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Ex vivo perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161409/transfer-and-metabolism-of-cortisol-by-the-isolated-perfused-human-placenta
#1
Laura I Stirrat, Bram G Sengers, Jane E Norman, Natalie Z M Homer, Ruth Andrew, Rohan M Lewis, Rebecca M Reynolds
Context: Fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero is associated with fetal growth restriction and is postulated to be a key mechanism linking suboptimal fetal growth with cardiovascular disease in later life. Objective: To develop a model to predict maternal-fetal glucocorticoid transfer. We hypothesised placental 11β-HSD2 would be the major rate-limiting step in maternal cortisol transfer to the fetus. Design: We used a deuterated cortisol tracer in the ex vivo placental perfusion model, in combination with computational modelling, to investigate the role of interconversion of cortisol and its inactive metabolite cortisone on transfer of cortisol from mother to fetus...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160141/effects-of-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-on-cerebral-vascular-histopathological-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-rats
#2
Uylissa A Rodriguez, Yaping Zeng, Donald James Deyo, Margaret O Parsley, Bridget E Hawkins, Donald S Prough, Douglas DeWitt
To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for two hrs post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157268/the-impact-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-diffusion-weighted-directions-and-image-resolution-in-cardiac-diffusion-tensor-imaging-insights-from-the-ex-vivo-rat-heart
#3
Darryl McClymont, Irvin Teh, Jürgen E Schneider
BACKGROUND: Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is limited by scan time and signal-to-noise (SNR) restrictions. This invariably leads to a trade-off between the number of averages, diffusion-weighted directions (ND), and image resolution. Systematic evaluation of these parameters is therefore important for adoption of cardiac DTI in clinical routine where time is a key constraint. METHODS: High quality reference DTI data were acquired in five ex-vivo rat hearts...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155072/a-protocol-to-study-ex-vivo-mouse-working-heart-at-human-like-heart-rate
#4
Han-Zhong Feng, Jian-Ping Jin
Genetically modified mice are widely used as experimental models to study human heart function and diseases. However, the fast rate of normal mouse heart at 400-600bpm limits its capacity of assessing kinetic parameters that are important for the physiology and pathophysiology of human heart that beats at a much slower rate (75-180bpm). To extend the value of mouse models, we established a protocol to study ex vivo mouse working hearts at a human-like heart rate. In the presence of 300μM lidocaine to lower pacemaker and conductive activities and prevent arrhythmia, a stable rate of 120-130bpm at 37°C is achieved for ex vivo mouse working hearts...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153638/%C3%AE-1-anti-trypsin-improves-function-of-porcine-donor-lungs-during-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion
#5
Huiqing Lin, Manyin Chen, Feng Tian, Jussi Tikkanen, Lei Ding, Hei Yu Andrew Cheung, Daisuke Nakajima, Zhe Wang, Andrea Mariscal, David Hwang, Marcelo Cypel, Shaf Keshavjee, Mingyao Liu
BACKGROUND: Ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP), a technique for donor lung assessment, also represents a platform for donor lung repair and immunomodulation. α1-Anti-trypsin (A1AT), a medication used to treat emphysema in A1AT-deficient patients, has anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat and pig lung transplants. The objective of this study was to determine whether administration of A1AT during EVLP can improve donor lung quality after prolonged hypothermic preservation...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152532/h-scan-sensitivity-to-scattering-size
#6
Mawia Khairalseed, Kenneth Hoyt, Juvenal Ormachea, Alberto Terrazas, Kevin J Parker
In the H-scan analysis and display, visualization of different scattering sizes and types is enabled by a matched filter approach involving different orders of Gaussian weighted Hermite functions. An important question with respect to clinical applications involves the change in H-scan outputs with respect to small changes in scatterer sizes. The sensitivity of H-scan outputs is analyzed using the theory of backscatter from a compressible sphere. Experimental corroboration is established using mono dispersed spherical scatterers in phantoms...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142942/complement-activation-induces-neutrophil-adhesion-and-neutrophil-platelet-aggregate-formation-on-vascular-endothelial-cells
#7
Magdalena Riedl, Damien G Noone, Meraj A Khan, Fred G Pluthero, Walter H A Kahr, Nades Palaniyar, Christoph Licht
Introduction: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a thrombotic microangiopathy, which is linked to hereditary or autoimmune defects in complement activators or regulators present in blood and on vascular endothelial cells. Acute thrombotic microangiopathy episodes are typically preceded by infections, which by themselves would not be expected to manifest HUS. Thus, it is possible that the host immune response contributes to the precipitation of aHUS. However, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood...
January 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142469/hypothermic-machine-perfusion-with-metformin-university-of-wisconsin-solution-for-ex-vivo-preservation-of-standard-and-marginal-liver-grafts-in-a-rat-model
#8
Yi-Chao Chai, Guo-Xin Dang, Hai-Qi He, Jian-Hua Shi, Hong-Ke Zhang, Rui-Tao Zhang, Bo Wang, Liang-Shuo Hu, Yi Lv
AIM: To compare the effect of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution with or without metformin, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, for preserving standard and marginal liver grafts of young and aged rats ex vivo by hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP). METHODS: Eighteen young (4 mo old) and 18 aged (17 mo old) healthy male SD rats were selected and randomly divided into three groups: control group, UW solution perfusion group (UWP), and UW solution with metformin perfusion group (MUWP)...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140963/when-the-momentum-has-gone-what-will-be-the-role-of-extracorporeal-lung-support-in-the-future
#9
Darryl Abrams, Matthew Bacchetta, Daniel Brodie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been expanding interest in and use of extracorporeal support in respiratory failure concurrent with technological advances and predominantly observational data demonstrating improved outcomes. However, until there is more available data from rigorous, high-quality randomized studies, the future of extracorporeal support remains uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: Outcomes for patients supported with extracorporeal devices continue to show favorable trends...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128023/evaluation-and-management-of-the-potential-lung-donor
#10
REVIEW
Andrew Courtwright, Edward Cantu
The expansion of the donor lung pool has involved an evidence-driven redefinition of acceptable donors. Proceeding with transplantation with an acceptable rather than ideal donor depends on specific patient-related and organ-related risk factors as well as the severity of recipient illness. Although the physiologic optimization of brain-dead donors has not changed significantly in recent years, the use of donor management protocols has improved procurement rates. Ex vivo lung perfusion is an increasingly viable strategy to recondition lungs that would otherwise fall below the acceptable threshold for transplant...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114841/effect-of-cromakalim-prodrug-1-cklp1-on-aqueous-humor-dynamics-and-feasibility-of-combination-therapy-with-existing-ocular-hypotensive-agents
#11
Uttio Roy Chowdhury, Tommy A Rinkoski, Cindy K Bahler, J Cameron Millar, Jacques A Bertrand, Bradley H Holman, Joseph M Sherwood, Darryl R Overby, Kristen L Stoltz, Peter I Dosa, Michael P Fautsch
Purpose: Cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1) is a water-soluble ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener that has shown ocular hypotensive properties in ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. To determine its mechanism of action, we assessed the effect of CKLP1 on aqueous humor dynamics and in combination therapy with existing ocular hypotensive agents. Methods: Outflow facility was assessed in C57BL/6 mice by ex vivo eye perfusions and by in vivo constant flow infusion following CKLP1 treatment...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113582/the-effects-of-magnesium-sulfate-on-the-inflammatory-response-of-placentas-perfused-with-lipopolysaccharide-using-the-ex-vivo-dual-perfused-human-single-cotyledon-model
#12
Michal Kovo, Noa Mevorach-Zussman, Nizar Khatib, Yuval Ginsberg, Michael Divon, Zeev Weiner, Jacob Bar, Ron Beloosesky
OBJECTIVES: Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the neuroprotective effects of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). We aimed to examine the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and MgSO4 on the placental expression of nuclear factor κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), interleukin (IL) 6, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS); all known to participate in the inflammatory cascade. METHODS: Placentas were obtained and selected cotyledons cannulated and dually perfused ex vivo...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112064/placental-transfer-of-elvitegravir-and-cobicistat-in-an-ex-vivo-human-cotyledon-double-perfusion-model
#13
Valentine Faure Bardon, Laurent Mandelbrot, Dominique Duro, Chloé Dussaux, Minh Le, Gilles Peytavin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the transplacental pharmacokinetics of the HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor elvitegravir and of cobicistat, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor used as a pharmacoenhancer in antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN AND METHODS: Maternal-to-fetal transfer across the term human placenta was investigated with the ex-vivo dually perfused cotyledon model, in 7 open-circuit experiments and 10 closed-circuit (recirculating) experiments. Elvitegravir and cobicistat were added to a maternal perfusate containing 2 g/L of human serum albumin and antipyrine, as a marker to validate the cotyledon's viability...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110788/worldwide-trends-in-heart-and-lung-transplantation-guarding-the-most-precious-gift-ever
#14
REVIEW
Vera von Dossow, Joseph Costa, Frank D'Ovidio, Nandor Marczin
Transplantation is sadly a therapy to die for. The survival of a recipient with end-stage heart or lung disease requires the demise of a human being through brain death or cessation of circulation, with the noblest final act of offering one's organs to another. However, transplantation is constrained by severe hemodynamic, regulatory, inflammatory, and metabolic stresses in the donor, rendering the majority of offered organs unsuitable for transplantation. Coupled with our inability to acquire exact molecular and cellular information and missed opportunities for effectively modulating deteriorations of donors and allografts, anesthesia and critical care contributes to ongoing organ shortages...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109929/opportunities-for-therapeutic-intervention-during-machine-perfusion
#15
Negin Karimian, Heidi Yeh
Purpose of review: There is a vast discrepancy between the number of patients waiting for organ transplantation and the available donor organs. Ex vivo machine perfusion (MP) has emerged in an effort to expand the donor pool, by improving organ preservation, providing diagnostic information, and more recently, acting as a platform for organ improvement. This article reviews the current status of MP with a focus on its role in organ preconditioning and therapeutic interventions prior to transplantation...
June 2017: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107282/the-autonomic-nervous-system-and-cardiac-glp-1-receptors-control-heart-rate-in-mice
#16
Laurie L Baggio, John R Ussher, Brent A McLean, Xiemin Cao, M Golam Kabir, Erin E Mulvihill, Alexandra S Mighiu, Hangjun Zhang, Andreas Ludwig, Randy J Seeley, Scott P Heximer, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVES: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from enteroendocrine cells and exerts a broad number of metabolic actions through activation of a single GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). The cardiovascular actions of GLP-1 have garnered increasing attention as GLP-1R agonists are used to treat human subjects with diabetes and obesity that may be at increased risk for development of heart disease. Here we studied mechanisms linking GLP-1R activation to control of heart rate (HR) in mice...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104643/protective-effect-of-sevoflurane-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-hearts-and-its-impact-on-hif-1%C3%AE-and-caspase-3-expression
#17
Tao Zhou, Shanliang Guo, Shaolin Wang, Qiong Li, Mingsheng Zhang
This study was designed to investigate possible protective effects of sevoflurane on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) and its impact on expression of HIF-1α and caspase-3 in rats, so as to provide new insights for the treatment of MIRI. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) including Sham operation (Sham), ischemia-reperfusion (IR), sevoflurane preconditioning group (Sevo-Pre) and sevoflurane post-conditioning (Sevo-Post) groups. Perfusion was performed using ex vivo heart perfusion...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104530/antibiotic-driven-changes-in-gut-motility-suggest-direct-modulation-of-enteric-nervous-system
#18
Thilini Delungahawatta, Jessica Y Amin, Andrew M Stanisz, John Bienenstock, Paul Forsythe, Wolfgang A Kunze
Antibiotic-mediated changes to the intestinal microbiome have largely been assumed to be the basis of antibiotic-induced neurophysiological and behavioral changes. However, relatively little research has addressed whether antibiotics act directly on the host nervous system to produce these changes. We aimed to identify whether acute exposure of the gastrointestinal tract to antibiotics directly modulates neuronally dependent motility reflexes, ex vivo. Motility of colon and jejunum segments in a perfusion organ bath was recorded by video and alterations to neuronally dependent propagating contractile clusters (PCC), measured using spatiotemporal maps of diameter changes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104471/neonatal-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-gender-dependently-increases-heart-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-male-rats
#19
Peng Zhang, Juanxiu Lv, Yong Li, Lubo Zhang, Daliao Xiao
Background: Adverse stress exposure during the early neonatal period has been shown to cause aberrant development, resulting in an increased risk of adult disease. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) does not alter heart function at rest condition but causes heart dysfunction under stress stimulation later in life. Methods: Saline control or LPS were administered to neonatal rats via intraperitoneal injection. Experiments were conducted in 6 week-old male and female rats...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103845/negative-pressure-ventilation-decreases-inflammation-and-lung-edema-during-normothermic-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion
#20
Nader S Aboelnazar, Sayed Himmat, Sanaz Hatami, Christopher W White, Mohamad S Burhani, Peter Dromparis, Nobutoshi Matsumura, Ganghong Tian, Jason R B Dyck, Michael Mengel, Darren H Freed, Jayan Nagendran
BACKGROUND: Normothermic ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) using positive pressure ventilation (PPV) and both acellular and red blood cell (RBC)-based perfusate solutions have increased the rate of donor organ utilization. We sought to determine whether a negative pressure ventilation (NPV) strategy would improve donor lung assessment during EVLP. METHODS: Thirty-two pig lungs were perfused ex vivo for 12 hours in a normothermic state, and were allocated equally to 4 groups according to the mode of ventilation (positive pressure ventilation [PPV] vs NPV) and perfusate composition (acellular vs RBC)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
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