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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772542/regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila-through-the-interplay-of-gustation-physiology-and-neuromodulation
#1
Bhumika S, Arvind Kumar Singh
One of the most fundamental behaviors in all the organisms, in order to achieve a satiated state and internal energy homeostasis is feeding. The action of feeding in any being whether be it any vertebrate or an invertebrate involves the perception of the external environment along with the gamut of decision making processes to eat or to not eat. The feeding decision along with chemosensation through gustation and olfaction leads to intake of food with proper nutrient balance along with avoidance of bitter and toxic substances...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502953/identification-of-a-single-pair-of-interneurons-for-bitter-taste-processing-in-the-drosophila-brain
#2
Ali Asgar Bohra, Benjamin R Kallman, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Drosophila has become an excellent model system for investigating the organization and function of the gustatory system due to the relatively simple neuroanatomical organization of its brain and the availability of powerful genetic and transgenic technology. Thus, at the molecular and cellular levels, a great deal of insight into the peripheral detection and coding of gustatory information has already been attained. In contrast, much less is known about the central neural circuits that process this information and induce behaviorally appropriate motor output...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475396/insulin-signaling-in-female-drosophila-links-diet-and-sexual-attractiveness
#3
Wei-Sheng Lin, Sheng-Rong Yeh, Shou-Zen Fan, Liang-Yu Chen, Jui-Hung Yen, Tsai-Feng Fu, Ming-Shiang Wu, Pei-Yu Wang
Appropriate sexual selection or individual sexual attractiveness is closely associated with the reproductive success of a species. Here, we report that young male flies exhibit innate courtship preference for female flies that are raised on higher-yeast diets and that have greater body weight and fecundity, but reduced locomotor activity and shortened lifespan. Male flies discriminate among females that have been fed diets that contain 3 different yeast concentrations-1, 5, and 20% yeast- via gustatory, but not visual or olfactory, perception...
February 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420533/drosophila-gr64e-mediates-fatty-acid-sensing-via-the-phospholipase-c-pathway
#4
Hyeyon Kim, Haein Kim, Jae Young Kwon, Jeong Taeg Seo, Dong Min Shin, Seok Jun Moon
Animals use taste to sample and ingest essential nutrients for survival. Free fatty acids (FAs) are energy-rich nutrients that contribute to various cellular functions. Recent evidence suggests FAs are detected through the gustatory system to promote feeding. In Drosophila, phospholipase C (PLC) signaling in sweet-sensing cells is required for FA detection but other signaling molecules are unknown. Here, we show Gr64e is required for the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to FAs. GR64e and TRPA1 are interchangeable when they act downstream of PLC: TRPA1 can substitute for GR64e in FA but not glycerol sensing, and GR64e can substitute for TRPA1 in aristolochic acid but not N-methylmaleimide sensing...
February 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393045/internal-amino-acid-state-modulates-yeast-taste-neurons-to-support-protein-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#5
Kathrin Steck, Samuel J Walker, Pavel M Itskov, Célia Baltazar, José-Maria Moreira, Carlos Ribeiro
To optimize fitness, animals must dynamically match food choices to their current needs. For drosophilids, yeast fulfills most dietary protein and micronutrient requirements. While several yeast metabolites activate known gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in Drosophila melanogaster , the chemosensory channels mediating yeast feeding remain unknown. Here we identify a class of proboscis GRNs required for yeast intake. Within this class, taste peg GRNs are specifically required to sustain yeast feeding. Sensillar GRNs, however, mediate feeding initiation...
February 2, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367405/diversity-of-internal-sensory-neuron-axon-projection-patterns-is-controlled-by-the-pou-domain-protein-pdm3-in-drosophila-larvae
#6
Cheng Sam Qian, Margarita Kaplow, Jennifer K Lee, Wesley B Grueber
Internal sensory neurons innervate body organs and provide information about internal state to the central nervous system to maintain physiological homeostasis. Despite their conservation across species, the anatomy, circuitry, and development of internal sensory systems are still relatively poorly understood. A largely unstudied population of larval Drosophila sensory neurons, termed tracheal dendrite (td) neurons, innervate internal respiratory organs and may serve as a model for understanding the sensing of internal states...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343813/the-drosophila-gr28bd-product-is-a-non-specific-cation-channel-that-can-be-used-as-a-novel-thermogenetic-tool
#7
Aditi Mishra, Autoosa Salari, Benton R Berigan, Kayla C Miguel, Marzie Amirshenava, Abbey Robinson, Benjamin C Zars, Jenna L Lin, Lorin S Milescu, Mirela Milescu, Troy Zars
Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324046/gustatory-processing-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Kristin Scott
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276056/calcium-taste-avoidance-in-drosophila
#9
Youngseok Lee, Seeta Poudel, Yunjung Kim, Dhananjay Thakur, Craig Montell
Many animals, ranging from vinegar flies to humans, discriminate a wide range of tastants, including sugars, bitter compounds, NaCl, and sour. However, the taste of Ca2+ is poorly understood, and it is unclear whether animals such as Drosophila melanogaster are endowed with this sense. Here, we examined Ca2+ taste in Drosophila and showed that high levels of Ca2+ are aversive. The repulsion was mediated by two mechanisms-activation of a specific class of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), which suppresses feeding and inhibition of sugar-activated GRNs, which normally stimulates feeding...
January 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231818/molecular-basis-of-fatty-acid-taste-in-drosophila
#10
Ji-Eun Ahn, Yan Chen, Hubert Amrein
Behavioral studies have established that Drosophila appetitive taste responses towards fatty acids are mediated by sweet sensing Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRNs). Here we show that sweet GRN activation requires the function of the Ionotropic Receptor genes IR25a , IR76b and IR56d . The former two IR genes are expressed in several neurons per sensillum, while IR56d expression is restricted to sweet GRNs. Importantly, loss of appetitive behavioral responses to fatty acids in IR25a and IR76b mutant flies can be completely rescued by expression of respective transgenes in sweet GRNs...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218733/a-gene-driven-recovery-mechanism-drosophila-larvae-increase-feeding-activity-for-post-stress-weight-recovery
#11
Masasuke Ryuda, Miku Tabuchi, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Takashi Matsumura, Masanori Ochiai, Yoichi Hayakawa
Recovery from weight loss after stress is important for all organisms, although the recovery mechanisms are not fully understood. We are working to clarify these mechanisms. Here, we recorded enhanced feeding activity of Drosophila melanogaster larvae from 2 to 4 h after heat stress at 35°C for 1 h. During the post-stress period, expression levels of sweet taste gustatory receptor genes (Grs), Gr5a, Gr43a, Gr64a, and Gr64f, were elevated, whereas bitter taste Grs, Gr66a, and Gr33a, were decreased in expression and expression of a non-typical taste receptor Gr, Gr68a, was unchanged...
March 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175531/olfactory-cues-play-a-significant-role-in-removing-fungus-from-the-body-surface-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Aya Yanagawa, Marie-Ange Chabaud, Tomoya Imai, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Many insects and Dipterans in particular are known to spend considerable time grooming, but whether these behaviors actually are able to remove pathogenic fungal conidia is less clear. In this study, we examined whether grooming serves to protect flies by reducing the risk of fungal infection in Drosophila melanogaster. First, we confirmed that fungi were removed by grooming. Entomopathogenic, opportunistic, and plant pathogenic fungi were applied on the body surface of the flies. To estimate grooming efficiency, the number of removal conidia through grooming was quantified and we successfully demonstrated that flies remove fungal conidia from their body surfaces via grooming behavior...
January 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159281/the-role-of-the-gustatory-system-in-the-coordination-of-feeding
#13
REVIEW
Vladimiros Thoma, Kimiko Kobayashi, Hiromu Tanimoto
To survive, all animals must find, inspect, and ingest food. Behavioral coordination and control of feeding is therefore a challenge that animals must face. Here, we focus on how the gustatory system guides the precise execution of behavioral sequences that promote ingestion and suppresses competing behaviors. We summarize principles learnt from Drosophila , where underlying sensory neuronal mechanisms are illustrated in great detail. Moreover, we compare these principles with findings in other animals, where such coordination plays prominent roles...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133786/heterogeneity-in-the-drosophila-gustatory-receptor-complexes-that-detect-aversive-compounds
#14
Ha Yeon Sung, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Yeon Lim, Hyeyon Kim, Soo Min Oh, Sun Wook Hwang, Jae Young Kwon, Seok Jun Moon
Animals must detect aversive compounds to survive. Bitter taste neurons express heterogeneous combinations of bitter receptors that diversify their response profiles, but this remains poorly understood. Here we describe groups of taste neurons in Drosophila that detect the same bitter compounds using unique combinations of gustatory receptors (GRs). These distinct complexes also confer responsiveness to non-overlapping sets of additional compounds. While either GR32a/GR59c/GR66a or GR22e/GR32a/GR66a heteromultimers are sufficient for lobeline, berberine, and denatonium detection, only GR22e/GR32a/GR66a responds to strychnine...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#15
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121087/the-gram-negative-sensing-receptor-pgrp-lc-contributes-to-grooming-induction-in-drosophila
#16
Aya Yanagawa, Claudine Neyen, Bruno Lemaitre, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper, we postulated a cross-talk between behavioral resistance and innate immunity. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a previously validated behavioral test to examine the function of taste signals in inducing a grooming reflex in decapitated flies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116191/histone-methyltransferase-g9a-is-a-key-regulator-of-the-starvation-induced-behaviors-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Kouhei Shimaji, Ryo Tanaka, Toru Maeda, Mamiko Ozaki, Hideki Yoshida, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Organisms have developed behavioral strategies to defend themselves from starvation stress. Despite of their importance in nature, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila G9a (dG9a), one of the histone H3 Lys 9-specific histone methyltransferases, functions as a key regulator for the starvation-induced behaviors. RNA-sequencing analyses utilizing dG9a null mutant flies revealed that the expression of some genes relating to gustatory perception are regulated by dG9a under starvation conditions...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107518/transsynaptic-mapping-of-second-order-taste-neurons-in-flies-by-trans-tango
#18
Mustafa Talay, Ethan B Richman, Nathaniel J Snell, Griffin G Hartmann, John D Fisher, Altar Sorkaç, Juan F Santoyo, Cambria Chou-Freed, Nived Nair, Mark Johnson, John R Szymanski, Gilad Barnea
Mapping neural circuits across defined synapses is essential for understanding brain function. Here we describe trans-Tango, a technique for anterograde transsynaptic circuit tracing and manipulation. At the core of trans-Tango is a synthetic signaling pathway that is introduced into all neurons in the animal. This pathway converts receptor activation at the cell surface into reporter expression through site-specific proteolysis. Specific labeling is achieved by presenting a tethered ligand at the synapses of genetically defined neurons, thereby activating the pathway in their postsynaptic partners and providing genetic access to these neurons...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081083/ionotropic-receptor-76b-is-required-for-gustatory-aversion-to-excessive-na-in-drosophila
#19
Min Jung Lee, Ha Yeon Sung, HyunJi Jo, Hyung-Wook Kim, Min Sung Choi, Jae Young Kwon, KyeongJin Kang
Avoiding ingestion of excessively salty food is essential for cation homeostasis that underlies various physiological processes in organisms. The molecular and cellular basis of the aversive salt taste, however, remains elusive. Through a behavioral reverse genetic screening, we discover that feeding suppression by Na+ -rich food requires Ionotropic Receptor 76b ( Ir76b ) in Drosophila labellar gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). Concentrated sodium solutions with various anions caused feeding suppression dependent on Ir76b ...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047261/deciphering-the-genes-for-taste-receptors-for-fructose-in-drosophila
#20
Shun Uchizono, Taichi Q Itoh, Haein Kim, Naoki Hamada, Jae Young Kwon, Teiichi Tanimura
Taste sensitivity to sugars plays an essential role in the initiation of feeding behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster , recent studies have identified several gustatory receptor ( Gr ) genes required for sensing sweet compounds. However, it is as yet undetermined how these GRs function as taste receptors tuned to a wide range of sugars. Among sugars, fructose has been suggested to be detected by a distinct receptor from other sugars. While GR43A has been reported to sense fructose in the brain, it is not expressed in labellar gustatory receptor neurons that show taste response to fructose...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
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