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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328735/building-workforce-capacity-abroad-while-strengthening-global-health-programs-at-home-participation-of-seven-harvard-affiliated-institutions-in-a-health-professional-training-initiative-in-rwanda
#1
Corrado Cancedda, Robert Riviello, Kim Wilson, Kirstin W Scott, Meenu Tuteja, Jane R Barrow, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Gene Bukhman, Jennifer Scott, Danny Milner, Giuseppe Raviola, Barbara Weissman, Stacy Smith, Tej Nuthulaganti, Craig D McClain, Barbara E Bierer, Paul E Farmer, Anne E Becker, Agnes Binagwaho, Joseph Rhatigan, David E Golan
A consortium of 22 U.S. academic institutions is currently participating in the Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program (HRH Program). Led by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and funded by both the U.S. Government and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the primary goal of this seven-year initiative is to help Rwanda train the number of health professionals necessary to reach the country's health workforce targets. Since 2012, the participating U.S. academic institutions have deployed faculty from a variety of health-related disciplines and clinical specialties to Rwanda...
March 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283749/contingency-and-contiguity-of-imitative-behaviour-affect-social-affiliation
#2
David Dignath, Paul Lotze-Hermes, Harry Farmer, Roland Pfister
Actions of others automatically prime similar responses in an agent's behavioural repertoire. As a consequence, perceived or anticipated imitation facilitates own action control and, at the same time, imitation boosts social affiliation and rapport with others. It has previously been suggested that basic mechanisms of associative learning can account for behavioural effects of imitation, whereas a possible role of associative learning for affiliative processes is poorly understood at present. Therefore, this study examined whether contingency and contiguity, the principles of associative learning, affect also the social effects of imitation...
March 10, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264476/short-term-local-adaptation-of-historical-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-varieties-and-implications-for-in-situ-management-of-bean-diversity
#3
Stephanie M Klaedtke, Leonardo Caproni, Julia Klauck, Paul de la Grandville, Martin Dutartre, Pierre M Stassart, Véronique Chable, Valeria Negri, Lorenzo Raggi
Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers' and gardeners' networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231701/the-potential-interaction-between-ewe-body-condition-score-and-nutrition-during-very-late-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-the-performance-of-twin-bearing-ewes-and-their-lambs
#4
Lydia Cranston, Paul Kenyon, Rene Corner-Thomas, Steve Morris
Objective: The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe BCS (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0) and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses) during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. Methods: On day [42 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a body condition score (BCS) of 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0 were allocated to a "Moderate' or 'Unrestricted' nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning)...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197322/discovery-of-novel-orally-bioavailable-%C3%AE-amino-acid-azaindole-inhibitors-of-influenza-pb2
#5
Luc J Farmer, Michael P Clark, Michael J Boyd, Emanuele Perola, Steven M Jones, Alice Tsai, Marc D Jacobs, Upul K Bandarage, Mark W Ledeboer, Tiansheng Wang, Hongbo Deng, Brian Ledford, Wenxin Gu, John P Duffy, Randy S Bethiel, Dean Shannon, Randal A Byrn, Joshua R Leeman, Rene Rijnbrand, Hamilton B Bennett, Colleen O'Brien, Christine Memmott, Kwame Nti-Addae, Youssef L Bennani, Paul S Charifson
In our efforts to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors for the treatment of influenza, we utilized molecular modeling and the X-ray crystal structure of the PB2 subunit of the influenza polymerase to optimize a series of acyclic β-amino acid inhibitors, highlighted by compound 4. Compound 4 showed good oral exposure in both rat and mouse. More importantly, it showed strong potency versus multiple influenza-A strains, including pandemic 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 strains and showed a strong efficacy profile in a mouse influenza model even when treatment was initiated 48 h after infection...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193386/the-ebola-suspect-s-dilemma
#6
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, Cameron T Nutt, J Daniel Kelly, Raphael Frankfurter, Mosoka P Fallah, Paul E Farmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155869/successful-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-ebola-infected-non-human-primates-using-ebola-glycoprotein-specific-equine-igg
#7
Oleg V Pyankov, Yin Xiang Setoh, Sergey A Bodnev, Judith H Edmonds, Olga G Pyankova, Stepan A Pyankov, Gabor Pali, Shane Belford, Louis Lu, Mylinh La, George Lovrecz, Valentina A Volchkova, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Glenn Marsh, Paul R Young, Alexander A Agafonov, Jillann F Farmer, Victor E Volchkov, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
Herein we describe production of purified equine IgG obtained from horses immunized with plasmid DNA followed by boosting with Kunjin replicon virus-like particles both encoding a modified Ebola glycoprotein. Administration of the equine IgG over 5 days to cynomolgus macaques infected 24 hours previously with a lethal dose of Ebola virus suppressed viral loads by more than 5 logs and protected animals from mortality. Animals generated their own Ebola glycoprotein-specific IgG responses 9-15 days after infection, with circulating virus undetectable by day 15-17...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063085/can-toxicants-used-against-cotton-mealybug-phenacoccus-solenopsis-be-compatible-with-an-encyrtid-parasitoid-aenasius-bambawalei-under-laboratory-conditions
#8
Hayat Badshah, Farman Ullah, Paul Andre Calatayud, Hidayat Ullah, Bashir Ahmad
The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest of various cultivated plants in Pakistan. Recent reports show that the parasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a good biocontrol agent of the pest. Compatibleness is important in any IPM programme, and the insecticide used must have little or no effects on the biological control agent. This study investigated the compatibility of neem treatments and a commercial insecticide, imidacloprid on A...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056950/laboratory-cohabitation-challenge-model-for-shrimp-hepatopancreatic-microsporidiosis-hpm-caused-by-enterocytozoon-hepatopenaei-ehp
#9
Paul Vinu Salachan, Pattana Jaroenlak, Siripong Thitamadee, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana
BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) causes hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) in shrimp. It is probably endemic in Australasia and was first characterized and named from the giant or black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand in 2009. Later, it was also found to infect exotic Penaeus vannamei imported for cultivation in Asia. HPM is not normally associated with shrimp mortality, but information from shrimp farmers indicates that it is associated with significant growth retardation that is not clearly noticeable until 2-3 months of cultivation...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054813/who-believes-in-the-gambler-s-fallacy-and-why
#10
George D Farmer, Paul A Warren, Ulrike Hahn
Humans possess a remarkable ability to discriminate structure from randomness in the environment. However, this ability appears to be systematically biased. This is nowhere more evident than in the Gambler's Fallacy (GF)-the mistaken belief that observing an increasingly long sequence of "heads" from an unbiased coin makes the occurrence of "tails" on the next trial ever more likely. Although the GF appears to provide evidence of "cognitive bias," a recent theoretical account (Hahn & Warren, 2009) has suggested the GF might be understandable if constraints on actual experience of random sources (such as attention and short term memory) are taken into account...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867504/short-rotation-plantations-policy-history-in-europe-lessons-from-the-past-and-recommendations-for-the-future
#11
REVIEW
Kevin N Lindegaard, Paul W R Adams, Martin Holley, Annette Lamley, Annika Henriksson, Stig Larsson, Hans-Georg von Engelbrechten, Gonzalo Esteban Lopez, Marcin Pisarek
Short rotation plantations (SRPs) are fast-growing trees (such as willow (Salix spp.), poplar (Populus spp.) and Eucalyptus) grown closely together and harvested in periods of 2-20 years. There are around 50,000 hectares of SRPs in Europe, a relatively small area considering that there have been supportive policy measures in many countries for 30 years. This paper looks at the effect that the policy measures used in different EU countries have had, and how other external factors have impacted on the development of the industry...
August 2016: Food and energy security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854336/what-we-know-about-the-public-s-level-of-concern-for-farm-animal-welfare-in-food-production-in-developed-countries
#12
REVIEW
Amelia Cornish, David Raubenheimer, Paul McGreevy
Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public...
November 16, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854060/comparison-of-predicted-aquatic-risks-of-pesticides-used-under-different-rice-farming-strategies-in-the-mekong-delta-vietnam
#13
Nadja Stadlinger, Håkan Berg, Paul J Van den Brink, Nguyen T Tam, Jonas S Gunnarsson
This study evaluates the risks of pesticides applied in rice-fish and rice farming, with and without integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, to non-target aquatic organisms in two provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Pesticide inventories and application patterns were collected from 120 Vietnamese farmers through interviews. Risks were assessed using (1) Pesticide RIsks in the Tropics to Man, Environment, and Trade (PRIMET), a first-tier model, which calculates predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides in the rice field, based on the compound's physico-chemical properties and the application pattern, and then compares the PECs to safe concentrations based on literature data, and (2) species sensitivity distribution (SSD), a second-tier assessment model using species sensitivity distributions to calculate potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species based on the PECs from PRIMET...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853621/silicone-wristbands-detect-individuals-pesticide-exposures-in-west-africa
#14
Carey E Donald, Richard P Scott, Kathy L Blaustein, Mary L Halbleib, Makhfousse Sarr, Paul C Jepson, Kim A Anderson
We detected between 2 and 10 pesticides per person with novel sampling devices worn by 35 participants who were actively engaged in farming in Diender, Senegal. Participants were recruited to wear silicone wristbands for each of two separate periods of up to 5 days. Pesticide exposure profiles were highly individualized with only limited associations with demographic data. Using a 63-pesticide dual-column gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method, we detected pyrethoid insecticides most frequently, followed by organophosphate pesticides which have been linked to adverse health outcomes...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851858/existing-and-emerging-payment-and-delivery-reforms-in-cardiology
#15
Steven A Farmer, Margaret L Darling, Meaghan George, Paul N Casale, Eileen Hagan, Mark B McClellan
Importance: Recent health care reforms aim to increase patient access, reduce costs, and improve health care quality as payers turn to payment reform for greater value. Cardiologists need to understand emerging payment models to succeed in the evolving payment landscape. We review existing payment and delivery reforms that affect cardiologists, present 4 emerging examples, and consider their implications for clinical practice. Observations: Public and commercial payers have recently implemented payment reforms and new models are evolving...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847420/production-performance-of-finisher-broiler-fed-with-cocoyam-corm-meal-as-partial-energy-replacement-for-maize
#16
Christian Paul P de la Cruz
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp.) corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control), 25%, and 50% (experimental) replacement levels. RESULTS: There were no significant differences (p≥0...
October 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846221/minimally-symptomatic-infection-in-an-ebola-hotspot-a-cross-sectional-serosurvey
#17
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, Annelies W Mesman, Sahr Karku, Komba Quiwa, Regan H Marsh, Songor Koedoyoma, Fodei Daboh, Kathryn P Barron, Michael Grady, Elizabeth Tucker, Kerry L Dierberg, George W Rutherford, Michele Barry, James Holland Jones, Megan B Murray, Paul E Farmer
INTRODUCTION: Evidence for minimally symptomatic Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is limited. During the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, it was not considered epidemiologically relevant to published models or projections of intervention effects. In order to improve our understanding of the transmission dynamics of EBOV in humans, we investigated the occurrence of minimally symptomatic EBOV infection in quarantined contacts of reported Ebola virus disease cases in a recognized 'hotspot.' METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey in Sukudu, Kono District, Sierra Leone, from October 2015 to January 2016...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845237/early-life-farm-exposures-and-adult-asthma-and-atopy-in-the-agricultural-lung-health-study
#18
John S House, Annah B Wyss, Jane A Hoppin, Marie Richards, Stuart Long, David M Umbach, Paul K Henneberger, Laura E Beane Freeman, Dale P Sandler, Elizabeth Long O'Connell, Christie Barker-Cummings, Stephanie J London
BACKGROUND: Previous studies, mostly from Europe, suggest that early-life farming exposures protect against childhood asthma and allergy; few data exist on asthma and allergy in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine associations between early-life farming exposures and current asthma and atopy in an older adult US farming population. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1746 farmers and 1555 spouses (mean age, 63) from a case-control study nested within the Agricultural Health Study...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781004/biosocial-approaches-to-the-2013-2016-ebola-pandemic
#19
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, J Daniel Kelly, Yusupha Dibba, Songor Koedoyoma, Paul E Farmer
Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749305/embracing-medical-education-s-global-mission
#20
Paul E Farmer, Joseph J Rhatigan
Shortages of trained health care workers plague low- and middle-income countries around the world. When resources are scarce, the ability to support medical education is severely constrained. While there are many important "building blocks" of health systems that need to be bolstered in low- and middle-income countries, the authors propose that U.S. academic medicine can make unique contributions in the realm of human resource development-specifically, increasing the supply of physicians who directly provide health care to the populations they serve and who often manage and lead these health systems...
October 4, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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