and 4 and 8 weeks after pilocarpine administration to evaluate the acute, latent, and chronic phases, resp...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235654/is-burned-out-hippocampus-syndrome-a-distinct-electro-clinical-variant-of-mtle-hs-syndrome
#19
Pradeep P Nair, Ramshekhar N Menon, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ajit Cherian, Mathew Abraham, George Vilanilam, C Kesavadas, Bejoy Thomas, Aley Alexander, Sanjeev V Thomas
AIM: To study the clinical, electrophysiological and imaging characteristics of patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with contralateral ictal onset on scalp EEG, viz. 'burned-out hippocampus' syndrome (MTLE-BHS). METHODS: MTLE-BHS was defined as TLE with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) without any dual pathology on MRI and contralateral ictal onset on scalp EEG, unlike in classical hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Consecutive "MTLE-BHS" patients evaluated at our Centre for Comprehensive Epilepsy Care from January 2005 to July 2014 were studied...
February 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188677/5-hydroxytryptamine1a-receptor-density-in-the-hippocampus-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-is-associated-with-disease-duration
#20
N C Fonseca, H P G Joaquim, L L Talib, S Vincentiis, W F Gattaz, K D Valente
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To date, no study has evaluated the association between serotonin receptor density and clinical variables in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy caused by hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) using hippocampal tissue. We evaluated 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor (5-HT1AR) density in hippocampal tissue from patients with TLE-HS. METHODS: We analyzed the hippocampal tissue of 34 patients with pharmacoresistant unilateral TLE-HS. 5-HT1AR density was measured using semiquantitative western blotting...
February 11, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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