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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777821/anatomy-and-behavioral-function-of-serotonin-receptors-in-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#1
Annina Huser, Melanie Eschment, Nazli Güllü, Katharina A N Collins, Kathrin Böpple, Lyubov Pankevych, Emilia Rolsing, Andreas S Thum
The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) is an important neuroactive molecule in the central nervous system of the majority of animal phyla. 5-HT binds to specific G protein-coupled and ligand-gated ion receptors to regulate particular aspects of animal behavior. In Drosophila, as in many other insects this includes the regulation of locomotion and feeding. Due to its genetic amenability and neuronal simplicity the Drosophila larva has turned into a useful model for studying the anatomical and molecular basis of chemosensory behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751111/gustatory-receptor-22e-is-essential-for-sensing-chloroquine-and-strychnine-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Seeta Poudel, Yunjung Kim, Jun-Seok Gwak, Sangyun Jeong, Youngseok Lee
Chloroquine, an amino quinolone derivative commonly used as an anti-malarial drug, is known to impart an unpleasant taste. Little research has been done to study chloroquine taste in insects, therefore, we examined both the deterrant properties and mechanisms underlying chloroquine perception in fruit flies. We identified the antifeedant effect of chloroquine by screening 21 gustatory receptor (Grs) mutants through behavioral feeding assays and electrophysiology experiments. We discovered that two molecular sensors, GR22e and GR33a, act as chloroquine receptors, and found that chloroquine-mediated activation of GRNs occurs through S-type sensilla...
July 24, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745628/a-method-to-test-the-effect-of-environmental-cues-on-mating-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Jenke A Gorter, Jean-Christophe Billeter
An individual's sexual drive is influenced by genotype, experience and environmental conditions. How these factors interact to modulate sexual behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, environmental cues, such as food availability, affect mating activity offering a tractable system to investigate the mechanisms modulating sexual behavior. In D. melanogaster, environmental cues are often sensed via the chemosensory gustatory and olfactory systems. Here, we present a method to test the effect of environmental chemical cues on mating behavior...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684466/pharyngeal-stimulation-with-sugar-triggers-local-searching-behavior-in-drosophila
#4
Satoshi Murata, Axel Brockmann, Teiichi Tanimura
Foraging behavior is essential for all organisms to find food containing nutritional chemicals. A hungry fly of Drosophila melanogaster performs local searching behavior after drinking a small amount of sugar solution. Using video tracking we examined how the searching behavior is regulated in D. melanogaster We found that a small amount of highly concentrated sugar solution induced a long-lasting searching behavior. After the intake of sugar solution, a fly moved around in circles and repeatedly returned to the position where the sugar droplet had been placed...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679796/the-ol1mpiad-concordance-of-behavioural-faculties-of-stage-1-and-stage-3-drosophila-larvae
#5
Maria J Almeida-Carvalho, Dimitri Berh, Andreas Braun, Yi-Chun Chen, Katharina Eichler, Claire Eschbach, Pauline M J Fritsch, Bertram Gerber, Nina Hoyer, Xiaoyi Jiang, Jörg Kleber, Christian Klämbt, Christian König, Matthieu Louis, Birgit Michels, Anton Miroschnikow, Christen Mirth, Daisuke Miura, Thomas Niewalda, Nils Otto, Emmanouil Paisios, Michael J Pankratz, Meike Petersen, Noel Ramsperger, Nadine Randel, Benjamin Risse, Timo Saumweber, Philipp Schlegel, Michael Schleyer, Peter Soba, Simon G Sprecher, Teiichi Tanimura, Andreas S Thum, Naoko Toshima, Jim W Truman, Ayse Yarali, Marta Zlatic
Mapping brain function to brain structure is a fundamental task for neuroscience. For such an endeavour, the Drosophila larva is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to be interesting. It features about 10,000 neurons and is capable of various taxes, kineses and Pavlovian conditioning. All its neurons are currently being mapped into a light-microscopical atlas, and Gal4 strains are being generated to experimentally access neurons one at a time. In addition, an electron microscopic reconstruction of its nervous system seems within reach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#6
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256589/chemosensory-adaptations-of-the-mountain-fly-drosophila-nigrosparsa-insecta-diptera-through-genomics-and-structural-biology-s-lenses
#7
Francesco Cicconardi, Daniele Di Marino, Pier Paolo Olimpieri, Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Florian M Steiner
Chemoreception is essential for survival. Some chemicals signal the presence of nutrients or toxins, others the proximity of mating partners, competitors, or predators. Chemical signal transduction has therefore been studied in multiple organisms. In Drosophila species, a number of odorant receptor genes and various other types of chemoreceptors were found. Three main gene families encode for membrane receptors and one for globular proteins that shuttle compounds with different degrees of affinity and specificity towards receptors...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164781/long-range-projection-neurons-in-the-taste-circuit-of-drosophila
#8
Heesoo Kim, Colleen Kirkhart, Kristin Scott
Taste compounds elicit innate feeding behaviors and act as rewards or punishments to entrain other cues. The neural pathways by which taste compounds influence innate and learned behaviors have not been resolved. Here, we identify three classes of taste projection neurons (TPNs) in Drosophila melanogaster distinguished by their morphology and taste selectivity. TPNs receive input from gustatory receptor neurons and respond selectively to sweet or bitter stimuli, demonstrating segregated processing of different taste modalities...
February 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128210/a-mechanosensory-receptor-required-for-food-texture-detection-in-drosophila
#9
Juan Antonio Sánchez-Alcañiz, Giovanna Zappia, Frédéric Marion-Poll, Richard Benton
Textural properties provide information on the ingestibility, digestibility and state of ripeness or decay of sources of nutrition. Compared with our understanding of the chemosensory assessment of food, little is known about the mechanisms of texture detection. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster can discriminate food texture, avoiding substrates that are either too hard or too soft. Manipulations of food substrate properties and flies' chemosensory inputs indicate that texture preferences are revealed only in the presence of an appetitive stimulus, but are not because of changes in nutrient accessibility, suggesting that animals discriminate the substrates' mechanical characteristics...
January 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932542/h2o2-sensitive-isoforms-of-drosophila-melanogaster-trpa1-act-in-bitter-sensing-gustatory-neurons-to-promote-avoidance-of-uv-during-egg-laying
#10
Ananya R Guntur, Bin Gou, Pengyu Gu, Ruo He, Ulrich Stern, Yang Xiang, Chung-Hui Yang
The evolutionarily conserved TRPA1 channel can sense various stimuli including temperatures and chemical irritants. Recent results have suggested that specific isoforms of Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) are UV-sensitive and that their UV sensitivity is due to H2O2 sensitivity. However, whether such UV sensitivity served any physiological purposes in animal behavior was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms promote avoidance of UV when adult Drosophila females are selecting sites for egg-laying...
February 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795616/the-elaborate-postural-display-of-courting-drosophila-persimilis-flies-produces-substrate-borne-vibratory-signals
#11
Mónica Vega Hernández, Caroline Cecile Gabrielle Fabre
Sexual selection has led to the evolution of extraordinary and elaborate male courtship behaviors across taxa, including mammals and birds, as well as some species of flies. Drosophila persimilis flies perform complex courtship behaviors found in most Drosophila species, which consist of visual, air-borne, gustatory and olfactory cues. In addition, Drosophila persimilis courting males also perform an elaborate postural display that is not found in most other Drosophila species. This postural display includes an upwards contortion of their abdomen, specialized movements of the head and forelegs, raising both wings into a "wing-posture" and, most remarkably, the males proffer the female a regurgitated droplet...
2016: Journal of Insect Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760794/evolutionary-insights-into-taste-perception-of-the-invasive-pest-drosophila-suzukii
#12
Cristina M Crava, Sukanya Ramasamy, Lino Ometto, Gianfranco Anfora, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Chemosensory perception allows insects to interact with the environment by perceiving odorant or tastant molecules; genes encoding chemoreceptors are the molecular interface between the environment and the insect, and play a central role in mediating its chemosensory behavior. Here, we explore how the evolution of these genes in the emerging pest Drosophila suzukii correlates with the peculiar ecology of this species. We annotated approximately 130 genes coding for gustatory receptors (GRs) and divergent ionotropic receptors (dIRs) in D...
December 7, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684591/taste-preference-assay-for-adult-drosophila
#13
Andrew P Bantel, Charles R Tessier
Olfactory and gustatory perception of the environment is vital for animal survival. The most obvious application of these chemosenses is to be able to distinguish good food sources from potentially dangerous food sources. Gustation requires physical contact with a chemical compound which is able to signal through taste receptors that are expressed on the surface of neurons. In insects, these gustatory neurons can be located across the animal's body allowing taste to play an important role in many different behaviors...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641708/mechanosensory-neurons-control-sweet-sensing-in-drosophila
#14
Yong Taek Jeong, Soo Min Oh, Jaewon Shim, Jeong Taeg Seo, Jae Young Kwon, Seok Jun Moon
Animals discriminate nutritious food from toxic substances using their sense of taste. Since taste perception requires taste receptor cells to come into contact with water-soluble chemicals, it is a form of contact chemosensation. Concurrent with that contact, mechanosensitive cells detect the texture of food and also contribute to the regulation of feeding. Little is known, however, about the extent to which chemosensitive and mechanosensitive circuits interact. Here, we show Drosophila prefers soft food at the expense of sweetness and that this preference requires labellar mechanosensory neurons (MNs) and the mechanosensory channel Nanchung...
September 19, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619503/central-relay-of-bitter-taste-to-the-protocerebrum-by-peptidergic-interneurons-in-the-drosophila-brain
#15
Sebastian Hückesfeld, Marc Peters, Michael J Pankratz
Bitter is a taste modality associated with toxic substances evoking aversive behaviour in most animals, and the valence of different taste modalities is conserved between mammals and Drosophila. Despite knowledge gathered in the past on the peripheral perception of taste, little is known about the identity of taste interneurons in the brain. Here we show that hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons in the Drosophila larval brain are necessary for avoidance behaviour to caffeine, and when activated, result in cessation of feeding and mediates a bitter taste signal within the brain...
September 13, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558663/obp56h-modulates-mating-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
John R Shorter, Lauren M Dembeck, Logan J Everett, Tatiana V Morozova, Gunjan H Arya, Lavanya Turlapati, Genevieve E St Armour, Coby Schal, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Social interactions in insects are driven by conspecific chemical signals that are detected via olfactory and gustatory neurons. Odorant binding proteins (Obps) transport volatile odorants to chemosensory receptors, but their effects on behaviors remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that RNAi knockdown of Obp56h gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster enhances mating behavior by reducing courtship latency. The change in mating behavior that results from inhibition of Obp56h expression is accompanied by significant alterations in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition, including reduction in 5-tricosene (5-T), an inhibitory sex pheromone produced by males that increases copulation latency during courtship...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555807/caffeine-taste-signaling-in-drosophila-larvae
#17
Anthi A Apostolopoulou, Saskia Köhn, Bernhard Stehle, Michael Lutz, Alexander Wüst, Lorena Mazija, Anna Rist, C Giovanni Galizia, Alja Lüdke, Andreas S Thum
The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530109/the-making-of-a-pest-insights-from-the-evolution-of-chemosensory-receptor-families-in-a-pestiferous-and-invasive-fly-drosophila-suzukii
#18
Paul V Hickner, Chissa L Rivaldi, Cole M Johnson, Madhura Siddappaji, Gregory J Raster, Zainulabeuddin Syed
BACKGROUND: Drosophila suzukii differs from other melanogaster group members in their proclivity for laying eggs in fresh fruit rather than in fermenting fruits. Olfaction and gustation play a critical role during insect niche formation, and these senses are largely mediated by two important receptor families: olfactory and gustatory receptors (Ors and Grs). Earlier work from our laboratory has revealed how the olfactory landscape of D. suzukii is dominated by volatiles derived from its unique niche...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486388/a-pair-of-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neurons-regulates-caffeine-dependent-ingestion-in-drosophila-larvae
#19
Jaekyun Choi, Lena van Giesen, Min Sung Choi, KyeongJin Kang, Simon G Sprecher, Jae Young Kwon
The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328844/gustatory-processing-and-taste-memory-in-drosophila
#20
Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Taste allows animals to discriminate the value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. Many tastants elicit an innate attractive or avoidance response that is modifiable with nutritional state and prior experience. A powerful genetic tool kit, well-characterized gustatory system, and standardized behavioral assays make the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an excellent system for investigating taste processing and memory. Recent studies have used this system to identify the neural basis for acquired taste preference...
June 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
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