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hippocampus and temporal lobe epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643873/increased-expression-of-immuno-proteasome-subunits-during-epileptogenesis-is-attenuated-by-inhibition-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#1
Diede W M Broekaart, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Karlijne W Geijtenbeek, Mark R J Zuidberg, Jasper J Anink, Johannes C Baayen, Angelika Mühlebner, Eleonora Aronica, Jan A Gorter, Erwin A van Vliet
OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway reduces epileptogenesis in various epilepsy models, possibly by inhibition of inflammatory processes, which may include the proteasome system. To study the role of mTOR inhibition in the regulation of the proteasome system, we investigated (immuno)proteasome expression during epileptogenesis, as well as the effects of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. METHODS: The expression of constitutive (β1, β5) and immunoproteasome (β1i, β5i) subunits was investigated during epileptogenesis using immunohistochemistry in the electrical post-status epilepticus (SE) rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632521/verbal-and-figural-fluency-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-does-hippocampal-sclerosis-affect-performance
#2
Ioannis Zalonis, Foteini Christidi, Artemios Artemiadis, Constantinos Psarros, George Papadopoulos, George Tsivgoulis, Stergios Gatzonis, Anna Siatouni, Georgios Velonakis, Efstratios Karavasilis, Evangelia Kararizou, Nikolaos Triantafyllou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinicians commonly use verbal and nonverbal measures to test fluency in patients with epilepsy, either during routine cognitive assessment or as part of pre- and postsurgical evaluation. We hypothesized that patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis would perform worse than patients with lateral TLE in both verbal and design fluency. METHODS: We assessed semantic, phonemic, and nonverbal fluency in 49 patients with TLE: 31 with lateral TLE and 18 with mesial TLE plus hippocampal sclerosis...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632041/automated-volumetry-of-hippocampus-is-useful-to-confirm-unilateral-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-in-patients-with-radiologically-positive-findings
#3
Guilherme Silva, Cristina Martins, Nádia Moreira da Silva, Duarte Vieira, Dias Costa, Ricardo Rego, José Fonseca, João Paulo Silva Cunha
Background and purpose We evaluated two methods to identify mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS): visual inspection by experienced epilepsy neuroradiologists based on structural magnetic resonance imaging sequences and automated hippocampal volumetry provided by a processing pipeline based on the FMRIB Software Library. Methods This retrospective study included patients from the epilepsy monitoring unit database of our institution. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in 1.5T and 3T scanners with protocols that included thin coronal T2, T1 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and isometric T1 acquisitions...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626979/electro-clinical-criteria-and-surgical-outcome-is-there-a-difference-between-mesial-and-lesional-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
M Wassenaar, F S S Leijten, G-J de Haan, S G Uijl, J W Sander
OBJECTIVES: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome (MTLE) with specific electrophysiological and clinical characteristics and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) on MRI is considered the prototype of a syndrome with good surgical prognosis. Ictal onset zones in MTLE have been found to extend outside the hippocampus and neocortical seizures often involve mesial structures. It can, thus, be questioned whether MTLE with HS is different from lesional temporal epilepsies with respect to electro-clinical characteristics and surgical prognosis...
June 18, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622539/features-of-amygdala-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-mri-volumetric-and-histopathological-study
#5
Yoko Nakayama, Hiroshi Masuda, Hiroshi Shirozu, Yosuke Ito, Takefumi Higashijima, Hiroki Kitaura, Yukihiko Fujii, Akiyoshi Kakita, Masafumi Fukuda
OBJECTIVE: It is well-known that there is a correlation between the neuropathological grade of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and neuroradiological atrophy of the hippocampus in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients. However, there is no strict definition or criterion regarding neuron loss and atrophy of the amygdala neighboring the hippocampus. We examined the relationship between HS and neuronal loss in the amygdala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen mTLE patients with neuropathological proof of HS were assigned to Group A, while seven mTLE patients without HS were assigned to Group B...
May 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611548/hippocampal-characteristics-and-invariant-sequence-elements-distribution-of-glra2-and-glra3-c-to-u-editing
#6
Philipp Schaefermeier, Sarah Heinze
Glycine receptor α2 and α3 subunit (GLRA2/GLRA3) high-affinity variants, of which the subjacent amino acid substitutions issue from C-to-U RNA editing, are thought to influence tonic inhibition and pathophysiology. In light of the detection of GLRA3 NM_006529:r.1157C>U and GLRA2 NM_002063:r.1416C>U exchanges in hippocampus explants of temporal lobe epilepsy patients, we now examine the healthy situation and relate it to the epileptic situation by ascertaining controls in a legitimate reanalysis. The GLRA2 and GLRA3 editing events that would ultimately result in a glycine receptor with increased affinity occur in the postmortem nonepileptic hippocampus...
March 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608989/seizure-severity-dependent-selective-vulnerability-of-the-granule-cell-layer-and-aberrant-neurogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#7
Takeshi Uemori, Keiko Toda, Tatsunori Seki
The pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) rodent model has been commonly used to analyze the mechanisms of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Recent studies using this model have demonstrated that epileptic seizures lead to increased adult neurogenesis of the dentate granule cells, and cause abnormal cellular organization in dentate neuronal circuits. In this study, we examined these structural changes in rats with seizures of varying severity. In rats with frequent severe seizures, we found a clear loss of Prox1 and NeuN expression in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL), which was confined mainly to the suprapyramidal blade of the GCL at the septal and middle regions of the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus...
June 13, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574952/the-hippocampus-and-cortex-together-generate-the-scalp-eeg-ictal-discharge-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
David G Vossler, Diana L Kraemer, Anthony J Bell
PURPOSE: The scalp EEG ictal discharge in temporal lobe epilepsy is reportedly visible only after the intracranial discharge becomes well synchronized and present over 10 to 30 cm of cortex. We investigated the role of the hippocampal formation in the generation of the scalp EEG ictal discharge. METHODS: Intracranial EEG video monitors were recorded using simultaneous scalp, stereotaxic depth, and subdural strip electrodes in 19 subjects with temporal lobe epilepsy...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538339/seven-tesla-mri-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-in-vivo-feasibility-study-with-histological-correlations
#9
Harald Stefanits, Elisabeth Springer, Ekaterina Pataraia, Christoph Baumgartner, Johannes A Hainfellner, Daniela Prayer, Christian Weisstanner, Thomas Czech, Siegfried Trattnig
INTRODUCTION: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsy in adults. Because approximately half of these patients develop drug resistance, epilepsy surgery designed to remove the epileptogenic zone is an excellent option in selected patients. Histopathological analyses of hippocampal specimens in TLE patients revealed 4 types of Ammon's horn sclerosis, which are correlated with long-term epileptological outcome. The aim of this study was the correlation of noninvasive, high-resolution, morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an ultra-high-field (7 T) of the hippocampus in TLE patients with histopathological findings...
May 23, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529112/myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-is-up-regulated-in-epileptic-brain-and-contributes-to-experimental-seizures-in-rats
#10
Na Wang, Xiong Han, Haipeng Liu, Ting Zhao, Jie Li, Yan Feng, Xiujuan Mi, Yanke Zhang, Yanan Chen, Xuefeng Wang
Accumulating evidence supports that activation of inflammatory pathways is a crucial factor contributing to the pathogenesis of seizures. In particular, the activation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) system exerts proconvulsant effects in a large variety of seizure models. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein in the signaling cascade elicited by IL-1β. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of MyD88 in rat models of seizures and in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to study the role of MyD88 in epileptic seizures...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527108/increased-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-transcripts-i-and-vi-camp-response-element-binding-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-the-cortex-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
G A Martínez-Levy, L Rocha, F Rodríguez-Pineda, M A Alonso-Vanegas, A Nani, R M Buentello-García, M Briones-Velasco, D San-Juan, J Cienfuegos, C S Cruz-Fuentes
A body of evidence supports a relevant role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Magnetic resonance data reveal that the cerebral atrophy extends to regions that are functionally and anatomically connected with the hippocampus, especially the temporal cortex. We previously reported an increased expression of BDNF messenger for the exon VI in the hippocampus of temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to an autopsy control group. Altered levels of this particular transcript were also associated with pre-surgical use of certain psychotropic...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501694/4-4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2-disulfonic-acid-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-and-vasogenic-edema-following-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#12
Tingting Yang, Zhenzhou Lin, Ling Xie, Yao Wang, Suyue Pan
Vasogenic edema induced by blood brain barrier disruption and neuronal loss play an important role in the epileptogenic process. 4,4'- diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) is a commonly used anion channel inhibitor that has been reported to exert an anticonvulsant effect in rat hippocampus in vitro. The present study aimed to investigate whether DIDS could prevent epileptogenic process in rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. The tight junction proteins and serum extravasation were examined in the piriform cortex 3days after status epilepticus...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495975/short-term-depression-of-sprouted-mossy-fiber-synapses-from-adult-born-granule-cells
#13
William D Hendricks, Yang Chen, AeSoon L Bensen, Gary L Westbrook, Eric Schnell
Epileptic seizures potently modulate hippocampal adult neurogenesis, and adult-born dentate granule cells contribute to the pathologic retrograde sprouting of mossy fiber axons, both hallmarks of temporal lobe epilepsy. The characteristics of these sprouted synapses, however, have been largely unexplored, and the specific contribution of adult-born granule cells to functional mossy fiber sprouting is unknown, primarily due to technical barriers in isolating sprouted mossy fiber synapses for analysis. Here, we used DcxCreER(T2) transgenic mice to permanently pulse-label age-defined cohorts of granule cells born either before or after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495374/metyrapone-prevents-brain-damage-induced-by-status-epilepticus-in-the-rat-lithium-pilocarpine-model
#14
Luis García-García, Ahmed A Shiha, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Ágata Silván, Pablo Bascuñana, Jens P Bankstahl, Francisca Gomez, Miguel A Pozo
The status epilepticus (SE) induced by lithium-pilocarpine is a well characterized rodent model of the human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) which is accompanied by severe brain damage. Stress and glucocorticoids markedly contribute to exacerbate neuronal damage induced by seizures but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein we sought to investigate whether a single administration of metyrapone (150 mg/kg, i.p.), an 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, enzyme involved in the peripheral and central synthesis of corticosteroids, had neuroprotective properties in this model...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481152/aspirin-attenuates-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-the-chronically-epileptic-mice
#15
Kun Zhu, Ming Hu, Bo Yuan, Jian-Xin Liu, Yong Liu
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE...
May 7, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480502/enriched-environment-attenuates-behavioral-seizures%C3%A2-and-depression-in-chronic%C3%A2-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Marigowda Vrinda, Arun Sasidharan, Sahajan Aparna, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Bindu M Kutty, Byrathnahalli S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of TLE, it remains the most common form of refractory epilepsy. Enriched environment (EE) has a beneficial effect in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of EE on cognitive changes in chronic TLE has not been evaluated. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the effects of EE on chronic epilepsy-induced alterations in cognitive functions, electrophysiology, and cellular changes in the hippocampus...
May 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473802/the-subiculum-a-potential-site-of-ictogenesis-in-a-neonatal-seizure-model
#17
Xin-Xin Wang, Yong-Hua Li, Hai-Qing Gong, Pei-Ji Liang, Pu-Ming Zhang, Qin-Chi Lu
Studies have reported that the subiculum is one origin of interictal-like discharges in adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; however, whether the subiculum represents a site of ictogenesis for neonatal seizures remains unclear. In this study, multi-electrode recording techniques were used to record epileptiform discharges induced by low-Mg(2+) or high-K(+) artificial cerebrospinal fluid in neonatal mouse hippocampal slices, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of the epileptiform discharges were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472735/p38-mapk-pathway-mediates-cognitive-damage-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-epilepsy-via-apoptosis-cascade
#18
Qi Huang, Xixia Liu, Yuan Wu, Yuhan Liao, Yiqing Huang, Xing Wei, Meigang Ma
OBJECTIVE: Our group has previously reported the role of P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the memory impairment of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats. However, any contribution of p38 MAPK pathways to the cognitive dysfunction of PTZ-kindled rats remains unclear. The objective of this study is to verify the relationship between p38 MAPK pathway and cognitive function of epileptic rats, and discuss probable mechanisms. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were divided into three groups, namely, PTZ, inhibitor, and sham groups...
July 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465556/control-of-in-vivo-ictogenesis-via-endogenous-synaptic-pathways
#19
Hiram Luna-Munguia, Philip Starski, Wu Chen, Stephen Gliske, William C Stacey
The random nature of seizures poses difficult challenges for epilepsy research. There is great need for a reliable method to control the pathway to seizure onset, which would allow investigation of the mechanisms of ictogenesis and optimization of treatments. Our hypothesis is that increased random afferent synaptic activity (i.e. synaptic noise) within the epileptic focus is one endogenous method of ictogenesis. Building upon previous theoretical and in vitro work showing that synaptic noise can induce seizures, we developed a novel in vivo model of ictogenesis...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462087/identification-of-brain-regions-predicting-epileptogenesis-by-serial-18-f-ge-180-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Vera Russmann, Matthias Brendel, Erik Mille, Angela Helm-Vicidomini, Roswitha Beck, Lisa Günther, Simon Lindner, Axel Rominger, Michael Keck, Josephine D Salvamoser, Nathalie L Albert, Peter Bartenstein, Heidrun Potschka
Excessive activation of inflammatory signaling pathways seems to be a hallmark of epileptogenesis. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows in vivo detection of brain inflammation with spatial information and opportunities for longitudinal follow-up scanning protocols. Here, we assessed whether molecular imaging of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) can serve as a biomarker for the development of epilepsy. Therefore, brain uptake of [(18)F]GE-180, a highly selective radioligand of TSPO, was investigated in a longitudinal PET study in a chronic rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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