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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532994/johne-s-disease-in-the-eyes-of-irish-cattle-farmers-a-qualitative-narrative-research-approach-to-understanding-implications-for-disease-management
#1
Conor G McAloon, Áine Macken-Walsh, Lisa Moran, Paul Whyte, Simon J More, Luke O'Grady, Michael L Doherty
Bovine Johne's Disease (JD) is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some research exists to suggest that the aetiologic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis may pose a zoonotic risk. Nationally coordinated control programmes have been introduced in many of the major milk producing countries across the world. However, JD is challenging to control in infected herds owing to limitations of diagnostic tests and the long incubation period of the disease...
June 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525996/cancer-risks-in-a-population-based-study-of-70-570-agricultural-workers-results-from-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#2
Linda Kachuri, M Anne Harris, Jill S MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. METHODS: Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486574/assessing-the-potential-for-bias-from-non-response-to-a-study-follow-up-interview-an-example-from-the-agricultural-health-study
#3
Jessica L Rinsky, David B Richardson, Steve Wing, John D Beard, Michael Alavanja, Laura E Beane Freeman, Honglei Chen, Paul K Henneberger, Freya Kamel, Dale P Sandler, Jane A Hoppin
Prospective cohort studies are important tools for identifying causes of disease. However, these studies are susceptible to attrition. When information collected after enrollment is through interview or exam, attrition leads to missing information for non-respondents. The Agricultural Health Study enrolled 52,394 farmers in 1993-1997 and collected additional information during subsequent interviews. Forty-six percent of enrolled farmers responded to the 2005-2010 interview; 7% of farmers died prior to interview...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413250/agricultural-commercialization-and-nutrition-revisited-empirical-evidence-from-three-african-countries
#4
Calogero Carletto, Paul Corral, Anita Guelfi
The transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture is key for economic growth. But what are the consequences for nutritional outcomes? The evidence to date has been scant and inconclusive. This study contributes to the debate by revisiting two prevailing wisdoms: (a) market participation by African smallholders remains low; and (b) the impact of commercialization on nutritional outcomes is generally positive. Using nationally representative data from three African countries, the analysis reveals high levels of commercialization by even the poorest and smallest landholders, with rates of market participation as high as 90%...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405785/determination-of-the-potential-implementation-impact-of-2016-ministry-of-environmental-protection-generic-assessment-criteria-for-potentially-contaminated-sites-in-china
#5
Yuanyuan Cheng, Yu-Ting Tang, C Paul Nathanail
The Ministry of Environmental Protection of China issued a 3rd draft edition of risk-based Generic Assessment Criteria (the MEP-GAC) in March 2016. Since these will be the first authoritative GAC in China, their implementation is likely to have a significant impact on China's growing contaminated land management sector. This study aims to determine the potential implementation impact of the MEP-GAC through an in-depth analysis of the management context, land use scenarios, health criteria values adopted and exposure pathways considered...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402231/a-comparison-of-interventional-approaches-for-increasing-power-take-off-shielding-on-ny-farms
#6
Julie A Sorensen, Pamela J Tinc, Deb Dalton, Erika E Scott, Paul L Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: Power take-off (PTO) driveline entanglements are a primary source of injury on US farms. As with many farm injury concerns, hazard control technology is widely available for mitigating the risk of these entanglements. Despite the availability of hazard control technology, PTO shields are damaged or missing on approximately 57% of PTO driveline implements in New York. Given the catastrophic nature of entanglements and the ready access to safety technology, a better understanding of what motivates farmers to install or replace PTO shields is warranted...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341696/a-low-frequency-inactivating-akt2-variant-enriched-in-the-finnish-population-is-associated-with-fasting-insulin-levels-and-type-2-diabetes-risk
#7
Alisa Manning, Heather M Highland, Jessica Gasser, Xueling Sim, Taru Tukiainen, Pierre Fontanillas, Niels Grarup, Manuel A Rivas, Anubha Mahajan, Adam E Locke, Pablo Cingolani, Tune H Pers, Ana Viñuela, Andrew A Brown, Ying Wu, Jason Flannick, Christian Fuchsberger, Eric R Gamazon, Kyle J Gaulton, Hae Kyung Im, Tanya M Teslovich, Thomas W Blackwell, Jette Bork-Jensen, Noël P Burtt, Yuhui Chen, Todd Green, Christopher Hartl, Hyun Min Kang, Ashish Kumar, Claes Ladenvall, Clement Ma, Loukas Moutsianas, Richard D Pearson, John R B Perry, N William Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Laura J Scott, Martijn van de Bunt, Johan G Eriksson, Antti Jula, Seppo Koskinen, Terho Lehtimäki, Aarno Palotie, Olli T Raitakari, Suzanne Br Jacobs, Jennifer Wessel, Audrey Y Chu, Robert A Scott, Mark O Goodarzi, Christine Blancher, Gemma Buck, David Buck, Peter S Chines, Stacey Gabriel, Anette P Gjesing, Christopher J Groves, Mette Hollensted, Jeroen R Huyghe, Anne U Jackson, Goo Jun, Johanne Marie Justesen, Massimo Mangino, Jacquelyn Murphy, Matt Neville, Robert Onofrio, Kerrin S Small, Heather M Stringham, Joseph Trakalo, Eric Banks, Jason Carey, Mauricio O Carneiro, Mark DePristo, Yossi Farjoun, Timothy Fennell, Jacqueline I Goldstein, George Grant, Martin Hrabé de Angelis, Jared Maguire, Benjamin M Neale, Ryan Poplin, Shaun Purcell, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Khalid Shakir, Joshua D Smith, Tim M Strom, Thomas Wieland, Jaana Lindstrom, Ivan Brandslund, Cramer Christensen, Gabriela L Surdulescu, Timo A Lakka, Alex S F Doney, Peter Nilsson, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Tibor V Varga, Paul W Franks, Olov Rolandsson, Anders H Rosengren, Vidya S Farook, Farook Thameem, Sobha Puppala, Satish Kumar, Donna M Lehman, Christopher P Jenkinson, Joanne E Curran, Daniel Esten Hale, Sharon P Fowler, Rector Arya, Ralph A DeFronzo, Hanna E Abboud, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Pamela J Hicks, Nicholette D Palmer, Maggie C Y Ng, Donald W Bowden, Barry I Freedman, Tõnu Esko, Reedik Mägi, Lili Milani, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Narisu Narisu, Leena Kinnunen, Lori L Bonnycastle, Amy Swift, Dorota Pasko, Andrew R Wood, João Fadista, Toni I Pollin, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon, Benjamin Glaser, Barbara Thorand, Konstantin Strauch, Annette Peters, Michael Roden, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Liming Liang, Jennifer Kriebel, Thomas Illig, Harald Grallert, Christian Gieger, Christa Meisinger, Lars Lannfelt, Solomon K Musani, Michael Griswold, Herman A Taylor, Gregory Wilson, Adolfo Correa, Heikki Oksa, William R Scott, Uzma Afzal, Sian-Tsung Tan, Marie Loh, John C Chambers, Jobanpreet Sehmi, Jaspal Singh Kooner, Benjamin Lehne, Yoon Shin Cho, Jong-Young Lee, Bok-Ghee Han, Annemari Käräjämäki, Qibin Qi, Lu Qi, Jinyan Huang, Frank B Hu, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander, Jennifer E Below, David Aguilar, Tien Yin Wong, Jianjun Liu, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Kee Seng Chia, Wei Yen Lim, Ching-Yu Cheng, Edmund Chan, E Shyong Tai, Tin Aung, Allan Linneberg, Bo Isomaa, Thomas Meitinger, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Liisa Hakaste, Jasmina Kravic, Marit E Jørgensen, Torsten Lauritzen, Panos Deloukas, Kathleen E Stirrups, Katharine R Owen, Andrew J Farmer, Timothy M Frayling, Stephen P O'Rahilly, Mark Walker, Jonathan C Levy, Dylan Hodgkiss, Andrew T Hattersley, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Alena Stančáková, Inês Barroso, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Juliana Chan, Giriraj R Chandak, Mark J Daly, Peter J Donnelly, Shah B Ebrahim, Paul Elliott, Tasha Fingerlin, Philippe Froguel, Cheng Hu, Weiping Jia, Ronald C W Ma, Gilean McVean, Taesung Park, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Manjinder Sandhu, James Scott, Rob Sladek, Nikhil Tandon, Yik Ying Teo, Eleftheria Zeggini, Richard M Watanabe, Heikki A Koistinen, Y Antero Kesaniemi, Matti Uusitupa, Timothy D Spector, Veikko Salomaa, Rainer Rauramaa, Colin N A Palmer, Inga Prokopenko, Andrew D Morris, Richard N Bergman, Francis S Collins, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Fredrik Karpe, Leif Groop, Torben Jørgensen, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Johanna Kuusisto, Gonçalo Abecasis, Graeme I Bell, John Blangero, Nancy J Cox, Ravindranath Duggirala, Mark Seielstad, James G Wilson, Josee Dupuis, Samuli Ripatti, Craig L Hanis, Jose C Florez, Karen L Mohlke, James B Meigs, Markku Laakso, Andrew P Morris, Michael Boehnke, David Altshuler, Mark I McCarthy, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren
To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants from exome sequence in up to 39,339 normoglycemic individuals from five ancestry groups. We identified a novel association between the coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) in AKT2 and fasting insulin, a gene in which rare fully penetrant mutations are causal for monogenic glycemic disorders...
March 24, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328735/building-workforce-capacity-abroad-while-strengthening-global-health-programs-at-home-participation-of-seven-harvard-affiliated-institutions-in-a-health-professional-training-initiative-in-rwanda
#8
Corrado Cancedda, Robert Riviello, Kim Wilson, Kirstin W Scott, Meenu Tuteja, Jane R Barrow, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Gene Bukhman, Jennifer Scott, Danny Milner, Giuseppe Raviola, Barbara Weissman, Stacy Smith, Tej Nuthulaganti, Craig D McClain, Barbara E Bierer, Paul E Farmer, Anne E Becker, Agnes Binagwaho, Joseph Rhatigan, David E Golan
A consortium of 22 U.S. academic institutions is currently participating in the Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program (HRH Program). Led by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and funded by both the U.S. Government and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the primary goal of this seven-year initiative is to help Rwanda train the number of health professionals necessary to reach the country's health workforce targets. Since 2012, the participating U.S. academic institutions have deployed faculty from a variety of health-related disciplines and clinical specialties to Rwanda...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283749/contingency-and-contiguity-of-imitative-behaviour-affect-social-affiliation
#9
David Dignath, Paul Lotze-Hermes, Harry Farmer, Roland Pfister
Actions of others automatically prime similar responses in an agent's behavioural repertoire. As a consequence, perceived or anticipated imitation facilitates own action control and, at the same time, imitation boosts social affiliation and rapport with others. It has previously been suggested that basic mechanisms of associative learning can account for behavioural effects of imitation, whereas a possible role of associative learning for affiliative processes is poorly understood at present. Therefore, this study examined whether contingency and contiguity, the principles of associative learning, affect also the social effects of imitation...
March 10, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264476/short-term-local-adaptation-of-historical-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l-varieties-and-implications-for-in-situ-management-of-bean-diversity
#10
Stephanie M Klaedtke, Leonardo Caproni, Julia Klauck, Paul de la Grandville, Martin Dutartre, Pierre M Stassart, Véronique Chable, Valeria Negri, Lorenzo Raggi
Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers' and gardeners' networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231701/the-potential-interaction-between-ewe-body-condition-score-and-nutrition-during-very-late-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-the-performance-of-twin-bearing-ewes-and-their-lambs
#11
Lydia Cranston, Paul Kenyon, Rene Corner-Thomas, Steve Morris
Objective: The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe BCS (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0) and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses) during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. Methods: On day [42 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a body condition score (BCS) of 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0 were allocated to a "Moderate' or 'Unrestricted' nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning)...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197322/discovery-of-novel-orally-bioavailable-%C3%AE-amino-acid-azaindole-inhibitors-of-influenza-pb2
#12
Luc J Farmer, Michael P Clark, Michael J Boyd, Emanuele Perola, Steven M Jones, Alice Tsai, Marc D Jacobs, Upul K Bandarage, Mark W Ledeboer, Tiansheng Wang, Hongbo Deng, Brian Ledford, Wenxin Gu, John P Duffy, Randy S Bethiel, Dean Shannon, Randal A Byrn, Joshua R Leeman, Rene Rijnbrand, Hamilton B Bennett, Colleen O'Brien, Christine Memmott, Kwame Nti-Addae, Youssef L Bennani, Paul S Charifson
In our efforts to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors for the treatment of influenza, we utilized molecular modeling and the X-ray crystal structure of the PB2 subunit of the influenza polymerase to optimize a series of acyclic β-amino acid inhibitors, highlighted by compound 4. Compound 4 showed good oral exposure in both rat and mouse. More importantly, it showed strong potency versus multiple influenza-A strains, including pandemic 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 strains and showed a strong efficacy profile in a mouse influenza model even when treatment was initiated 48 h after infection...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193386/the-ebola-suspect-s-dilemma
#13
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, Cameron T Nutt, J Daniel Kelly, Raphael Frankfurter, Mosoka P Fallah, Paul E Farmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155869/successful-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-ebola-infected-non-human-primates-using-ebola-glycoprotein-specific-equine-igg
#14
Oleg V Pyankov, Yin Xiang Setoh, Sergey A Bodnev, Judith H Edmonds, Olga G Pyankova, Stepan A Pyankov, Gabor Pali, Shane Belford, Louis Lu, Mylinh La, George Lovrecz, Valentina A Volchkova, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Glenn Marsh, Paul R Young, Alexander A Agafonov, Jillann F Farmer, Victor E Volchkov, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
Herein we describe production of purified equine IgG obtained from horses immunized with plasmid DNA followed by boosting with Kunjin replicon virus-like particles both encoding a modified Ebola glycoprotein. Administration of the equine IgG over 5 days to cynomolgus macaques infected 24 hours previously with a lethal dose of Ebola virus suppressed viral loads by more than 5 logs and protected animals from mortality. Animals generated their own Ebola glycoprotein-specific IgG responses 9-15 days after infection, with circulating virus undetectable by day 15-17...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063085/can-toxicants-used-against-cotton-mealybug-phenacoccus-solenopsis-be-compatible-with-an-encyrtid-parasitoid-aenasius-bambawalei-under-laboratory-conditions
#15
Hayat Badshah, Farman Ullah, Paul Andre Calatayud, Hidayat Ullah, Bashir Ahmad
The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest of various cultivated plants in Pakistan. Recent reports show that the parasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a good biocontrol agent of the pest. Compatibleness is important in any IPM programme, and the insecticide used must have little or no effects on the biological control agent. This study investigated the compatibility of neem treatments and a commercial insecticide, imidacloprid on A...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056950/laboratory-cohabitation-challenge-model-for-shrimp-hepatopancreatic-microsporidiosis-hpm-caused-by-enterocytozoon-hepatopenaei-ehp
#16
Paul Vinu Salachan, Pattana Jaroenlak, Siripong Thitamadee, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana
BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) causes hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) in shrimp. It is probably endemic in Australasia and was first characterized and named from the giant or black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand in 2009. Later, it was also found to infect exotic Penaeus vannamei imported for cultivation in Asia. HPM is not normally associated with shrimp mortality, but information from shrimp farmers indicates that it is associated with significant growth retardation that is not clearly noticeable until 2-3 months of cultivation...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054813/who-believes-in-the-gambler-s-fallacy-and-why
#17
George D Farmer, Paul A Warren, Ulrike Hahn
Humans possess a remarkable ability to discriminate structure from randomness in the environment. However, this ability appears to be systematically biased. This is nowhere more evident than in the Gambler's Fallacy (GF)-the mistaken belief that observing an increasingly long sequence of "heads" from an unbiased coin makes the occurrence of "tails" on the next trial ever more likely. Although the GF appears to provide evidence of "cognitive bias," a recent theoretical account (Hahn & Warren, 2009) has suggested the GF might be understandable if constraints on actual experience of random sources (such as attention and short term memory) are taken into account...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867504/short-rotation-plantations-policy-history-in-europe-lessons-from-the-past-and-recommendations-for-the-future
#18
REVIEW
Kevin N Lindegaard, Paul W R Adams, Martin Holley, Annette Lamley, Annika Henriksson, Stig Larsson, Hans-Georg von Engelbrechten, Gonzalo Esteban Lopez, Marcin Pisarek
Short rotation plantations (SRPs) are fast-growing trees (such as willow (Salix spp.), poplar (Populus spp.) and Eucalyptus) grown closely together and harvested in periods of 2-20 years. There are around 50,000 hectares of SRPs in Europe, a relatively small area considering that there have been supportive policy measures in many countries for 30 years. This paper looks at the effect that the policy measures used in different EU countries have had, and how other external factors have impacted on the development of the industry...
August 2016: Food and energy security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854336/what-we-know-about-the-public-s-level-of-concern-for-farm-animal-welfare-in-food-production-in-developed-countries
#19
REVIEW
Amelia Cornish, David Raubenheimer, Paul McGreevy
Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public...
November 16, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854060/comparison-of-predicted-aquatic-risks-of-pesticides-used-under-different-rice-farming-strategies-in-the-mekong-delta-vietnam
#20
Nadja Stadlinger, Håkan Berg, Paul J Van den Brink, Nguyen T Tam, Jonas S Gunnarsson
This study evaluates the risks of pesticides applied in rice-fish and rice farming, with and without integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, to non-target aquatic organisms in two provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Pesticide inventories and application patterns were collected from 120 Vietnamese farmers through interviews. Risks were assessed using (1) Pesticide RIsks in the Tropics to Man, Environment, and Trade (PRIMET), a first-tier model, which calculates predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides in the rice field, based on the compound's physico-chemical properties and the application pattern, and then compares the PECs to safe concentrations based on literature data, and (2) species sensitivity distribution (SSD), a second-tier assessment model using species sensitivity distributions to calculate potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species based on the PECs from PRIMET...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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