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Paul farmer

Paul E Farmer, Joseph J Rhatigan
Shortages of trained health care workers plague low- and middle-income countries around the world. When resources are scarce, the ability to support medical education is severely constrained. While there are many important "building blocks" of health systems that need to be bolstered in low- and middle-income countries, the authors propose that U.S. academic medicine can make unique contributions in the realm of human resource development-specifically, increasing the supply of physicians who directly provide health care to the populations they serve and who often manage and lead these health systems...
October 4, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Joia S Mukherjee, Danika Barry, Robert D Weatherford, Ishaan K Desai, Paul E Farmer
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 brought with it an urgent need to develop models of health care delivery that could enable its effective and equitable delivery, especially to patients living in poverty. Community-based care, which stretches from patient homes and communities-where chronic infectious diseases are often best managed-to modern health centers and hospitals, offers such a model, providing access to proximate HIV care and minimizing structural barriers to retention. We first review the recent literature on community-based ART programs in low- and low-to-middle-income country settings and document two key principles that guide effective programs: decentralization of ART services and long-term retention of patients in care...
October 13, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Frederike Reichmann, Annette Pfitzner, Guenter Rademacher, Elke Schwedinger, Klaus Cussler, Carola M Sauter-Louis
BACKGROUND: Several research groups from different European countries have worked on the aetiopathogenesis of bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) and an association between the use of the vaccine PregSure BVD (Pfizer, Germany) and the development of this haemorrhagic disease was confirmed. Because BNP is not a notifiable disease, it is difficult to obtain information on its incidence. Based on pharmacovigilance (PhV) data, which are the only officially available data at the national level, the incidence of BNP is considered low...
October 7, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Corrado Cancedda, Sheila M Davis, Kerry L Dierberg, Jonathan Lascher, J Daniel Kelly, Mohammed Bailor Barrie, Alimamy Philip Koroma, Peter George, Adikali Alpha Kamara, Ronald Marsh, Manso S Sumbuya, Cameron T Nutt, Kirstin W Scott, Edgar Thomas, Katherine Bollbach, Andrew Sesay, Ahmidu Barrie, Elizabeth Barrera, Kathryn Barron, John Welch, Nahid Bhadelia, Raphael G Frankfurter, Ophelia M Dahl, Sarthak Das, Rebecca E Rollins, Bryan Eustis, Amanda Schwartz, Piero Pertile, Ilias Pavlopoulos, Allan Mayfield, Regan H Marsh, Yusupha Dibba, Danielle Kloepper, Andrew Hall, Karin Huster, Michael Grady, Kimberly Spray, David A Walton, Fodei Daboh, Cora Nally, Sahr James, Gabriel S Warren, Joyce Chang, Michael Drasher, Gina Lamin, Sherry Bangura, Ann C Miller, Annie P Michaelis, Ryan McBain, M Jana Broadhurst, Megan Murray, Eugene T Richardson, Ted Philip, Gary L Gottlieb, Joia S Mukherjee, Paul E Farmer
An epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) beginning in 2013 has claimed an estimated 11 310 lives in West Africa. As the EVD epidemic subsides, it is important for all who participated in the emergency Ebola response to reflect on strengths and weaknesses of the response. Such reflections should take into account perspectives not usually included in peer-reviewed publications and after-action reports, including those from the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), survivors of Ebola, and Ebola-affected households and communities...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kyle A Williams, Susan E Swedo, Cristan A Farmer, Heidi Grantz, Paul J Grant, Precilla D'Souza, Rebecca Hommer, Liliya Katsovich, Robert A King, James F Leckman
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are hypothesized to occur as a result of cross-reactive antibodies produced in response to group A streptococcal infections. Previous research suggests that immunomodulatory therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), may lead to rapid and sustained symptom improvement in patients with PANDAS. METHOD: A total of 35 children meeting criteria for PANDAS and moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were enrolled in a randomized-entry, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week trial of IVIG (1 g/kg/day on 2 consecutive days), followed by optional open-label treatment for nonresponders, with follow-up at 12 and 24 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Evans Dawoe, Winston Asante, Emmanuel Acheampong, Paul Bosu
BACKGROUND: The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
Terry Hurley, Paul Mitchell
BACKGROUND: The benefits of neonicotinoid seed treatment to soybean farmers have received increased scrutiny. Rather than use data from small-plot experiments, this research uses survey data from 500 US farmers to estimate the benefit of neonicotinoid seed treatments to them. As seed treatment users, farmers are familiar with their benefits in the field and have economic incentives to only use them if they provide value. RESULTS: Of the surveyed farmers, 51% used insecticide seed treatments, averaging 87% of their soybean area...
August 30, 2016: Pest Management Science
Tanya I Coulter, Anita Chandra, Chris M Bacon, Judith Babar, James Curtis, Nick Screaton, John R Goodlad, George Farmer, Cathal Laurence Steele, Timothy Ronan Leahy, Rainer Doffinger, Helen Baxendale, Jolanta Bernatoniene, J David M Edgar, Hilary J Longhurst, Stephan Ehl, Carsten Speckmann, Bodo Grimbacher, Anna Sediva, Tomas Milota, Saul N Faust, Anthony P Williams, Grant Hayman, Zeynep Yesim Kucuk, Rosie Hague, Paul French, Richard Brooker, Peter Forsyth, Richard Herriot, Caterina Cancrini, Paolo Palma, Paola Ariganello, Niall Conlon, Conleth Feighery, Patrick J Gavin, Alison Jones, Kohsuke Imai, Mohammad A A Ibrahim, Gašper Markelj, Mario Abinun, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Sylvain Latour, Isabelle Pellier, Alain Fischer, Fabien Touzot, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Durandy, Siobhan O Burns, Sinisa Savic, D S Kumararatne, Despina Moshous, Sven Kracker, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Klaus Okkenhaug, Capucine Picard, Sergey Nejentsev, Alison M Condliffe, Andrew James Cant
BACKGROUND: Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) is a recently described combined immunodeficiency resulting from gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ). OBJECTIVE: We sought to review the clinical, immunologic, histopathologic, and radiologic features of APDS in a large genetically defined international cohort. METHODS: We applied a clinical questionnaire and performed review of medical notes, radiology, histopathology, and laboratory investigations of 53 patients with APDS...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Daniela C Mónaco, Dario A Dilernia, Andrew Fiore-Gartland, Tianwei Yu, Jessica L Prince, Kristine K Dennis, Kai Qin, Malinda Schaefer, Daniel T Claiborne, William Kilembe, Jianming Tang, Matt A Price, Paul Farmer, Jill Gilmour, Anju Bansal, Susan Allen, Paul Goepfert, Eric Hunter
HIV-1 adapts to a new host through mutations that facilitate immune escape. Here, we evaluate the impact on viral control and disease progression of transmitted polymorphisms that were either preadapted to or nonassociated with the new host's HLA. In a cohort of 169 Zambian heterosexual transmission pairs, we found that almost one-third of possible HLA-linked target sites in the transmitted virus Gag protein are already adapted, and that this transmitted preadaptation significantly reduced early immune recognition of epitopes...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Augustine Donkor, Paul Osei-Fosu, Brajesh Dubey, Robert Kingsford-Adaboh, Cephas Ziwu, Isaac Asante
Pesticides are known to improve agriculture yield considerably leading to an increase in its application over the years. The use of pesticides has shown varying detrimental effects in humans as well as the environment. Presently, enough evidence is available to suggest their misuse and overuse in the last few decades in most developing nations primarily due to lack of education, endangering the lives of farmers as well as the entire population and environment. However, there is paucity of data especially over long durations in Ghana resulting in the absence of effective monitoring programs regarding pesticide application and subsequent contamination in fruits and vegetables...
October 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elaine Y Cheng, Matthew J Everly, Hugo Kaneku, Nubia Banuelos, Laura J Wozniak, Robert S Venick, Elizabeth A Marcus, Suzanne V McDiarmid, Ronald W Busuttil, Paul I Terasaki, Douglas G Farmer
BACKGROUND: Rejection remains the leading cause of allograft loss, and a major barrier to improving long-term outcomes following intestinal transplantation (ITx). Our aim is to define the prevalence and investigate the role of donor-specific antibody (DSA) on intestinal graft outcomes. METHODS: The study includes 109 transplants performed in 95 recipients at a single center. Patients were screened for DSA pretransplant, monitored regularly posttransplant and when clinically-indicated using the single-antigen bead Luminex assay...
August 3, 2016: Transplantation
Mathilde C Paul, Flavie L Goutard, Floriane Roulleau, Davun Holl, Weerapong Thanapongtharm, François L Roger, Annelise Tran
The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI) virus is now considered endemic in several Asian countries. In Cambodia, the virus has been circulating in the poultry population since 2004, with a dramatic effect on farmers' livelihoods and public health. In Thailand, surveillance and control are still important to prevent any new H5N1 incursion. Risk mapping can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems, but is a very challenging task in the absence of reliable disease data. In this work, we used spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to produce risk maps for HPAI H5N1 in poultry...
2016: Scientific Reports
Berhan M Teklu, Paulien I Adriaanse, Paul J Van den Brink
Since Ethiopia is going through a rapid transformation of its agricultural sector, we assessed the human health and environmental risks due to the past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the risks of the current pesticide use by farmers. A monitoring programme and risk assessment was carried out for the Wedecha-Belbela irrigation system in the Debra Zeit area. The Wedecha and Belbela rivers and adjacent temporary ponds were sampled and examined for the presence of OCPs between August and October 2014, while data on the current pesticide use by small- and large-scale farmers was collected by interviews...
October 2016: Chemosphere
Christian Fuchsberger, Jason Flannick, Tanya M Teslovich, Anubha Mahajan, Vineeta Agarwala, Kyle J Gaulton, Clement Ma, Pierre Fontanillas, Loukas Moutsianas, Davis J McCarthy, Manuel A Rivas, John R B Perry, Xueling Sim, Thomas W Blackwell, Neil R Robertson, N William Rayner, Pablo Cingolani, Adam E Locke, Juan Fernandez Tajes, Heather M Highland, Josee Dupuis, Peter S Chines, Cecilia M Lindgren, Christopher Hartl, Anne U Jackson, Han Chen, Jeroen R Huyghe, Martijn van de Bunt, Richard D Pearson, Ashish Kumar, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Niels Grarup, Heather M Stringham, Eric R Gamazon, Jaehoon Lee, Yuhui Chen, Robert A Scott, Jennifer E Below, Peng Chen, Jinyan Huang, Min Jin Go, Michael L Stitzel, Dorota Pasko, Stephen C J Parker, Tibor V Varga, Todd Green, Nicola L Beer, Aaron G Day-Williams, Teresa Ferreira, Tasha Fingerlin, Momoko Horikoshi, Cheng Hu, Iksoo Huh, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Bong-Jo Kim, Yongkang Kim, Young Jin Kim, Min-Seok Kwon, Juyoung Lee, Selyeong Lee, Keng-Han Lin, Taylor J Maxwell, Yoshihiko Nagai, Xu Wang, Ryan P Welch, Joon Yoon, Weihua Zhang, Nir Barzilai, Benjamin F Voight, Bok-Ghee Han, Christopher P Jenkinson, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Alisa Manning, Maggie C Y Ng, Nicholette D Palmer, Beverley Balkau, Alena Stancáková, Hanna E Abboud, Heiner Boeing, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Omri Gottesman, James Scott, Jason Carey, Phoenix Kwan, George Grant, Joshua D Smith, Benjamin M Neale, Shaun Purcell, Adam S Butterworth, Joanna M M Howson, Heung Man Lee, Yingchang Lu, Soo-Heon Kwak, Wei Zhao, John Danesh, Vincent K L Lam, Kyong Soo Park, Danish Saleheen, Wing Yee So, Claudia H T Tam, Uzma Afzal, David Aguilar, Rector Arya, Tin Aung, Edmund Chan, Carmen Navarro, Ching-Yu Cheng, Domenico Palli, Adolfo Correa, Joanne E Curran, Denis Rybin, Vidya S Farook, Sharon P Fowler, Barry I Freedman, Michael Griswold, Daniel Esten Hale, Pamela J Hicks, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Satish Kumar, Benjamin Lehne, Dorothée Thuillier, Wei Yen Lim, Jianjun Liu, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Marie Loh, Solomon K Musani, Sobha Puppala, William R Scott, Loïc Yengo, Sian-Tsung Tan, Herman A Taylor, Farook Thameem, Gregory Wilson, Tien Yin Wong, Pål Rasmus Njølstad, Jonathan C Levy, Massimo Mangino, Lori L Bonnycastle, Thomas Schwarzmayr, João Fadista, Gabriela L Surdulescu, Christian Herder, Christopher J Groves, Thomas Wieland, Jette Bork-Jensen, Ivan Brandslund, Cramer Christensen, Heikki A Koistinen, Alex S F Doney, Leena Kinnunen, Tõnu Esko, Andrew J Farmer, Liisa Hakaste, Dylan Hodgkiss, Jasmina Kravic, Valeriya Lyssenko, Mette Hollensted, Marit E Jørgensen, Torben Jørgensen, Claes Ladenvall, Johanne Marie Justesen, Annemari Käräjämäki, Jennifer Kriebel, Wolfgang Rathmann, Lars Lannfelt, Torsten Lauritzen, Narisu Narisu, Allan Linneberg, Olle Melander, Lili Milani, Matt Neville, Marju Orho-Melander, Lu Qi, Qibin Qi, Michael Roden, Olov Rolandsson, Amy Swift, Anders H Rosengren, Kathleen Stirrups, Andrew R Wood, Evelin Mihailov, Christine Blancher, Mauricio O Carneiro, Jared Maguire, Ryan Poplin, Khalid Shakir, Timothy Fennell, Mark DePristo, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Panos Deloukas, Anette P Gjesing, Goo Jun, Peter Nilsson, Jacquelyn Murphy, Robert Onofrio, Barbara Thorand, Torben Hansen, Christa Meisinger, Frank B Hu, Bo Isomaa, Fredrik Karpe, Liming Liang, Annette Peters, Cornelia Huth, Stephen P O'Rahilly, Colin N A Palmer, Oluf Pedersen, Rainer Rauramaa, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Veikko Salomaa, Richard M Watanabe, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Richard N Bergman, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Erwin P Bottinger, Yoon Shin Cho, Giriraj R Chandak, Juliana C N Chan, Kee Seng Chia, Mark J Daly, Shah B Ebrahim, Claudia Langenberg, Paul Elliott, Kathleen A Jablonski, Donna M Lehman, Weiping Jia, Ronald C W Ma, Toni I Pollin, Manjinder Sandhu, Nikhil Tandon, Philippe Froguel, Inês Barroso, Yik Ying Teo, Eleftheria Zeggini, Ruth J F Loos, Kerrin S Small, Janina S Ried, Ralph A DeFronzo, Harald Grallert, Benjamin Glaser, Andres Metspalu, Nicholas J Wareham, Mark Walker, Eric Banks, Christian Gieger, Erik Ingelsson, Hae Kyung Im, Thomas Illig, Paul W Franks, Gemma Buck, Joseph Trakalo, David Buck, Inga Prokopenko, Reedik Mägi, Lars Lind, Yossi Farjoun, Katharine R Owen, Anna L Gloyn, Konstantin Strauch, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaspal Singh Kooner, Jong-Young Lee, Taesung Park, Peter Donnelly, Andrew D Morris, Andrew T Hattersley, Donald W Bowden, Francis S Collins, Gil Atzmon, John C Chambers, Timothy D Spector, Markku Laakso, Tim M Strom, Graeme I Bell, John Blangero, Ravindranath Duggirala, E Shyong Tai, Gilean McVean, Craig L Hanis, James G Wilson, Mark Seielstad, Timothy M Frayling, James B Meigs, Nancy J Cox, Rob Sladek, Eric S Lander, Stacey Gabriel, Noël P Burtt, Karen L Mohlke, Thomas Meitinger, Leif Groop, Goncalo Abecasis, Jose C Florez, Laura J Scott, Andrew P Morris, Hyun Min Kang, Michael Boehnke, David Altshuler, Mark I McCarthy
The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups...
August 4, 2016: Nature
Jane A Hoppin, David M Umbach, Stuart Long, Stephanie J London, Paul K Henneberger, Aaron Blair, Michael Alavanja, Laura E Beane Freeman, Dale P Sandler
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that pesticide use may contribute to respiratory symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of currently used pesticides with allergic and non-allergic wheeze among male farmers. METHODS: Using the 2005-2010 interview data of the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of farmers in North Carolina and Iowa, we evaluated the association between allergic and non-allergic wheeze and self-reported use of 78 specific pesticides, reported by ≥ 1% of the 22,134 men interviewed...
July 6, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Belay Duguma, Geert Paul Jules Janssens
Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations...
2016: SpringerPlus
Andrew Howes, Paul A Warren, George Farmer, Wael El-Deredy, Richard L Lewis
Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals...
July 2016: Psychological Review
Kizar Ahmed Sumon, Andreu Rico, Mechteld M S Ter Horst, Paul J Van den Brink, Mohammad Mahfujul Haque, Harunur Rashid
The objectives of the current study were to determine the occupational health hazards posed by the application of pesticides in rice-prawn concurrent systems of south-west Bangladesh and to assess their potential risks for the aquatic ecosystems that support the culture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Information on pesticide use in rice-prawn farming was collected through structured interviews with 38 farm owners held between January and May of 2012. The risks of the pesticide use to human health were assessed through structured interviews...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Victoria Koski-Karell, Paul E Farmer, Benito Isaac, Elizabeth M Campa, Loune Viaud, Paul C Namphy, Ralph Ternier, Louise C Ivers
Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera...
2016: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Zuzana Hofmanová, Susanne Kreutzer, Garrett Hellenthal, Christian Sell, Yoan Diekmann, David Díez-Del-Molino, Lucy van Dorp, Saioa López, Athanasios Kousathanas, Vivian Link, Karola Kirsanow, Lara M Cassidy, Rui Martiniano, Melanie Strobel, Amelie Scheu, Kostas Kotsakis, Paul Halstead, Sevi Triantaphyllou, Nina Kyparissi-Apostolika, Dushka Urem-Kotsou, Christina Ziota, Fotini Adaktylou, Shyamalika Gopalan, Dean M Bobo, Laura Winkelbach, Jens Blöcher, Martina Unterländer, Christoph Leuenberger, Çiler Çilingiroğlu, Barbara Horejs, Fokke Gerritsen, Stephen J Shennan, Daniel G Bradley, Mathias Currat, Krishna R Veeramah, Daniel Wegmann, Mark G Thomas, Christina Papageorgopoulou, Joachim Burger
Farming and sedentism first appeared in southwestern Asia during the early Holocene and later spread to neighboring regions, including Europe, along multiple dispersal routes. Conspicuous uncertainties remain about the relative roles of migration, cultural diffusion, and admixture with local foragers in the early Neolithization of Europe. Here we present paleogenomic data for five Neolithic individuals from northern Greece and northwestern Turkey spanning the time and region of the earliest spread of farming into Europe...
June 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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