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Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis, commonly known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America. The majority of the cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is a major public health problem impacting on child health and development as well as adult health when infections become chronic. Control of schistosomiasis is by treatment of infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. Current schistosome control programmes advocated by the World Health Assembly in 2001 are aimed at regular school-based integrated deworming strategies in order to reduce development of severe morbidity, promote school health and to improve cognitive potential of children...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
Samuel Fuhrimann, Mirko S Winkler, Phuc Pham-Duc, Dung Do-Trung, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Infections with intestinal parasites (helminths and intestinal protozoa) are endemic in Southeast Asia and inappropriate management and reuse of wastewater might exacerbate the risk of human infections. In rapidly growing urban settings, little is known about the extent of intestinal parasite infections. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in population groups differently exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Rolf Nijsse, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Jaap A Wagenaar, Harm W Ploeger
BACKGROUND: To reduce environmental contamination with Toxocara canis eggs, the current general advice is to deworm all dogs older than six months on average four times a year. However, only a small proportion of non-juvenile household dogs actually shed T. canis eggs, and some dogs shed eggs more frequently than others. The identification of these frequent shedders and the associated risk factors is an important cornerstone for constructing evidence-based deworming regimens. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of periods of shedding Toxocara eggs in a cohort of household dogs older than six months...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Calistus Wilunda, Shiro Tanaka, Fabian Esamai, Koji Kawakami
It is unclear whether routine prenatal anemia control interventions can reduce anemia risk in young children. This study examines the associations between prenatal iron supplementation and/or deworming and anemia in children aged 6-23 months in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We analyzed data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2003 and 2014 in 25 SSA countries. The surveys collected data on prenatal iron supplementation and deworming and determined children's hemoglobin levels through blood testing...
October 7, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Margaret Benjamin Lyatuu, Temina Mkumbwa, Raz Stevenson, Marissa Isidro, Francis Modaha, Heather Katcher, Christina Nyhus Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiency in Tanzania is a significant public health problem, with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affecting 34% of children aged 6 to 59 months. Since 2007, development partners have worked closely to advocate for the inclusion of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation and deworming (VASD) activities with budgets at the subnational level, where funding and implementation occur. As part of the advocacy work, a VASD planning and budgeting tool (PBT) was developed and is used by district officials to justify allocation of funds...
May 3, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Philip Blasto Ooko, Patricia Wambua, Mark Oloo, Agneta Odera, Hillary Mariko Topazian, Russell White
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal obstruction (IO) occurs when there is impedance to the flow of intestinal contents due to a congenital or acquired pathology, and is a common paediatric surgical emergency. This study aimed to assess the pattern and outcome of paediatric IO in western Kenya. METHODS: A retrospective review of all recorded cases of mechanical IO in patients aged 15 years or below admitted at Tenwek Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013. RESULTS: The cohort included a total of 217 children (130 boys and 87 girls)...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
R Nijsse, H W Ploeger, J A Wagenaar, L Mughini-Gras
The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were examined using the centrifugal sedimentation flotation method. Overall Toxocara prevalence was 7.2 %. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that young age and living in rural areas were significant risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs...
September 17, 2016: Parasitology Research
Ernest Cudjoe Opoku, Annette Olsen, Edmund Browne, Abraham Hodgson, John K Awoonor-Williams, Lawrence Yelifari, John Williams, Pascal Magnussen
BACKGROUND: The benefits of integrated control of malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections have not been fully explored in Ghanaian schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of co-administered artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole, and artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. DESIGN: This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren...
2016: Global Health Action
James A Fuller, Joseph N S Eisenberg
Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cecília José Veríssimo, Flávia Vasques, Keila Maria Roncato Duarte, Valdinei Tadeu Paulino, Luis Alberto Ambrósio
Dairy cattle farming is of great economic and social importance in all Brazilian's regions. Parasites can reduce milk productivity, especially the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This study consisted of a questionnaire answered by 40 milk producers in the northwestern region of the State of São Paulo. The aim was to ascertain how these producers controlled ticks and other parasites. Very many of them knew nothing about the biological cycle of the cattle tick or about strategic control or acaricide efficacy tests...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Colin A Chapman, Sagan Friant, Kathleen Godfrey, Cynthia Liu, Dipto Sakar, Valérie A M Schoof, Raja Sengupta, Dennis Twinomugisha, Kim Valenta, Tony L Goldberg
Substantial research has shown that while some parasite infections can be fatal to hosts, most infections are sub-clinical and non-lethal. Such sub-clinical infections can nonetheless have negative consequences for the long-term fitness of the host such as reducing juvenile growth and the host's ability to compete for food and mates. With such effects, infected individuals are expected to exhibit behavioural changes. Here we use a parasite removal experiment to quantify how gastrointestinal parasite infections affect the behaviour of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at Lake Nabugabo, Uganda...
2016: PloS One
S Nalubwama, F Kabi, M Vaarst, G Smolders, M Kiggundu
A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm sizes were 9.3 ± 6.7 acres in tethering system and 4.3 ± 2.6 acres in zero-grazing. Fifty-four percent of the zero-grazing herds had animal housing facilities. All farmers in tethering system kept cows on earthen floors and calves without bedding...
August 18, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
N H A Curi, A M O Paschoal, R L Massara, H A Santos, M P Guimarães, M Passamani, A G Chiarello
Despite the ubiquity of domestic dogs, their role as zoonotic reservoirs and the large number of studies concerning parasites in urban dogs, rural areas in Brazil, especially those at the wildlife-domestic animal-human interface, have received little attention from scientists and public health managers. This paper reports a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites of rural dogs living in farms around Atlantic Forest fragments. Through standard parasitological methods (flotation and sedimentation), 13 parasite taxa (11 helminths and two protozoans) were found in feces samples from dogs...
August 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Tetiana A Kuzmina, Igor Dzeverin, Vitaliy A Kharchenko
An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Abdulsalam M Al-Mekhlafi, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Samira M Al-Eryani, Reyadh Saif-Ali, Mohammed A K Mahdy
Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
B Tarbiat, D S Jansson, E Tydén, J Höglund
The efficacy of a sustainable deworming strategy based on targeted treatments (TT) against Ascaridia galli was investigated for the first time in laying hen flocks on a Swedish commercial farm. Three experimental protocols with different levels of treatment, e.g. targeted treatment (TT), conventional treatment (CT) and untreated (UT), were tested in randomly allocated flocks of two different bird hybrids. Every second week faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined from pooled faecal materials collected on trays (20×27cm) placed for a maximum of 12h on the litter belts...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
M K Vijayasarathi, C Sreekumar, R Venkataramanan, M Raman
Anthelmintic resistance (AR) status in Madras Red sheep from selected field flocks of a government funded scheme, covered by regular, sustained anthelmintic treatment for more than 10 years was determined. Parameters such as fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), larval paralysis assay (LPA), and allele-specific-PCR (AS-PCR) were used to test the efficacy of fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin at recommended doses, in two seasons. Sheep belonging to non-beneficiary farmers were used as controls. Mean FECRT values of beneficiary group during winter and summer seasons were 77...
October 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
George PrayGod, Crispin Mukerebe, Ruth Magawa, Kidola Jeremiah, M Estée Török
BACKGROUND: Mortality due to severe pneumonia during childhood in resource-constrained settings is high, but data to provide basis for interventions to improve survival are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe pneumonia in children aged under five years old in Mwanza, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of children aged 2 to 59 months at Sekou-Toure regional hospital in Mwanza City, north-western, Tanzania from May 2013 to March 2014...
2016: PloS One
T M Silva, A N de Medeiros, R L Oliveira, S Gonzaga Neto, R de C R do E Queiroga, R D X Ribeiro, A G Leão, L R Bezerra
This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33...
July 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Eeshani Kandpal, Harold Alderman, Jed Friedman, Deon Filmer, Junko Onishi, Jorge Avalos
BACKGROUND: Pantawid, a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in the Philippines, provided grants conditioned on health-related behaviors for children aged 0-5 y and schooling for those aged 10-14 y. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether Pantawid improved anthropometric measurements in children aged 6-36 mo. METHODS: We estimated cross-sectional intention-to-treat effects using a 2011 cluster-randomized trial across 130 villages-65 treated and 65 control-with data collected after 31 mo of implementation...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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