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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907303/where-are-the-drought-tolerant-crops-an-assessment-of-more-than-two-decades-of-plant-biotechnology-effort-in-crop-improvement
#1
Michael L Nuccio, Matthew Paul, Nicholas J Bate, Jonathan Cohn, Sean R Cutler
Since the dawn of modern biotechnology public and private enterprise have pursued the development of a new breed of drought tolerant crop products. After more than 20 years of research and investment only a few such products have reached the market. This is due to several technical and market constraints. The technical challenges include the difficulty in defining tractable single-gene trait development strategies, the logistics of moving traits from initial to commercial genetic backgrounds, and the disconnect between conditions in farmer's fields and controlled environments...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887537/the-relationship-of-dietary-cholesterol-with-serum-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-confounding-by-reverse-causality-the-interlipid-study
#2
Yukiko Okami, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Nagako Okuda, Hideaki Nakagawa, Kiyomi Sakata, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Akira Okayama, Katsushi Yoshita, Sohel R Choudhury, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Jeremiah Stamler, Katsuyuki Miura
AIM: The positive relationship between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol has been questioned by a set of recent cohort studies. This study aimed to investigate how employment status and education years relate to the association between dietary cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a Japanese population. METHODS: A population-based, random sample, cross-sectional study (INTERLIPID) was performed. Among 1,145 Japanese individuals aged 40-59 years, 106 were excluded because of special diets, use of lipid-lowering drugs, hormone replacement, and missing data, leaving 1,039 individuals (533 men and 506 women)...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868053/genetic-patterns-of-common-bean-seed-acquisition-and-early-stage-adoption-among-farmer-groups-in-western-uganda
#3
Erin L Wilkus, Jorge C Berny Mier Y Teran, Clare M Mukankusi, Paul Gepts
Widespread adoption of new varieties can be valuable, especially where improved agricultural production technologies are hard to access. However, as farmers adopt new varieties, in situ population structure and genetic diversity of their seed holdings can change drastically. Consequences of adoption are still poorly understood due to a lack of crop genetic diversity assessments and detailed surveys of farmers' seed management practices. Common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) is an excellent model for these types of studies, as it has a long history of cultivation among smallholder farmers, exhibits eco-geographic patterns of diversity (e...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862010/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-ecas-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#4
Jennifer A Foley, Elaine H Niven, Andrew Paget, Kailash P Bhatia, Simon F Farmer, Paul R Jarman, Patricia Limousin, Thomas T Warner, Huw R Morris, Thomas H Bak, Sharon Abrahams, Lisa Cipolotti
Disentangling Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may be a diagnostic challenge. Cognitive signs may be useful, but existing screens are often insufficiently sensitive or unsuitable for assessing people with motor disorders. We investigated whether the newly developed ECAS, designed to be used with people with even severe motor disability, was sensitive to the cognitive impairment seen in PD and PSP and able to distinguish between these two disorders. Thirty patients with PD, 11 patients with PSP, and 40 healthy controls were assessed using the ECAS, as well as an extensive neuropsychological assessment...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769256/early-use-of-antibiotics-for-at-risk-children-with-influenza-archie-protocol-for-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Kay Wang, Tricia Carver, Sharon Tonner, Malcolm G Semple, Alastair D Hay, Michael Moore, Paul Little, Christopher Butler, Andrew Farmer, Rafael Perera, Ly-Mee Yu, Susan Mallett, Jane Wolstenholme, Anthony Harnden
INTRODUCTION: Influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) create considerable burden on healthcare resources each winter. Children with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes mellitus and cerebral palsy are among those at greatest risk of clinical deterioration from influenza/ILI. The Antibiotics for at Risk CHildren with InfluEnza (ARCHIE) trial aims to determine whether early oral treatment with the antibiotic co-amoxiclav reduces the likelihood of reconsultation due to clinical deterioration in these 'at risk' children...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755496/banana21-from-gene-discovery-to-deregulated-golden-bananas
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Yves Paul, Robert Harding, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, James Dale
Uganda is a tropical country with a population in excess of 30 million, >80% of whom live in rural areas. Bananas ( Musa spp.) are the staple food of Uganda with the East African Highland banana, a cooking banana, the primary starch source. Unfortunately, these bananas are low in pro-vitamin A (PVA) and iron and, as a result, banana-based diets are low in these micronutrients which results in very high levels of inadequate nutrition. This inadequate nutrition manifests as high levels of vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and stunting in children...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740682/impacts-of-china-s-grain-for-green-program-on-migration-and-household-income
#7
Paul Treacy, Pamela Jagger, Conghe Song, Qi Zhang, Richard E Bilsborrow
In the late 1990s, China's Yangtze and Yellow River Basins suffered devastating natural disasters widely attributed to the degradation of soil and water resources. The Government of China responded with a number of major environmental programs, the most expensive and influential of which, the Grain for Green (GfG) Program, was implemented widely from 1999. Under the GfG Program-also known as the Sloping Land Conversion or Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program-the central government compensates farmers to convert cropland on steep slopes or otherwise ecologically sensitive areas to forest or grassland...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704294/a-cryptic-diapause-strategy-in-halotydeus-destructor-tucker-trombidiformes-penthaleidae-induced-by-multiple-cues
#8
Xuan Cheng, Ary A Hoffmann, James L Maino, Paul A Umina
BACKGROUND: The polyphagous mite pest, Halotydeus destructor, typically has three generations during the cool moist season in Australia and produces over-summering diapause eggs in spring. Diapause eggs have a distinct thick and dark chorion and can survive heat, desiccation and the applications of pesticides. Farmers suppress the mite generation producing diapause eggs by a carefully-timed spring pesticide application using Timerite® , which predicts the onset of diapause egg production based largely on daylength...
April 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676969/immobilization-of-heavy-metals-in-contaminated-soil-after-mining-activity-by-using-biochar-and-other-industrial-by-products-the-significant-role-of-minerals-on-the-biochar-surfaces
#9
Van Minh Dang, Stephen Joseph, Huu Tap Van, Thi Lan Anh Mai, Thi Minh Hoa Duong, Simon Weldon, Paul Munroe, David Mitchell, Sarasadat Taherymoosavi
Heavy metal contamination of crop lands surrounding mines in North Vietnam is a major environmental issue for both farmers and the population as a whole. Technology for the production of biochar at a village and household level has been successfully introduced into Vietnamese villages. This study was undertaken to determine if rice straw biochar produced in simple drum ovens could remediate contaminated land. Tests were also carried out to determine if biochar and apatite mixed together could be more effective than biochar alone...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662695/impact-of-a-health-system-strengthening-intervention-on-maternal-and-child-health-outputs-and-outcomes-in-rural-rwanda-2005-2010
#10
Dana R Thomson, Cheryl Amoroso, Sidney Atwood, Matthew H Bonds, Felix Cyamatare Rwabukwisi, Peter Drobac, Karen E Finnegan, Didi Bertrand Farmer, Paul E Farmer, Antoinette Habinshuti, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Anatole Manzi, Peter Niyigena, Michael L Rich, Sara Stulac, Megan B Murray, Agnes Binagwaho
Introduction: Although Rwanda's health system underwent major reforms and improvements after the 1994 Genocide, the health system and population health in the southeast lagged behind other areas. In 2005, Partners In Health and the Rwandan Ministry of Health began a health system strengthening intervention in this region. We evaluate potential impacts of the intervention on maternal and child health indicators. Methods: Combining results from the 2005 and 2010 Demographic and Health Surveys with those from a supplemental 2010 survey, we compared changes in health system output indicators and population health outcomes between 2005 and 2010 as reported by women living in the intervention area with those reported by the pooled population of women from all other rural areas of the country, controlling for potential confounding by economic and demographic variables...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622497/ebola-virus-persistence-in-ocular-tissues-and-fluids-evict-study-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-cataract-surgery-outcomes-of-ebola-survivors-in-sierra-leone
#11
Jessica G Shantha, John G Mattia, Augustine Goba, Kayla G Barnes, Faiqa K Ebrahim, Colleen S Kraft, Brent R Hayek, Jessica N Hartnett, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin, John D Sandi, Mambu Momoh, Simbirie Jalloh, Donald S Grant, Kerry Dierberg, Joyce Chang, Sharmistha Mishra, Adrienne K Chan, Rob Fowler, Tim O'Dempsey, Erick Kaluma, Taylor Hendricks, Roger Reiners, Melanie Reiners, Lowell A Gess, Kwame ONeill, Sarian Kamara, Alie Wurie, Mohamed Mansaray, Nisha R Acharya, William J Liu, Sina Bavari, Gustavo Palacios, Moges Teshome, Ian Crozier, Paul E Farmer, Timothy M Uyeki, Daniel G Bausch, Robert F Garry, Matthew J Vandy, Steven Yeh
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors are at risk for uveitis during convalescence. Vision loss has been observed following uveitis due to cataracts. Since Ebola virus (EBOV) may persist in the ocular fluid of EVD survivors for an unknown duration, there are questions about the safety and feasibility of vision restorative cataract surgery in EVD survivors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of EVD survivors anticipating cataract surgery and patients with active uveitis to evaluate EBOV RNA persistence in ocular fluid, as well as vision outcomes post cataract surgery...
April 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590439/paul-d-sturkie-avian-cardiac-physiologist
#12
Nicholas T Bello, Wendie S Cohick, Kenneth H McKeever, Karyn Malinowski
Sturkie's Avian Physiology is a highly regarded textbook for the study of comparative poultry physiology. Less well known, however, is the contribution of Paul D. Sturkie (1909-2002) as a pioneer in the experimental physiology of avian species. His seminal research on the cardiovascular and hemodynamic controls of chickens and egg-laying hens had a notable impact on the poultry industry and breeding practices of farmers. The purpose of this article is to highlight the contributions and practical insights of Paul D...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559104/investigation-of-potential-risk-factors-associated-with-salmonella-presence-in-commercial-laying-hen-farms-in-nigeria
#13
Idowu Oluwabunmi Fagbamila, Marzia Mancin, Lisa Barco, Sati Samuel Ngulukun, Alexander Jambalang, Olawunmi Toyin Ajayi, Nancy Sati, Paulinus Emennaa, Paul Idoko Ankeli, Jakob Kwaga, Paul Ayuba Abdu, Junaidu Kabir, Jarlath Umoh, Antonia Ricci, Maryam Muhammad
BACKGROUND: In 2012/13, the Federal government of Nigeria approved the surveillance of salmonellae in commercial poultry farms with the aim of generating baseline data for the development of a control programme. That baseline provided an opportunity to investigate potential risk factors in commercial layer farms. METHODS: Five hundred and twenty-three farms were evaluated for the presence of Salmonella. Each farmer was interviewed through a structured questionnaire...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557329/food-insecurity-as-a-risk-factor-for-outcomes-related-to-ebola-virus-disease-in-kono-district-sierra-leone-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
J Daniel Kelly, Eugene T Richardson, Michael Drasher, M Bailor Barrie, Sahr Karku, Mohamed Kamara, Katrina Hann, Kerry Dierberg, Allan Hubbard, Christina P Lindan, Paul E Farmer, George W Rutherford, Sheri D Weiser
Studies have shown that people suffering from food insecurity are at higher risk for infectious and noncommunicable diseases and have poorer health outcomes. No study, however, has examined the association between food insecurity and outcomes related to Ebola virus disease (EVD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in two Ebola-affected communities in Kono district, Sierra Leone, from November 2015 to September 2016. We enrolled persons who were determined to have been exposed to Ebola virus. We assessed the association of food insecurity, using an adapted version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, a nine-item scale well validated across Africa, with having been diagnosed with EVD and having died of EVD, using logistic regression models with cluster-adjusted standard errors...
May 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546550/phenotypic-characterization-of-beef-cattle-breeds-and-production-practices-in-liberia
#15
Arthur Bob Karnuah, Gregory Dunga, Arthur Wennah, Walter T Wiles, Edmond Greaves, Roland Varkpeh, Richard Osei-Amponsah, Paul Boettcher
Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources (AnGR) involves identification of distinct breed populations, describing their external and production characteristics in a given environment and management, and taking into account the social and economic factors that affect them. A survey involving 346 livestock farmers was conducted in the 15 counties of Liberia to collect data on production practices and phenotypic characteristics of beef cattle. A pre-tested structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were utilized in data collection...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531345/the-demographic-history-and-mutational-load-of-african-hunter-gatherers-and-farmers
#16
Marie Lopez, Athanasios Kousathanas, Hélène Quach, Christine Harmant, Patrick Mouguiama-Daouda, Jean-Marie Hombert, Alain Froment, George H Perry, Luis B Barreiro, Paul Verdu, Etienne Patin, Lluís Quintana-Murci
Understanding how deleterious genetic variation is distributed across human populations is of key importance in evolutionary biology and medical genetics. However, the impact of population size changes and gene flow on the corresponding mutational load remains a controversial topic. Here, we report high-coverage exomes from 300 rainforest hunter-gatherers and farmers of central Africa, whose distinct subsistence strategies are expected to have impacted their demographic pasts. Detailed demographic inference indicates that hunter-gatherers and farmers recently experienced population collapses and expansions, respectively, accompanied by increased gene flow...
April 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520553/mapping-for-the-management-of-diffuse-pollution-risks-related-to-agricultural-plant-protection-practices-case-of-the-etang-de-l-or-catchment-area-in-france
#17
Oussama Mghirbi, Jean-Paul Bord, Philippe Le Grusse, Elisabeth Mandart, Jacques Fabre
Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506123/meta-analysis-of-lamb-birth-weight-as-influenced-by-pregnancy-nutrition-of-multiparous-ewes
#18
Fernando J Roca Fraga, Malgorzata Lagisz, Shinichi Nakagawa, Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Hugh T Blair, Paul R Kenyon
Across the literature, there is large variation in lamb birth weight responses to changes in the ewe pregnancy nutrition. Much of this heterogeneity has been attributed to several factors inherent to each experiment; however, the relative contribution of these experimental factors has not yet been quantified. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the variation in lamb birth weight responses across nutritional studies involving adult multiparous ewes. Effect-sizes for individual studies were estimated using the unbiased estimator Hedges' g, whereby positive and negative values indicate heavier and lighter treatment lambs vs...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453390/birds-and-beans-comparing-avian-richness-and-endemism-in-arabica-and-robusta-agroforests-in-india-s-western-ghats
#19
Charlotte H Chang, Krithi K Karanth, Paul Robbins
Coffee is a major tropical commodity crop that can provide supplementary habitat for native wildlife. In Asia, coffee production is an increasingly important driver of landscape transformation and shifts between different coffee species is a major dimension of agroforestry trends. Yet few studies have compared the ecological impacts of conversion between different coffee species. We evaluated whether or not the two species of coffee grown globally-Coffea arabica and C. canephora (denoted "robusta")-had equivalent avian conservation value in the Western Ghats, India, where robusta production has become increasingly dominant...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412874/building-laboratory-capacity-to-strengthen-health-systems-the-partners-in-health-experience
#20
REVIEW
Juan Daniel Orozco, Lauren A Greenberg, Ishaan K Desai, Fabienne Anglade, Deogratias Ruhangaza, Mira Johnson, Louise C Ivers, Danny A Milner, Paul E Farmer
The diagnostic laboratory is essential to patient care and to the achievement of health equity. Through the development of quality laboratories in settings burdened by poverty and weak health systems, Partners In Health has demonstrated the critical contributions of clinical laboratories to the care of patients with HIV, tuberculosis, and cancer, among other conditions. The lessons learned through the organization's experience include the importance of well-trained and well-supported staff; reliable access to supplies, reagents, and diagnostic equipment; adequate facilities to provide diagnostic services; the integration of laboratories into networks of care; and accompaniment of the public health sector...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
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