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Ana Margarida Alho, Clara Lima, Vito Colella, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Domenico Otranto, Luís Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Qatar is one of the wealthiest and fastest growing economies in the world, experiencing a rapid increase in human and pet populations. Given the paucity of data on prophylactic measures against endo- and ectoparasites of pets in Qatar, as well as on the owners' awareness of zoonotic diseases, a questionnaire was conducted. METHODS: From July to November 2017, 150 multiple-choice questionnaires were administered to dog and/or cat owners who attended two veterinary clinics in Doha...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Aleksadner W Demiaszkiewicz, Anna M Pyziel, Rafał Kowalczyk
Captive-bred animals, widely used in reintroduction programmes, are often immunologically naïve and more susceptible to pathogens. We analysed infection of invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi in captive-bred European bison (Bison bonasus) released to the wild in the Białowieża Forest (Poland). Mean A. sidemi infection intensity of released bison (29,137 nematodes) was over threefold higher than in wild bison (8756). It indicates a rapid acquisition and increase in the infection intensity in previously dewormed bison released from captivity...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
Rocío Martínez, Carlos Torrente
A 3-month-old intact male Prague ratter was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of progressive lethargy, weakness, coughing and labour breathing after an episode of resistance to oral deworming. The patient exhibited depression, increased respiratory effort and cyanosis at initial presentation. Results of first diagnostic work-up (complete blood cell count, biochemistry panel and thoracic x-rays) were all consistent with aspiration pneumonia. The puppy was initially treated with balanced isotonic crystalloids, broad spectrum antibiotics, nebulization with thoracic coupage and was transferred to an infant incubator with a sustained FiO2 of 40-50%...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Moudachirou Ibikounlé, Ablavi Onzo-Aboki, Justin Doritchamou, Jean-Jacques Tougoué, Pélagie Mimonnou Boko, Boris S Savassi, Edoux Joel Siko, Aboudou Daré, Wilfrid Batcho, Achille Massougbodji, Dorothée Akoko Kindé-Gazard, Achille Kaboré
BACKGROUND: National mapping of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) was conducted for the first time in all of the 77 districts of Benin (West Africa) from 2013 to 2015. This mapping aimed to provide basic epidemiological data essential for the implementation of the national strategy against the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in the context of achieving the WHO target of controlling these infections by 2020. METHODS: In each district, 5 schools were purposively selected in 5 villages and 50 school-children (25 girls and 25 boys) from ages 8 to 14 years were randomly enrolled in each school...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Bruce A Rosa, Taniawati Supali, Lincoln Gankpala, Yenny Djuardi, Erliyani Sartono, Yanjiao Zhou, Kerstin Fischer, John Martin, Rahul Tyagi, Fatorma K Bolay, Peter U Fischer, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Makedonka Mitreva
BACKGROUND: The human intestine and its microbiota is the most common infection site for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), which affect the well-being of ~ 1.5 billion people worldwide. The complex cross-kingdom interactions are not well understood. RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis identified conserved microbial signatures positively or negatively associated with STH infections across Liberia and Indonesia, and longitudinal samples analysis from a double-blind randomized trial showed that the gut microbiota responds to deworming but does not transition closer to the uninfected state...
February 28, 2018: Microbiome
K S Akinwande, O A Morenikeji, O G Arinola
Adequate nutrition is essential for normal growth of children but helminth infection is proposed to cause nutritional deficiencies. This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of helminth infected school aged children in semi-urban communities of South-West Nigeria. Two hundred children from primary schools in Akinyele Local Government of Oyo State, Nigeria participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements were analyzed using the WHO AnthroPlus software. Kato Katz method was used to detect ova of helminths in the stool while serum levels of iron, zinc, selenium, ferritin, transferrin, vitamin A, vitamin C and haptoglobin were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Atomic Absorption Spectophotometry as appropriate...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Tesfaye Negewo, Solomon Melaku, Bimrew Asmare, Adugna Tolera
The experiment was conducted using 20 yearling intact male Arsi-Bale sheep with a mean body weight of 20.56 ± 0.45 (mean ± SD) to investigate the performance and economic benefit of graded levels of concentrate supplementation to urea-treated maize cob (UTMC)-based diet. The experiment consisted of 7 days of digestibility trial and subsequent 90 days of feeding trial. Before the commencement of the experiment, sheep were vaccinated against common infectious diseases, dewormed, and disinfected against internal and external parasites, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Nozyechi Ngulube Chidumayo
BACKGROUND: Dogs have a close association with humans providing companionship, security and a source of dietary protein. However, dogs are also potential carriers of zoonotic pathogens. Dogs, therefore, pose a public health risk and a good understanding of canine diseases is important for planning and implementing control measures. The aim of this study was to characterise canine helminthiasis in sub-Saharan Africa using a systematic approach. METHODS: Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant primary studies published from 2000...
February 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Nigatu Tuasha, Beyene Petros, Zemede Asfaw
BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants (MPs) used by traditional healers (THs) were investigated in Megera and adjacent subdistricts (kebeles) of Dalle District, Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify and record MPs and their traditional uses in the treatment of various human ailments with emphasis on malignancies and other most frequently reported diseases. METHODS: Traditional medicinal knowledge held by 20 THs was investigated following standard ethnobotanical approaches...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Emily L Deichsel, Kirkby D Tickell, Jessica E Long, Nelson L Jumbe, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Judd L Walson
Despite the recognition of stunting as a public health priority, nutritional and nonnutritional interventions to reduce or prevent linear growth failure have demonstrated minimal impact. Investigators and policymakers face several challenges that limit their ability to assess the potential benefits of combining available interventions into a linear growth promotion package. We use two common but very different interventions, deworming and multiple micronutrient supplements, to illustrate barriers to recommending an optimal linear growth promotion package based on the currently available literature...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Denise Mupfasoni, Alexei Mikhailov, Pamela Mbabazi, Jonathan King, Theresa W Gyorkos, Antonio Montresor
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most common infections in developing countries. Globally, as many as 2 billion people are considered to be at risk for soil-transmitted-helminth (STH) infections. Preschool children (PSAC), school-age children (SAC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) are at high risk of STH-attributable morbidity and preventive chemotherapy (PC) for STH is recommended by the World health Organization (WHO). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the last five years, PC coverage in PSAC and SAC has gradually increased, while coverage in WRA has lagged...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
J Li, G Guo, Z Z Zhang, W B Zhang
Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are important zoonotic diseases caused by the dog/fox tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which are distributed in almost whole the world. The diseases remarkably impact on the people's health and economic development of communities. Echinococcus tapeworms need two mammalian animals to complete their lifecycle. The worms undergo different developmental stages (adult, egg/oncosphere, cyst, and protoscolex). Each stage has its own distinct physiological characteristics...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Chenzhong Fei, Rufeng She, Guiyu Li, Lifang Zhang, Wushun Fan, Suhan Xia, Feiqun Xue
Tenvermectin (TVM) is a novel 16-membered macrocyclic lactone antibiotics, which contains component TVM A and TVM B. However there is not any report on safety and clinical efficacy of TVM for developing as a potential drug. In order to understand the part of safety and clinical efficacy of TVM, we conducted the acute toxicity test, the standard bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test and the clinical deworming test. In the acute toxicity studies, TVM, TVM A and ivermectin (IVM) were administrated once by oral gavage to mice and rats...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kurt Pfister, Deborah van Doorn
Regular anthelmintic treatment has contributed to anthelmintic resistance in horse helminths. This mass anthelmintic treatment was originally developed owing to a lack of larvicidal drugs against Strongylus vulgaris. The high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and shortening of strongyle egg reappearance period after avermectins/moxidectins requires epidemiologically appropriate and sustainable measures. Selective anthelmintic treatment is a much-needed deworming approach: More than 50% of adult horses manifest no strongyle egg excretion...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
J A Scare, E T Lyons, K M Wielgus, M K Nielsen
Equine cyathostomin are pervasive gastrointestinal parasites with wide-spread resistance to the benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidine drug classes worldwide. Combination deworming has been proposed as a more sustainable parasite control strategy. Simulation studies have found combination deworming to be effective in controlling drug resistant ovine trichostrongylid parasites. One equine study demonstrated an additive effect of a combination of oxibendazole and pyrantel pamoate against cyathostomins. However, this is the only equine study evaluating combination therapy, and the effects of repeated combination treatments administered over time remain unknown...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Lena L M N Zwickl, Deborah E Joekel, Nina M Fischer, Ana Rostaher, Kristian Thamsborg, Peter Deplazes, Claude Favrot
BACKGROUND: Total IgE concentrations are higher in dogs than in humans. Persistent Toxocara canis larval infection is prevalent in dogs and is associated with substantial specific antibody reactions. A correlation, however, between total IgE and T. canis-specific antibody levels in dogs has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between total IgE, T. canis-specific IgG and IgE, and allergen-specific IgE levels in atopic and non-atopic dogs, and to evaluate possible confounding factors...
February 9, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Katrina V Deardorff, Arianna Rubin Means, Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, Judd Walson
BACKGROUND: Community-based public health campaigns, such as those used in mass deworming, vitamin A supplementation and child immunization programs, provide key healthcare interventions to targeted populations at scale. However, these programs often fall short of established coverage targets. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of strategies used to increase treatment coverage in community-based public health campaigns. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched CAB Direct, Embase, and PubMed archives for studies utilizing specific interventions to increase coverage of community-based distribution of drugs, vaccines, or other public health services...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kirrilly R Thompson, Larissa Clarkson, Christopher B Riley, Mariette van den Berg
Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Jacey Roche Cerda, Lora Rickard Ballweber
  We confirm the presence of Echinococcus canadensis genotypes G8 and G10 in gray wolves ( Canis lupus) and cervids in Idaho. Our results demonstrated that cystic echinococcosis remains a potential public health issue, indicating the need for regular deworming of domestic dogs, who often act as potential bridge hosts.
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Arianna R Means, Lisette van Lieshout, Eric Brienen, Krista Yuhas, James P Hughes, Paul Ndungu, Benson Singa, Judd L Walson
INTRODUCTION: Current global helminth control guidelines focus on regular deworming of targeted populations for morbidity control. However, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions may also be important for reducing helminth transmission. We evaluated the impact of different potential helminth protective packages on infection prevalence, including repeated treatment with albendazole and praziquantel with and without WASH access. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study nested within a randomized trial of empiric deworming of HIV-infected adults in Kenya...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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