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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133786/heterogeneity-in-the-drosophila-gustatory-receptor-complexes-that-detect-aversive-compounds
#1
Ha Yeon Sung, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Yeon Lim, Hyeyon Kim, Soo Min Oh, Sun Wook Hwang, Jae Young Kwon, Seok Jun Moon
Animals must detect aversive compounds to survive. Bitter taste neurons express heterogeneous combinations of bitter receptors that diversify their response profiles, but this remains poorly understood. Here we describe groups of taste neurons in Drosophila that detect the same bitter compounds using unique combinations of gustatory receptors (GRs). These distinct complexes also confer responsiveness to non-overlapping sets of additional compounds. While either GR32a/GR59c/GR66a or GR22e/GR32a/GR66a heteromultimers are sufficient for lobeline, berberine, and denatonium detection, only GR22e/GR32a/GR66a responds to strychnine...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#2
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121087/the-gram-negative-sensing-receptor-pgrp-lc-contributes-to-grooming-induction-in-drosophila
#3
Aya Yanagawa, Claudine Neyen, Bruno Lemaitre, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper, we postulated a cross-talk between behavioral resistance and innate immunity. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a previously validated behavioral test to examine the function of taste signals in inducing a grooming reflex in decapitated flies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116191/histone-methyltransferase-g9a-is-a-key-regulator-of-the-starvation-induced-behaviors-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Kouhei Shimaji, Ryo Tanaka, Toru Maeda, Mamiko Ozaki, Hideki Yoshida, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Organisms have developed behavioral strategies to defend themselves from starvation stress. Despite of their importance in nature, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila G9a (dG9a), one of the histone H3 Lys 9-specific histone methyltransferases, functions as a key regulator for the starvation-induced behaviors. RNA-sequencing analyses utilizing dG9a null mutant flies revealed that the expression of some genes relating to gustatory perception are regulated by dG9a under starvation conditions...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107518/transsynaptic-mapping-of-second-order-taste-neurons-in-flies-by-trans-tango
#5
Mustafa Talay, Ethan B Richman, Nathaniel J Snell, Griffin G Hartmann, John D Fisher, Altar Sorkaç, Juan F Santoyo, Cambria Chou-Freed, Nived Nair, Mark Johnson, John R Szymanski, Gilad Barnea
Mapping neural circuits across defined synapses is essential for understanding brain function. Here we describe trans-Tango, a technique for anterograde transsynaptic circuit tracing and manipulation. At the core of trans-Tango is a synthetic signaling pathway that is introduced into all neurons in the animal. This pathway converts receptor activation at the cell surface into reporter expression through site-specific proteolysis. Specific labeling is achieved by presenting a tethered ligand at the synapses of genetically defined neurons, thereby activating the pathway in their postsynaptic partners and providing genetic access to these neurons...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081083/ionotropic-receptor-76b-is-required-for-gustatory-aversion-to-excessive-na-in-drosophila
#6
Min Jung Lee, Ha Yeon Sung, HyunJi Jo, Hyung-Wook Kim, Min Sung Choi, Jae Young Kwon, KyeongJin Kang
Avoiding ingestion of excessively salty food is essential for cation homeostasis that underlies various physiological processes in organisms. The molecular and cellular basis of the aversive salt taste, however, remains elusive. Through a behavioral reverse genetic screening, we discover that feeding suppression by Na(+)-rich food requires Ionotropic Receptor 76b (Ir76b) in Drosophila labellar gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). Concentrated sodium solutions with various anions caused feeding suppression dependent on Ir76b...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047261/deciphering-the-genes-for-taste-receptors-for-fructose-in-drosophila
#7
Shun Uchizono, Taichi Q Itoh, Haein Kim, Naoki Hamada, Jae Young Kwon, Teiichi Tanimura
Taste sensitivity to sugars plays an essential role in the initiation of feeding behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified several gustatory receptor (Gr) genes required for sensing sweet compounds. However, it is as yet undetermined how these GRs function as taste receptors tuned to a wide range of sugars. Among sugars, fructose has been suggested to be detected by a distinct receptor from other sugars. While GR43A has been reported to sense fructose in the brain, it is not expressed in labellar gustatory receptor neurons that show taste response to fructose...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044155/enterococci-mediate-the-oviposition-preference-of-drosophila-melanogaster-through-sucrose-catabolism
#8
Wei Liu, Ke Zhang, Yujuan Li, Wanzhen Su, Kunkun Hu, Shan Jin
Sucrose, one of the main products of photosynthesis in plants, functions as a universal biomarker for nutritional content and maturity of different fruits across diverse ecological niches. Drosophila melanogaster congregates to lay eggs in rotting fruits, yet the factors that influence these decisions remains uncovered. Here, we report that lactic acid bacteria Enterococci are critical modulators to attract Drosophila to lay eggs on decaying food. Drosophila-associated Enterococci predominantly catabolize sucrose for growing their population in fly food, and thus generate a unique ecological niche with depleted sucrose, but enriched bacteria...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938869/chemosensory-gene-expression-in-olfactory-organs-of-the-anthropophilic-anopheles-coluzzii-and-zoophilic-anopheles-quadriannulatus
#9
G Athrey, L V Cosme, Z Popkin-Hall, S Pathikonda, W Takken, M A Slotman
BACKGROUND: Anopheles (An.) coluzzii, one of Africa's primary malaria vectors, is highly anthropophilic. This human host preference contributes greatly to its ability to transmit malaria. In contrast, the closely related An. quadriannulatus prefers to feed on bovids and is not thought to contribute to malaria transmission. The diverged preference for host odor profiles between these sibling species is likely reflected in chemosensory gene expression levels in the olfactory organs. Therefore, we compared the transcriptomes of the antennae and maxillary palps between An...
September 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889974/ionotropic-receptors-mediate-drosophila-oviposition-preference-through-sour-gustatory-receptor-neurons
#10
Yan Chen, Hubert Amrein
Carboxylic acids are present in many foods, being especially abundant in fruits. Yet, relatively little is known about how acids are detected by gustatory systems and whether they have a potential role in nutrition or provide other health benefits. Here we identify sour gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in tarsal taste sensilla of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that most tarsal sensilla harbor a sour GRN that is specifically activated by carboxylic and mineral acids but does not respond to sweet- and bitter-tasting chemicals or salt...
September 25, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875566/structure-and-development-of-the-subesophageal-zone-of-the-drosophila-brain-ii-sensory-compartments
#11
Sarah Kendroud, Ali A Bohra, Philipp A Kuert, Bao Nguyen, Oriane Guillermin, Simon G Sprecher, Heinrich Reichert, Krishnaswamy VijayRaghavan, Volker Hartenstein
The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain processes mechanosensory and gustatory sensory input from sensilla located on the head, mouth cavity and trunk. Motor output from the SEZ directly controls the movements involved in feeding behavior. In an accompanying paper (Hartenstein et al., ), we analyzed the systems of fiber tracts and secondary lineages to establish reliable criteria for defining boundaries between the four neuromeres of the SEZ, as well as discrete longitudinal neuropil domains within each SEZ neuromere...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857341/the-multidimensional-ionotropic-receptors-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
REVIEW
S Rimal, Y Lee
Ionotropic receptors (IRs), which form ion channels, can be categorized into conserved 'antennal IRs', which define the first olfactory receptor family of insects, and species-specific 'divergent IRs', which are expressed in gustatory receptor neurones. These receptors are located primarily in cell bodies and dendrites, and are highly enriched in the tips of the dendritic terminals that convey sensory information to higher brain centres. Antennal IRs play important roles in odour and thermosensation, whereas divergent IRs are involved in other important biological processes such as taste sensation...
August 31, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839208/sensory-mutations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-influence-associational-effects-between-resources-during-oviposition
#13
Thomas A Verschut, Mikael A Carlsson, Peter Anderson, Peter A Hambäck
Neighboring resources can affect insect oviposition behavior when the complexity of sensory information obscures information about host resource availability in heterogeneous resource patches. These effects are referred to as associational effects and are hypothesized to occur through constraints in the sensory processing of the insect during host search, resulting into suboptimal resource use. Because the possibilities to study these constraints on naturally occurring animals are limited, we instead used sensory mutants of Drosophila melanogaster to determine the importance of sensory information in the occurrence of associational effects...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777821/anatomy-and-behavioral-function-of-serotonin-receptors-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#14
Annina Huser, Melanie Eschment, Nazli Güllü, Katharina A N Collins, Kathrin Böpple, Lyubov Pankevych, Emilia Rolsing, Andreas S Thum
The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751111/gustatory-receptor-22e-is-essential-for-sensing-chloroquine-and-strychnine-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Seeta Poudel, Yunjung Kim, Jun-Seok Gwak, Sangyun Jeong, Youngseok Lee
Chloroquine, an amino quinolone derivative commonly used as an anti-malarial drug, is known to impart an unpleasant taste. Little research has been done to study chloroquine taste in insects, therefore, we examined both the deterrant properties and mechanisms underlying chloroquine perception in fruit flies. We identified the antifeedant effect of chloroquine by screening 21 gustatory receptor (Grs) mutants through behavioral feeding assays and electrophysiology experiments. We discovered that two molecular sensors, GR22e and GR33a, act as chloroquine receptors, and found that chloroquine-mediated activation of GRNs occurs through S-type sensilla...
September 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745628/a-method-to-test-the-effect-of-environmental-cues-on-mating-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Jenke A Gorter, Jean-Christophe Billeter
An individual's sexual drive is influenced by genotype, experience and environmental conditions. How these factors interact to modulate sexual behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, environmental cues, such as food availability, affect mating activity offering a tractable system to investigate the mechanisms modulating sexual behavior. In D. melanogaster, environmental cues are often sensed via the chemosensory gustatory and olfactory systems. Here, we present a method to test the effect of environmental chemical cues on mating behavior...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684466/pharyngeal-stimulation-with-sugar-triggers-local-searching-behavior-in-drosophila
#17
Satoshi Murata, Axel Brockmann, Teiichi Tanimura
Foraging behavior is essential for all organisms to find food containing nutritional chemicals. A hungry fly of Drosophila melanogaster performs local searching behavior after drinking a small amount of sugar solution. Using video tracking we examined how the searching behavior is regulated in D. melanogaster We found that a small amount of highly concentrated sugar solution induced a long-lasting searching behavior. After the intake of sugar solution, a fly moved around in circles and repeatedly returned to the position where the sugar droplet had been placed...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679796/the-ol1mpiad-concordance-of-behavioural-faculties-of-stage-1-and-stage-3-drosophila-larvae
#18
Maria J Almeida-Carvalho, Dimitri Berh, Andreas Braun, Yi-Chun Chen, Katharina Eichler, Claire Eschbach, Pauline M J Fritsch, Bertram Gerber, Nina Hoyer, Xiaoyi Jiang, Jörg Kleber, Christian Klämbt, Christian König, Matthieu Louis, Birgit Michels, Anton Miroschnikow, Christen Mirth, Daisuke Miura, Thomas Niewalda, Nils Otto, Emmanouil Paisios, Michael J Pankratz, Meike Petersen, Noel Ramsperger, Nadine Randel, Benjamin Risse, Timo Saumweber, Philipp Schlegel, Michael Schleyer, Peter Soba, Simon G Sprecher, Teiichi Tanimura, Andreas S Thum, Naoko Toshima, Jim W Truman, Ayse Yarali, Marta Zlatic
Mapping brain function to brain structure is a fundamental task for neuroscience. For such an endeavour, the Drosophila larva is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to be interesting. It features about 10,000 neurons and is capable of various taxes, kineses and Pavlovian conditioning. All its neurons are currently being mapped into a light-microscopical atlas, and Gal4 strains are being generated to experimentally access neurons one at a time. In addition, an electron microscopic reconstruction of its nervous system seems within reach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#19
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256589/chemosensory-adaptations-of-the-mountain-fly-drosophila-nigrosparsa-insecta-diptera-through-genomics-and-structural-biology-s-lenses
#20
Francesco Cicconardi, Daniele Di Marino, Pier Paolo Olimpieri, Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Florian M Steiner
Chemoreception is essential for survival. Some chemicals signal the presence of nutrients or toxins, others the proximity of mating partners, competitors, or predators. Chemical signal transduction has therefore been studied in multiple organisms. In Drosophila species, a number of odorant receptor genes and various other types of chemoreceptors were found. Three main gene families encode for membrane receptors and one for globular proteins that shuttle compounds with different degrees of affinity and specificity towards receptors...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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