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Composite tissue transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319572/vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-of-the-elbow-joint-a-cadaveric-study
#1
Mitchell A Pet, Angelo B Lipira, Yusha Liu, Dennis Kao, Jason H Ko
BACKGROUND: Surgical options for the unreconstructable elbow are limited to arthrodesis, total arthroplasty, or osteoarticular allograft reconstruction. Each of these options is limited by severe functional impairment and/or high complication rates. Vascularized allotransplantation of the elbow joint has the potential to mitigate these complications. In this study, we describe our technique for harvesting the elbow for vascularized joint transplantation and demonstrate the flap's vascularity using contrast angiography...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316955/single-molecule-techniques-to-quantify-and-genetically-characterise-persistent-hiv
#2
REVIEW
Xiao Qian Wang, Sarah Palmer
Antiretroviral therapy effectively suppresses, but does not eradicate HIV-1 infection. Persistent low-level HIV-1 can still be detected in plasma and cellular reservoirs even after years of effective therapy, and cessation of current treatments invariably results in resumption of viral replication. Efforts to eradicate persistent HIV-1 require a comprehensive examination of the quantity and genetic composition of HIV-1 within the plasma and infected cells located in the peripheral blood and tissues throughout the body...
January 9, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316256/immunosuppressive-effect-of-the-gut-microbiome-altered-by-high-dose-tacrolimus-in-mice
#3
Z Zhang, L Liu, H Tang, W Jiao, S Zeng, Y Xu, Q Zhang, Z Sun, A Mukherjee, X Zhang, X Hu
The alterations induced in gut microbiota by tacrolimus may affect immune function and organ transplantation. Mice were treated with a high-dose of tacrolimus for 14 days. The fecal microbiota were analyzed by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA genes, and the effect on metabolism was predicted using the sequence data. The subgroups of T cells in the serum, gut-associated lymphoid tissue and draining lymph nodes were determined by flow cytometry. Tacrolimus treatment significantly altered the relative abundance of Allobaculum, Bacteroides and Lactobacillus and CD4+ CD25hi FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells in the colonic mucosa and the circulation...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305755/creation-of-dystrophin-expressing-chimeric-cells-of-myoblast-origin-as-a-novel-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
M Siemionow, J Cwykiel, A Heydemann, J Garcia-Martinez, K Siemionow, E Szilagyi
Over the past decade different stem cell (SC) based approaches were tested to treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a lethal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in dystrophin gene. Despite research efforts, there is no curative therapy for DMD. Allogeneic SC therapies aim to restore dystrophin in the affected muscles; however, they are challenged by rejection and limited engraftment. Thus, there is a need to develop new more efficacious SC therapies. Chimeric Cells (CC), created via ex vivo fusion of donor and recipient cells, represent a promising therapeutic option for tissue regeneration and Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) due to tolerogenic properties that eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression...
January 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282250/obesity-alters-the-long-term-fitness-of-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-compartment-through-modulation-of-gfi1-expression
#5
Jung-Mi Lee, Vinothini Govindarajah, Bryan Goddard, Ashwini Hinge, David E Muench, Marie-Dominique Filippi, Bruce Aronow, Jose A Cancelas, Nathan Salomonis, H Leighton Grimes, Damien Reynaud
Obesity is a chronic organismal stress that disrupts multiple systemic and tissue-specific functions. In this study, we describe the impact of obesity on the activity of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment. We show that obesity alters the composition of the HSC compartment and its activity in response to hematopoietic stress. The impact of obesity on HSC function is progressively acquired but persists after weight loss or transplantation into a normal environment. Mechanistically, we establish that the oxidative stress induced by obesity dysregulates the expression of the transcription factor Gfi1 and that increased Gfi1 expression is required for the abnormal HSC function induced by obesity...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222839/decellularized-human-liver-extracellular-matrix-hdlm-mediated-hepatic-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-hipsc
#6
Maria Jaramillo, Heidi Yeh, Martin L Yarmush, Basak E Uygun
Liver tissue engineering has emerged as a promising approach in organ transplantation, but has been hampered by the lack of a reliable and readily available cell source. Induced pluripotent cells (hiPSC) have been highlighted a desirable source, due to their differentiation potential, ability to self-renew and the possibility of making patient specific cells. We developed a decellularization protocol that efficiently removes cellular material, while retaining extracellular matrix components. Subsequently, hiPSC were differentiated on the decellularized human liver matrix (hDLM) scaffolds using an established hepatic differentiation protocol...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218012/anti-tumor-effect-of-rhaponticum-uniflorum-ethyl-acetate-extract-by-regulation-of-peroxiredoxin1-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-oral-cancer
#7
Hui Chen, Chunxiao Wang, Moci Qi, Lihua Ge, Zhenchuan Tian, Jinhua Li, Min Zhang, Min Wang, Linfang Huang, Xiaofei Tang
Objective: To explore whether Rhaponticum uniflorum (R. uniflorum) had anti-tumor effects in oral cancer and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in these anti-tumor effects. Methods: Chemical compositions of R. uniflorum ethyl acetate (RUEA) extracts were detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Q/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS), followed by pharmacology-based network prediction analysis. The effects of RUEA extracts on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion ability of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line SCC15 were evaluated by CCK8 assay, Annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, wound healing assay, and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202992/beneficial-clinical-effects-but-limited-tissue-quality-following-osteochondral-repair-with-a-cell-free-multilayered-nano-composite-scaffold-in-the-talus
#8
Martin Kaipel, Markus Schreiner, Richard Kellner, Joachim Klikovits, Sebastian Apprich, Martin Brix, Harald Boszotta, Stephan Domayer, Siegfried Trattnig
BACKGROUND: The treatment of larger osteochondral lesions of the talus remains an operative challenge. In addition to micro fracturing and osteochondral transplantation one promising strategy could be the operative repair with a cell-free multilayered nano-composite scaffold with the potential to regenerate bone and cartilage in one treatment. METHODS: In this prospective case series four consecutive patients who suffered from a single osteochondral lesion (≥1...
December 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197678/adipokines-inflammation-and-adiposity-in-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-survivors
#9
Tyler G Ketterl, Eric J Chow, Wendy M Leisenring, Pam Goodman, Ildi H Koves, Anna Petryk, Julia Steinberger, K Scott Baker
Adult survivors of acute leukemia in childhood have a higher than expected frequency of obesity, an increased risk for metabolic syndrome and early mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adipose tissue has been recognized as an endocrine and paracrine organ that secretes various adipokines involved in metabolic regulation and inflammatory processes. Examine inflammatory factors [IL-6 and TNF-] and adipokines (adiponectin, leptin) in addition to body composition and adiposity in cancer survivors who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) during childhood in comparison to sibling controls...
November 29, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193065/stereological-assessment-of-the-blood-air-barrier-and-the-surfactant-system-after-mesenchymal-stem-cell-pretreatment-in-a-porcine-non-heart-beating-donor-model-for-lung-transplantation
#10
Anke Schnapper, Astrid Christmann, Lars Knudsen, Parwis Rahmanian, Yeong-Hoon Choi, Mohamed Zeriouh, Samira Karavidic, Klaus Neef, Anja Sterner-Kock, Maria Guschlbauer, Florian Hofmaier, Alexandra C Maul, Thorsten Wittwer, Thorsten Wahlers, Christian Mühlfeld, Matthias Ochs
More frequent utilization of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) organs for lung transplantation has the potential to relieve the shortage of donor organs. In particular with respect to uncontrolled NHBD, concerns exist regarding the risk of ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-related graft damage or dysfunction. Due to their immunomodulating and tissue-remodelling properties, bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suspected of playing a beneficial role regarding short- and long-term survival and function of the allograft...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140906/nose-and-lips-graft-variants-a-subunit-anatomical-study
#11
Jérôme Duisit, Louis Maistriaux, Alexander Gerdom, Martial Vergauwen, Pierre Gianello, Catherine Behets, Benoît Lengelé
BACKGROUND: In the field of Vascularized Composite tissue Allotransplantation (VCA), the surgical design of facial subunit grafts is an evolving concept. The purpose of the present paper is to study the possibilities to divide the historical nose and lips face transplant into several morphological and functional subunit grafts, depending on their respective supply. METHODS: Our study was conducted in 20 adult cadavers. The facial artery and its branches were dissected bilaterally in 16 fresh and 4 embalmed heads...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127819/morphological-response-of-a-cactus-to-cement-dust-pollution
#12
Juan Manuel E Drack, Diego P Vázquez
Cement dust from cement plants around the world has multiple negative effects on organisms and their environment. Cement's effects come from its strongly alkaline nature and high content of heavy metals. Previous studies on plants have documented that cement dust deposition can influence plant vegetative growth, the lipid and ionic composition of tissues, and foliar temperature. Here we evaluate the effects of cement dust coming from a plant in western Argentina on the morphology of the cactus Tephrocactus aoracanthus...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127293/three-dimensional-printed-polylactic-acid-hydroxyapatite-composite-scaffolds-for-prefabricating-vascularized-tissue-engineered-bone-an-in-vivo-bioreactor-model
#13
Haifeng Zhang, Xiyuan Mao, Danyang Zhao, Wenbo Jiang, Zijing Du, Qingfeng Li, Chaohua Jiang, Dong Han
The repair of large bone defects with complex geometries remains a major clinical challenge. Here, we explored the feasibility of fabricating polylactic acid-hydroxyapatite (PLA-HA) composite scaffolds. These scaffolds were constructed from vascularized tissue engineered bone using an in vivo bioreactor (IVB) strategy with three-dimensional printing technology. Specifically, a rabbit model was established to prefabricate vascularized tissue engineered bone in two groups. An experimental group (EG) was designed using a tibial periosteum capsule filled with 3D printed (3DP) PLA-HA composite scaffolds seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and crossed with a vascular bundle...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065466/collagen-based-medical-device-as-a-stem-cell-carrier-for-regenerative-medicine
#14
Léa Aubert, Marie Dubus, Hassan Rammal, Camille Bour, Céline Mongaret, Camille Boulagnon-Rombi, Roselyne Garnotel, Céline Schneider, Rachid Rahouadj, Cedric Laurent, Sophie C Gangloff, Frédéric Velard, Cedric Mauprivez, Halima Kerdjoudj
Maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) requires a tissue-specific microenvironment (i.e., niche), which is poorly represented by the typical plastic substrate used for two-dimensional growth of MSCs in a tissue culture flask. The objective of this study was to address the potential use of collagen-based medical devices (HEMOCOLLAGENE(®), Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) as mimetic niche for MSCs with the ability to preserve human MSC stemness in vitro. With a chemical composition similar to type I collagen, HEMOCOLLAGENE(®) foam presented a porous and interconnected structure (>90%) and a relative low elastic modulus of around 60 kPa...
October 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065258/characterization-of-body-composition-and-definition-of-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis-a-computed-tomography-based-study
#15
Jaya Benjamin, Varsha Shasthry, Chetan Ramesh Kaal, Lovkesh Anand, Ankit Bhardwaj, Vanshja Pandit, Ankur Arora, Sasidharan Rajesh, Viniyendra Pamecha, Vikas Jain, Guresh Kumar, Anthony Loria, Puneet Puri, Yogendra Kumar Joshi, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Alterations in body composition (BC) as loss of fat and muscle mass (sarcopenia) are associated with poor outcome in alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC). Prevalence of sarcopenia depends upon the method of assessment. Computed Tomography (CT) is a gold standard tool for assessing BC. AIM: To characterize BC and define sarcopenia in ALC patients using CT. METHODS: Single slice CT images at L3 vertebrae of healthy controls (HC) - organ transplant donors and ALC patients were analysed to give cross-sectional area of five skeletal muscles normalized for height -skeletal muscle index (SMI; cm(2) /m(2) ), area of subcutaneous (SAT;cm(2) ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT;cm(2) )...
November 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056925/host-microbiota-mutualism-in-metabolic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Mirko Trajkovski
The intestinal microbiota is a plastic ecosystem that is shaped by environmental and genetic factors, interacting with virtually all tissues of the host. Many signals result from the interplay between the microbiota with its mammalian symbiont that can lead to altered metabolism. Disruptions in the microbial composition are associated with a number of comorbidities linked to the metabolic syndrome. Promoting the niche expansion of beneficial bacteria through diet and supplements can improve metabolic disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054354/strategies-to-reduce-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-of-the-limb
#17
REVIEW
Kavit R Amin, Jason K F Wong, James E Fildes
An important and often underinvestigated contributor to solid organ transplant rejection is ischemia reperfusion injury. This pathophysiological response releases damaging reactive oxygen species and cell stress signals that initiate inflammation, which has a critical role in priming the immune system for allorecognition. In time, this renders graft dysfunction and how this response is mediated in composite tissues remains unknown. Current protocols are drawn from solid organ transplantation with little scientific basis as to how this informs current hand transplantation practices...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047209/effects-of-cryopreservation-on-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#18
Matthias W Laschke, Philipp Karschnia, Claudia Scheuer, Alexander Heß, Wolfgang Metzger, Michael D Menger
Adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) are effective vascularization units for tissue engineering. They rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after seeding on scaffolds and subsequent in vivo implantation. Herein, we analyzed whether the vascularization capacity of ad-MVF is affected by cryopreservation. Ad-MVF were isolated from the epididymal fat pads of C57BL/6 mice and cryopreserved for 7 days to compare their morphology, viability, cellular composition and protein expression with freshly isolated control ad-MVF...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037855/nephrosphere-derived-cells-are-induced-to-multilineage-differentiation-when-cultured-on-human-decellularized-kidney-scaffolds
#19
Silvia Bombelli, Chiara Meregalli, Carla Scalia, Giorgio Bovo, Barbara Torsello, Sofia De Marco, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Paolo Viganò, Guido Strada, Giorgio Cattoretti, Cristina Bianchi, Roberto A Perego
In end-stage chronic kidney disease, the option of organ transplantation is limited because of the scarce availability of kidneys. The combination of stem cell research, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering seems a promising approach to produce new transplantable kidneys. Currently, the possibility to repopulate naturally obtained scaffolds with cells of different sources is advancing. Our aim was to test, for the first time, whether the nephrosphere (NS) cells, composed by renal stem/progenitor-like cells, were able to repopulate different nephron portions of renal extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained after decellularization of human renal tissue slices...
October 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025654/3d-printing-hydrogel-with-graphene-oxide-is-functional-in-cartilage-protection-by-influencing-the-signal-pathway-of-rank-rankl-opg
#20
Zhong Cheng, Bolaky Landish, Zhang Chi, Cui Nannan, Du Jingyu, Lu Sen, Lin Xiangjin
3Dprinting is defined as the use of printing technology to deposit living cells, and biomaterials on a given /a substrate. Graphene oxide nanoparticles (GO-np) have been used as a delivery vehicle for small molecule drugs in order to investigate the state of GO-np within 3D tissue constructs in terms of a composite 3D printing scaffold, which in turn is relevant to the protection of cartilage. We transplanted rats with hydrogel/GO-np and hydrogel, which in turn showed that hydrogel/GO-np protected the tissue of cartilage by the signal pathway of Rank/Rankl/OPG...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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