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Drosophila gustatory

Cristina M Crava, Sukania Ramasamy, Lino Ometto, Gianfranco Anfora, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Chemosensory perception allows insects to interact with the environment by perceiving odorant or tastant molecules; genes encoding chemoreceptors are the molecular interface between the environment and the insect, and play a central role in mediating its chemosensory behavior. Here we explore how the evolution of these genes in the emerging pest Drosophila suzukii correlates with the peculiar ecology of this species. We annotated approximately 130 genes coding for gustatory receptors (GRs) and divergent ionotropic receptors (dIRs) in D...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Andrew P Bantel, Charles R Tessier
Olfactory and gustatory perception of the environment is vital for animal survival. The most obvious application of these chemosenses is to be able to distinguish good food sources from potentially dangerous food sources. Gustation requires physical contact with a chemical compound which is able to signal through taste receptors that are expressed on the surface of neurons. In insects, these gustatory neurons can be located across the animal's body allowing taste to play an important role in many different behaviors...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yong Taek Jeong, Soo Min Oh, Jaewon Shim, Jeong Taeg Seo, Jae Young Kwon, Seok Jun Moon
Animals discriminate nutritious food from toxic substances using their sense of taste. Since taste perception requires taste receptor cells to come into contact with water-soluble chemicals, it is a form of contact chemosensation. Concurrent with that contact, mechanosensitive cells detect the texture of food and also contribute to the regulation of feeding. Little is known, however, about the extent to which chemosensitive and mechanosensitive circuits interact. Here, we show Drosophila prefers soft food at the expense of sweetness and that this preference requires labellar mechanosensory neurons (MNs) and the mechanosensory channel Nanchung...
September 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Sebastian Hückesfeld, Marc Peters, Michael J Pankratz
Bitter is a taste modality associated with toxic substances evoking aversive behaviour in most animals, and the valence of different taste modalities is conserved between mammals and Drosophila. Despite knowledge gathered in the past on the peripheral perception of taste, little is known about the identity of taste interneurons in the brain. Here we show that hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons in the Drosophila larval brain are necessary for avoidance behaviour to caffeine, and when activated, result in cessation of feeding and mediates a bitter taste signal within the brain...
2016: Nature Communications
John R Shorter, Lauren M Dembeck, Logan J Everett, Tatiana V Morozova, Gunjan H Arya, Lavanya Turlapati, Genevieve E St Armour, Coby Schal, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Social interactions in insects are driven by conspecific chemical signals that are detected via olfactory and gustatory neurons. Odorant binding proteins (Obps) transport volatile odorants to chemosensory receptors, but their effects on behaviors remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that RNAi knockdown of Obp56h gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster enhances mating behavior by reducing courtship latency. The change in mating behavior that results from inhibition of Obp56h expression is accompanied by significant alterations in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition, including reduction in 5-tricosene (5-T), an inhibitory sex pheromone produced by males that increases copulation latency during courtship...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Anthi A Apostolopoulou, Saskia Köhn, Bernhard Stehle, Michael Lutz, Alexander Wüst, Lorena Mazija, Anna Rist, C Giovanni Galizia, Alja Lüdke, Andreas S Thum
The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Paul V Hickner, Chissa L Rivaldi, Cole M Johnson, Madhura Siddappaji, Gregory J Raster, Zainulabeuddin Syed
BACKGROUND: Drosophila suzukii differs from other melanogaster group members in their proclivity for laying eggs in fresh fruit rather than in fermenting fruits. Olfaction and gustation play a critical role during insect niche formation, and these senses are largely mediated by two important receptor families: olfactory and gustatory receptors (Ors and Grs). Earlier work from our laboratory has revealed how the olfactory landscape of D. suzukii is dominated by volatiles derived from its unique niche...
2016: BMC Genomics
Jaekyun Choi, Lena van Giesen, Min Sung Choi, KyeongJin Kang, Simon G Sprecher, Jae Young Kwon
The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Taste allows animals to discriminate the value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. Many tastants elicit an innate attractive or avoidance response that is modifiable with nutritional state and prior experience. A powerful genetic tool kit, well-characterized gustatory system, and standardized behavioral assays make the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an excellent system for investigating taste processing and memory. Recent studies have used this system to identify the neural basis for acquired taste preference...
June 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
Alessia Soldano, Yeranddy A Alpizar, Brett Boonen, Luis Franco, Alejandro López-Requena, Guangda Liu, Natalia Mora, Emre Yaksi, Thomas Voets, Rudi Vennekens, Bassem A Hassan, Karel Talavera
Detecting pathogens and mounting immune responses upon infection is crucial for animal health. However, these responses come at a high metabolic price (McKean and Lazzaro, 2011, Kominsky et al., 2010), and avoiding pathogens before infection may be advantageous. The bacterial endotoxins lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are important immune system infection cues (Abbas et al., 2014), but it remains unknown whether animals possess sensory mechanisms to detect them prior to infection. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster display strong aversive responses to LPS and that gustatory neurons expressing Gr66a bitter receptors mediate avoidance of LPS in feeding and egg laying assays...
2016: ELife
Luming Zhuang, Ying Sun, Mi Hu, Chenxi Wu, Xiaojin La, Xinhong Chen, Yu Feng, Xingjun Wang, Yujia Hu, Lei Xue
Reproductive behaviour is important for animals to keep their species existing on Earth. A key question is how to generate more and healthier progenies by choosing optimal mates. In Drosophila melanogaster, males use multiple sensory cues, including vision, olfaction and gustation, to achieve reproductive success. These sensory inputs are important, yet not all these different modalities are simultaneously required for courtship behaviour to occur. Moreover, the roles of these sensory inputs for male courtship choice remain largely unknown...
June 2016: Open Biology
Lin Kang, Robert Settlage, Wyatt McMahon, Katarzyna Michalak, Hongseok Tae, Harold R Garner, Elizabeth A Stacy, Donald K Price, Pawel Michalak
The Hawaiian archipelago provides a natural arena for understanding adaptive radiation and speciation. The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most diverse endemic groups in Hawaiì with up to 1,000 species. We sequenced and analyzed entire genomes of recently diverged species of Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila, Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura from Hawaiì Island, in comparison with Drosophila planitibia, their sister species from Maui, a neighboring island where a common ancestor of all three had likely occurred...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Shruti Shankar, Meredith E K Calvert, Joanne Y Yew
Unlike mammals, insects such as Drosophila have multiple taste organs. The chemosensory neurons on the legs, proboscis, wings and ovipositor of Drosophila express gustatory receptors(1,2), ion channels(3-6), and ionotropic receptors(7) that are involved in the detection of volatile and non-volatile sensory cues. These neurons directly contact tastants such as food, noxious substances and pheromones and therefore influence many complex behaviors such as feeding, egg-laying and mating. Electrode recordings and calcium imaging have been widely used in insects to quantify the neuronal responses evoked by these tastants...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hussein Raad, Jean-François Ferveur, Neil Ledger, Maria Capovilla, Alain Robichon
Neuroanatomical evidence argues for the presence of taste sensilla in Drosophila wings; however, the taste physiology of insect wings remains hypothetical, and a comprehensive link to mechanical functions, such as flight, wing flapping, and grooming, is lacking. Our data show that the sensilla of the Drosophila anterior wing margin respond to both sweet and bitter molecules through an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Conversely, genetically modified flies presenting a wing-specific reduction in chemosensory cells show severe defects in both wing taste signaling and the exploratory guidance associated with chemodetection...
May 17, 2016: Cell Reports
Ashiq Hussain, Mo Zhang, Habibe K Üçpunar, Thomas Svensson, Elsa Quillery, Nicolas Gompel, Rickard Ignell, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
The ability to find and consume nutrient-rich diets for successful reproduction and survival is fundamental to animal life. Among the nutrients important for all animals are polyamines, a class of pungent smelling compounds required in numerous cellular and organismic processes. Polyamine deficiency or excess has detrimental effects on health, cognitive function, reproduction, and lifespan. Here, we show that a diet high in polyamine is beneficial and increases reproductive success of flies, and we unravel the sensory mechanisms that attract Drosophila to polyamine-rich food and egg-laying substrates...
May 2016: PLoS Biology
Ivan E de Araujo
Sugar's potent reinforcing properties arise from the complex interplay between gustatory and nutritive signals. This commentary addresses a unique organizational aspect of the neuronal circuitry that mediates sugar reinforcement in both Drosophila and rodents. Specifically, current evidence supports a general circuit model where separate populations of dopaminergic neurons encode the gustatory and nutritive values of sugar. This arrangement allows animals to prioritize energy seeking over taste quality, and implies that specialized subpopulations of dopamine-containing neurons form a class of evolutionary conserved chemo- and nutrient-sensors...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Marcus L Basiri, Garret D Stuber
Feeding is arguably one of the most well-conserved and important adaptive behaviors across all species. In this issue of Cell, Yapici et al. use a novel real-time feeding assay in Drosophila flies to identify a neural circuit that integrates gustatory input and hunger state to modulate food ingestion.
April 21, 2016: Cell
Chao Ning, Ke Yang, Meng Xu, Ling-Qiao Huang, Chen-Zhu Wang
Adult moths possess an organ in their labial palps, the labial-palp pit organ, which is specialized for sensing carbon dioxide (CO2). They use CO2 as a cue to detect healthy plants and find food or lay eggs on them. The molecular bases of the CO2 receptor in Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti have been reported, but the molecular mechanisms of the CO2 receptor in Lepidoptera remains elusive. In this study, we first re-examined three putative Helicoverpa armigera CO2 gustatory receptor genes (HarmGr1, HarmGr2, and HarmGr3), and then analyzed expression patterns of them...
June 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Bas van Schooten, Chris D Jiggins, Adriana D Briscoe, Riccardo Papa
BACKGROUND: In a world of chemical cues, smell and taste are essential senses for survival. Here we focused on Heliconius, a diverse group of butterflies that exhibit variation in pre- and post-zygotic isolation and chemically-mediated behaviors across their phylogeny. Our study examined the ionotropic receptors, a recently discovered class of receptors that are some of the most ancient chemical receptors. RESULTS: We found more ionotropic receptors in Heliconius (31) than in Bombyx mori (25) or in Danaus plexippus (27)...
2016: BMC Genomics
Lena van Giesen, Luis Hernandez-Nunez, Sophie Delasoie-Baranek, Martino Colombo, Philippe Renaud, Rémy Bruggmann, Richard Benton, Aravinthan D T Samuel, Simon G Sprecher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature Communications
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