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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641367/annual-crop-yield-variation-child-survival-and-nutrition-among-subsistence-farmers-in-burkina-faso
#1
Kristine Belesova, Antonio Gasparrini, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn, Paul Wilkinson
Whether year to year variation in crop yields affects the nutrition, health, and survival of subsistence farming populations is relevant to the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change. However, the empirical evidence is limited. We examined the association of child survival with inter-annual variation in food crop yield and middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in a subsistence farming population of rural Burkina Faso. The study was of 44,616 children < 5 years of age included in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, 1992-2012, whose survival was analysed in relation to the food crop yield in the year of birth (which ranged from 65% to 120% of the period average) and, for a subset of 16,698 children, to MUAC, using shared frailty Cox proportional hazards models...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629742/statistical-differences-in-the-white-matter-tracts-in-subjects-with-depression-by-using-different-skeletonized-voxel-wise-analysis-approaches-and-dti-fitting-procedures
#2
Maurizio Bergamino, Madison Farmer, Hung-Wen Yeh, Elisabeth Paul, J Paul Hamilton
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most significant contributors to the global burden of illness. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a procedure that has been used in several studies to characterize abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructural integrity in MDD. These studies, however, have provided divergent findings, potentially due to the large variety of methodological alternatives available in conducting DTI research. In order to determine the importance of different approaches to coregistration of DTI-derived metrics to a standard space, we compared results from two different skeletonized voxel-wise analysis approaches: the standard TBBS pipeline and the Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) approach incorporating a symmetric image normalization (SyN) algorithm and a group-wise template (ANTs TBSS)...
June 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618042/farmers-knowledge-of-q-fever-and-prevention-approaches-in-new-south-wales
#3
Tony Lower, Paul Corben, Peter Massey, Julie Depczynski, Tony Brown, Priscilla Stanley, Margaret Osbourn, David Durrheim
OBJECTIVE: To identify what New South Wales (NSW) farmers know about Q fever to inform preventive approaches. DESIGN: Thematic analysis of qualitative data gathered through semi-structured individual interviews, focus groups and a community meeting. SETTING: Rural communities in NSW, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 farmers participated in individual interviews (n = 4) or three focus groups, each with seven participants (n = 21)...
June 15, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588996/implementing-one-health-as-an-integrated-approach-to-health-in-rwanda
#4
Thierry Nyatanyi, Michael Wilkes, Haley McDermott, Serge Nzietchueng, Isidore Gafarasi, Antoine Mudakikwa, Jean Felix Kinani, Joseph Rukelibuga, Jared Omolo, Denise Mupfasoni, Adeline Kabeja, Jose Nyamusore, Julius Nziza, Jean Leonard Hakizimana, Julius Kamugisha, Richard Nkunda, Robert Kibuuka, Etienne Rugigana, Paul Farmer, Philip Cotton, Agnes Binagwaho
It is increasingly clear that resolution of complex global health problems requires interdisciplinary, intersectoral expertise and cooperation from governmental, non-governmental and educational agencies. 'One Health' refers to the collaboration of multiple disciplines and sectors working locally, nationally and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment. One Health offers the opportunity to acknowledge shared interests, set common goals, and drive toward team work to benefit the overall health of a nation...
January 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588976/the-how-project-understanding-contextual-challenges-to-global-surgical-care-provision-in-low-resource-settings
#5
Nakul P Raykar, Rachel R Yorlets, Charles Liu, Roberta Goldman, Sarah L M Greenberg, Meera Kotagal, Paul E Farmer, John G Meara, Nobhojit Roy, Rowan D Gillies
INTRODUCTION: 5 billion people around the world do not have access to safe, affordable, timely surgical care. This series of qualitative interviews was launched by The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) with the aim of understanding the contextual challenges-the specific circumstances-faced by surgical care providers in low-resource settings who care for impoverished patients, and how those providers overcome these challenges. METHODS: From January 2014 to February 2015, 20 LCoGS collaborators conducted semistructured interviews with 148 surgical providers in low-resource settings in 21 countries...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575927/storage-induced-changes-in-coliform-heterotrophic-groups-of-bacteria-and-nutrient-levels-of-human-urine-for-its-safe-use-in-biological-production
#6
B B Jana, Susmita Lahiri, D Sarkar, Sukanta Rana, J N Bhakta, Dipak Paul
Human urine is a potential source of various nutrients, minerals and trace elements. Its use as a fertilizer is growing popular among farmers. Here, we examined the pattern of changes in the counts of coliform, heterotrophic bacteria as well as physico-chemical characteristics of human urine during different days of storage under closed conditions at ambient temperature. We observed that after 253 days of storage under closed condition, the coliform counts were reduced significantly and remained within the safe limit to be used as fertilizer...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570927/girl-child-marriage-as-a-risk-factor-for-early-childhood-development-and-stunting
#7
Yvette Efevbera, Jacqueline Bhabha, Paul E Farmer, Günther Fink
This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program...
May 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532994/johne-s-disease-in-the-eyes-of-irish-cattle-farmers-a-qualitative-narrative-research-approach-to-understanding-implications-for-disease-management
#8
Conor G McAloon, Áine Macken-Walsh, Lisa Moran, Paul Whyte, Simon J More, Luke O'Grady, Michael L Doherty
Bovine Johne's Disease (JD) is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some research exists to suggest that the aetiologic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis may pose a zoonotic risk. Nationally coordinated control programmes have been introduced in many of the major milk producing countries across the world. However, JD is challenging to control in infected herds owing to limitations of diagnostic tests and the long incubation period of the disease...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525996/cancer-risks-in-a-population-based-study-of-70-570-agricultural-workers-results-from-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#9
Linda Kachuri, M Anne Harris, Jill S MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. METHODS: Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486574/assessing-the-potential-for-bias-from-non-response-to-a-study-follow-up-interview-an-example-from-the-agricultural-health-study
#10
Jessica L Rinsky, David B Richardson, Steve Wing, John D Beard, Michael Alavanja, Laura E Beane Freeman, Honglei Chen, Paul K Henneberger, Freya Kamel, Dale P Sandler, Jane A Hoppin
Prospective cohort studies are important tools for identifying causes of disease. However, these studies are susceptible to attrition. When information collected after enrollment is through interview or exam, attrition leads to missing information for non-respondents. The Agricultural Health Study enrolled 52,394 farmers in 1993-1997 and collected additional information during subsequent interviews. Forty-six percent of enrolled farmers responded to the 2005-2010 interview; 7% of farmers died prior to interview...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413250/agricultural-commercialization-and-nutrition-revisited-empirical-evidence-from-three-african-countries
#11
Calogero Carletto, Paul Corral, Anita Guelfi
The transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture is key for economic growth. But what are the consequences for nutritional outcomes? The evidence to date has been scant and inconclusive. This study contributes to the debate by revisiting two prevailing wisdoms: (a) market participation by African smallholders remains low; and (b) the impact of commercialization on nutritional outcomes is generally positive. Using nationally representative data from three African countries, the analysis reveals high levels of commercialization by even the poorest and smallest landholders, with rates of market participation as high as 90%...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405785/determination-of-the-potential-implementation-impact-of-2016-ministry-of-environmental-protection-generic-assessment-criteria-for-potentially-contaminated-sites-in-china
#12
Yuanyuan Cheng, Yu-Ting Tang, C Paul Nathanail
The Ministry of Environmental Protection of China issued a 3rd draft edition of risk-based Generic Assessment Criteria (the MEP-GAC) in March 2016. Since these will be the first authoritative GAC in China, their implementation is likely to have a significant impact on China's growing contaminated land management sector. This study aims to determine the potential implementation impact of the MEP-GAC through an in-depth analysis of the management context, land use scenarios, health criteria values adopted and exposure pathways considered...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402231/a-comparison-of-interventional-approaches-for-increasing-power-take-off-shielding-on-new-york-farms
#13
Julie A Sorensen, Pamela J Tinc, Deb Dalton, Erika E Scott, Paul L Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: Power take-off (PTO) driveline entanglements are a primary source of injury on US farms. As with many farm injury concerns, hazard control technology is widely available for mitigating the risk of these entanglements. Despite the availability of hazard control technology, PTO shields are damaged or missing on approximately 57% of PTO driveline implements in New York. Given the catastrophic nature of entanglements and the ready access to safety technology, a better understanding of what motivates farmers to install or replace PTO shields is warranted...
2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341696/a-low-frequency-inactivating-akt2-variant-enriched-in-the-finnish-population-is-associated-with-fasting-insulin-levels-and-type-2-diabetes-risk
#14
Alisa Manning, Heather M Highland, Jessica Gasser, Xueling Sim, Taru Tukiainen, Pierre Fontanillas, Niels Grarup, Manuel A Rivas, Anubha Mahajan, Adam E Locke, Pablo Cingolani, Tune H Pers, Ana Viñuela, Andrew A Brown, Ying Wu, Jason Flannick, Christian Fuchsberger, Eric R Gamazon, Kyle J Gaulton, Hae Kyung Im, Tanya M Teslovich, Thomas W Blackwell, Jette Bork-Jensen, Noël P Burtt, Yuhui Chen, Todd Green, Christopher Hartl, Hyun Min Kang, Ashish Kumar, Claes Ladenvall, Clement Ma, Loukas Moutsianas, Richard D Pearson, John R B Perry, N William Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Laura J Scott, Martijn van de Bunt, Johan G Eriksson, Antti Jula, Seppo Koskinen, Terho Lehtimäki, Aarno Palotie, Olli T Raitakari, Suzanne B R Jacobs, Jennifer Wessel, Audrey Y Chu, Robert A Scott, Mark O Goodarzi, Christine Blancher, Gemma Buck, David Buck, Peter S Chines, Stacey Gabriel, Anette P Gjesing, Christopher J Groves, Mette Hollensted, Jeroen R Huyghe, Anne U Jackson, Goo Jun, Johanne Marie Justesen, Massimo Mangino, Jacquelyn Murphy, Matt Neville, Robert Onofrio, Kerrin S Small, Heather M Stringham, Joseph Trakalo, Eric Banks, Jason Carey, Mauricio O Carneiro, Mark DePristo, Yossi Farjoun, Timothy Fennell, Jacqueline I Goldstein, George Grant, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Jared Maguire, Benjamin M Neale, Ryan Poplin, Shaun Purcell, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Khalid Shakir, Joshua D Smith, Tim M Strom, Thomas Wieland, Jaana Lindstrom, Ivan Brandslund, Cramer Christensen, Gabriela L Surdulescu, Timo A Lakka, Alex S F Doney, Peter Nilsson, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Tibor V Varga, Paul W Franks, Olov Rolandsson, Anders H Rosengren, Vidya S Farook, Farook Thameem, Sobha Puppala, Satish Kumar, Donna M Lehman, Christopher P Jenkinson, Joanne E Curran, Daniel Esten Hale, Sharon P Fowler, Rector Arya, Ralph A DeFronzo, Hanna E Abboud, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Pamela J Hicks, Nicholette D Palmer, Maggie C Y Ng, Donald W Bowden, Barry I Freedman, Tõnu Esko, Reedik Mägi, Lili Milani, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Narisu Narisu, Leena Kinnunen, Lori L Bonnycastle, Amy Swift, Dorota Pasko, Andrew R Wood, João Fadista, Toni I Pollin, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon, Benjamin Glaser, Barbara Thorand, Konstantin Strauch, Annette Peters, Michael Roden, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Liming Liang, Jennifer Kriebel, Thomas Illig, Harald Grallert, Christian Gieger, Christa Meisinger, Lars Lannfelt, Solomon K Musani, Michael Griswold, Herman A Taylor, Gregory Wilson, Adolfo Correa, Heikki Oksa, William R Scott, Uzma Afzal, Sian-Tsung Tan, Marie Loh, John C Chambers, Jobanpreet Sehmi, Jaspal Singh Kooner, Benjamin Lehne, Yoon Shin Cho, Jong-Young Lee, Bok-Ghee Han, Annemari Käräjämäki, Qibin Qi, Lu Qi, Jinyan Huang, Frank B Hu, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander, Jennifer E Below, David Aguilar, Tien Yin Wong, Jianjun Liu, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Kee Seng Chia, Wei Yen Lim, Ching-Yu Cheng, Edmund Chan, E Shyong Tai, Tin Aung, Allan Linneberg, Bo Isomaa, Thomas Meitinger, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Liisa Hakaste, Jasmina Kravic, Marit E Jørgensen, Torsten Lauritzen, Panos Deloukas, Kathleen E Stirrups, Katharine R Owen, Andrew J Farmer, Timothy M Frayling, Stephen P O'Rahilly, Mark Walker, Jonathan C Levy, Dylan Hodgkiss, Andrew T Hattersley, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Alena Stančáková, Inês Barroso, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Juliana Chan, Giriraj R Chandak, Mark J Daly, Peter J Donnelly, Shah B Ebrahim, Paul Elliott, Tasha Fingerlin, Philippe Froguel, Cheng Hu, Weiping Jia, Ronald C W Ma, Gilean McVean, Taesung Park, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Manjinder Sandhu, James Scott, Rob Sladek, Nikhil Tandon, Yik Ying Teo, Eleftheria Zeggini, Richard M Watanabe, Heikki A Koistinen, Y Antero Kesaniemi, Matti Uusitupa, Timothy D Spector, Veikko Salomaa, Rainer Rauramaa, Colin N A Palmer, Inga Prokopenko, Andrew D Morris, Richard N Bergman, Francis S Collins, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Fredrik Karpe, Leif Groop, Torben Jørgensen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Johanna Kuusisto, Gonçalo Abecasis, Graeme I Bell, John Blangero, Nancy J Cox, Ravindranath Duggirala, Mark Seielstad, James G Wilson, Josee Dupuis, Samuli Ripatti, Craig L Hanis, Jose C Florez, Karen L Mohlke, James B Meigs, Markku Laakso, Andrew P Morris, Michael Boehnke, David Altshuler, Mark I McCarthy, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren
To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants from exome sequence in up to 39,339 normoglycemic individuals from five ancestry groups. We identified a novel association between the coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) in AKT2 and fasting plasma insulin (FI), a gene in which rare fully penetrant mutations are causal for monogenic glycemic disorders...
July 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328735/building-workforce-capacity-abroad-while-strengthening-global-health-programs-at-home-participation-of-seven-harvard-affiliated-institutions-in-a-health-professional-training-initiative-in-rwanda
#15
Corrado Cancedda, Robert Riviello, Kim Wilson, Kirstin W Scott, Meenu Tuteja, Jane R Barrow, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Gene Bukhman, Jennifer Scott, Danny Milner, Giuseppe Raviola, Barbara Weissman, Stacy Smith, Tej Nuthulaganti, Craig D McClain, Barbara E Bierer, Paul E Farmer, Anne E Becker, Agnes Binagwaho, Joseph Rhatigan, David E Golan
A consortium of 22 U.S. academic institutions is currently participating in the Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program (HRH Program). Led by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and funded by both the U.S. Government and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the primary goal of this seven-year initiative is to help Rwanda train the number of health professionals necessary to reach the country's health workforce targets. Since 2012, the participating U.S. academic institutions have deployed faculty from a variety of health-related disciplines and clinical specialties to Rwanda...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283749/contingency-and-contiguity-of-imitative-behaviour-affect-social-affiliation
#16
David Dignath, Paul Lotze-Hermes, Harry Farmer, Roland Pfister
Actions of others automatically prime similar responses in an agent's behavioural repertoire. As a consequence, perceived or anticipated imitation facilitates own action control and, at the same time, imitation boosts social affiliation and rapport with others. It has previously been suggested that basic mechanisms of associative learning can account for behavioural effects of imitation, whereas a possible role of associative learning for affiliative processes is poorly understood at present. Therefore, this study examined whether contingency and contiguity, the principles of associative learning, affect also the social effects of imitation...
March 10, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264476/short-term-local-adaptation-of-historical-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-varieties-and-implications-for-in-situ-management-of-bean-diversity
#17
Stephanie M Klaedtke, Leonardo Caproni, Julia Klauck, Paul de la Grandville, Martin Dutartre, Pierre M Stassart, Véronique Chable, Valeria Negri, Lorenzo Raggi
Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers' and gardeners' networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231701/the-potential-interaction-between-ewe-body-condition-score-and-nutrition-during-very-late-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-the-performance-of-twin-bearing-ewes-and-their-lambs
#18
Lydia Cranston, Paul Kenyon, Rene Corner-Thomas, Steve Morris
Objective: The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe BCS (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0) and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses) during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. Methods: On day [42 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a body condition score (BCS) of 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0 were allocated to a "Moderate' or 'Unrestricted' nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning)...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197322/discovery-of-novel-orally-bioavailable-%C3%AE-amino-acid-azaindole-inhibitors-of-influenza-pb2
#19
Luc J Farmer, Michael P Clark, Michael J Boyd, Emanuele Perola, Steven M Jones, Alice Tsai, Marc D Jacobs, Upul K Bandarage, Mark W Ledeboer, Tiansheng Wang, Hongbo Deng, Brian Ledford, Wenxin Gu, John P Duffy, Randy S Bethiel, Dean Shannon, Randal A Byrn, Joshua R Leeman, Rene Rijnbrand, Hamilton B Bennett, Colleen O'Brien, Christine Memmott, Kwame Nti-Addae, Youssef L Bennani, Paul S Charifson
In our efforts to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors for the treatment of influenza, we utilized molecular modeling and the X-ray crystal structure of the PB2 subunit of the influenza polymerase to optimize a series of acyclic β-amino acid inhibitors, highlighted by compound 4. Compound 4 showed good oral exposure in both rat and mouse. More importantly, it showed strong potency versus multiple influenza-A strains, including pandemic 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 strains and showed a strong efficacy profile in a mouse influenza model even when treatment was initiated 48 h after infection...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193386/the-ebola-suspect-s-dilemma
#20
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, Cameron T Nutt, J Daniel Kelly, Raphael Frankfurter, Mosoka P Fallah, Paul E Farmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
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