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Electrophysiological mapping of the brain

Krisztián A Kovács, Joseph O'Neill, Philipp Schoenenberger, Markku Penttonen, Damaris K Ranguel Guerrero, Jozsef Csicsvari
During hippocampal sharp wave/ripple (SWR) events, previously occurring, sensory input-driven neuronal firing patterns are replayed. Such replay is thought to be important for plasticity-related processes and consolidation of memory traces. It has previously been shown that the electrical stimulation-induced disruption of SWR events interferes with learning in rodents in different experimental paradigms. On the other hand, the cognitive map theory posits that the plastic changes of the firing of hippocampal place cells constitute the electrophysiological counterpart of the spatial learning, observable at the behavioral level...
2016: PloS One
Sari Ylinen, Alexis Bosseler, Katja Junttila, Minna Huotilainen
The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
Aaron Kucyi, Karen D Davis
Pain occurs in time. In naturalistic settings, pain perception is sometimes stable but often varies in intensity and quality over the course of seconds, minutes, and days. A principal aim in classic electrophysiology studies of pain was to uncover a neural code based on the temporal patterns of single neuron firing. In contrast, modern neuroimaging studies have placed emphasis on uncovering the spatial pattern of brain activity (or "map") that may reflect the pain experience. However, in the emerging field of connectomics, communication within and among brain networks is characterized as intrinsically dynamic on multiple time scales...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
A G Rouse, J J Williams, J J Wheeler, D W Moran
OBJECTIVE: Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been used for a range of applications including electrophysiological mapping, epilepsy monitoring, and more recently as a recording modality for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Studies that examine ECoG electrodes designed and implanted chronically solely for BCI applications remain limited. The present study explored how two key factors influence chronic, closed-loop ECoG BCI: (i) the effect of inter-electrode distance on BCI performance and (ii) the differences in neural adaptation and performance when fixed versus adaptive BCI decoding weights are used...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Yichen Lu, Hongming Lyu, Andrew G Richardson, Timothy H Lucas, Duygu Kuzum
Neural sensing and stimulation have been the backbone of neuroscience research, brain-machine interfaces and clinical neuromodulation therapies for decades. To-date, most of the neural stimulation systems have relied on sharp metal microelectrodes with poor electrochemical properties that induce extensive damage to the tissue and significantly degrade the long-term stability of implantable systems. Here, we demonstrate a flexible cortical microelectrode array based on porous graphene, which is capable of efficient electrophysiological sensing and stimulation from the brain surface, without penetrating into the tissue...
September 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Miao He, Jason Tucciarone, SooHyun Lee, Maximiliano José Nigro, Yongsoo Kim, Jesse Maurica Levine, Sean Michael Kelly, Illya Krugikov, Priscilla Wu, Yang Chen, Lin Gong, Yongjie Hou, Pavel Osten, Bernardo Rudy, Z Josh Huang
Systematic genetic access to GABAergic cell types will facilitate studying the function and development of inhibitory circuitry. However, single gene-driven recombinase lines mark relatively broad and heterogeneous cell populations. Although intersectional approaches improve precision, it remains unclear whether they can capture cell types defined by multiple features. Here we demonstrate that combinatorial genetic and viral approaches target restricted GABAergic subpopulations and cell types characterized by distinct laminar location, morphology, axonal projection, and electrophysiological properties...
September 21, 2016: Neuron
Enzo Tagliazucchi, Michael Siniatchkin, Helmut Laufs, Dante R Chialvo
Large efforts are currently under way to systematically map functional connectivity between all pairs of millimeter-scale brain regions based on large neuroimaging databases. The exploratory unraveling of this "functional connectome" based on functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) can benefit from a better understanding of the contributors to resting state functional connectivity. In this work, we introduce a sparse representation of fMRI data in the form of a discrete point-process encoding high-amplitude events in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal and we show it contains sufficient information for the estimation of functional connectivity between all pairs of voxels...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
John J Foxe, Kelly M Burke, Gizely N Andrade, Aleksandra Djukic, Hans-Peter Frey, Sophie Molholm
BACKGROUND: Over the typical course of Rett syndrome, initial language and communication abilities deteriorate dramatically between the ages of 1 and 4 years, and a majority of these children go on to lose all oral communication abilities. It becomes extremely difficult for clinicians and caretakers to accurately assess the level of preserved auditory functioning in these children, an issue of obvious clinical import. Non-invasive electrophysiological techniques allow for the interrogation of auditory cortical processing without the need for overt behavioral responses...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Dimitris A Pinotsis, Gavin Perry, Vladimir Litvak, Krish D Singh, Karl J Friston
This article describes the first application of a generic (empirical) Bayesian analysis of between-subject effects in the dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of electrophysiological (MEG) data. It shows that (i) non-invasive (MEG) data can be used to characterize subject-specific differences in cortical microcircuitry and (ii) presents a validation of DCM with neural fields that exploits intersubject variability in gamma oscillations. We find that intersubject variability in visually induced gamma responses reflects changes in the excitation-inhibition balance in a canonical cortical circuit...
September 4, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Jared B Smith, Jason R Klug, Danica L Ross, Christopher D Howard, Nick G Hollon, Vivian I Ko, Hilary Hoffman, Edward M Callaway, Charles R Gerfen, Xin Jin
The striatum contains neurochemically defined compartments termed patches and matrix. Previous studies suggest patches preferentially receive limbic inputs and project to dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), whereas matrix neurons receive sensorimotor inputs and do not innervate SNc. Using BAC-Cre transgenic mice with viral tracing techniques, we mapped brain-wide differences in the input-output organization of the patch/matrix. Findings reveal a displaced population of striatal patch neurons termed "exo-patch," which reside in matrix zones but have neurochemistry, connectivity, and electrophysiological characteristics resembling patch neurons...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
Longwen Huang, Kevin Ung, Isabella Garcia, Kathleen B Quast, Keith Cordiner, Peter Saggau, Benjamin R Arenkiel
UNLABELLED: Elucidating patterns of functional synaptic connectivity and deciphering mechanisms of how plasticity influences such connectivity is essential toward understanding brain function. In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), principal neurons (mitral/tufted cells) make reciprocal connections with local inhibitory interneurons, including granule cells (GCs) and external plexiform layer (EPL) interneurons. Our current understanding of the functional connectivity between these cell types, as well as their experience-dependent plasticity, remains incomplete...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Carlos J Ballester-Rosado, Hao Sun, Jui-Yen Huang, Hui-Chen Lu
UNLABELLED: Glutamate neurotransmission refines synaptic connections to establish the precise neural circuits underlying sensory processing. Deleting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in mice perturbs cortical somatosensory map formation in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex at both functional and anatomical levels. To examine the cell-autonomous influences of mGluR5 signaling in the morphological and functional development of layer IV spiny stellate glutamatergic neurons receiving sensory input, mGluR5 genetic mosaic mice were generated through in utero electroporation...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Daniel J Mitchell, Andrew H Bell, Mark J Buckley, Anna S Mitchell, Jerome Sallet, John Duncan
UNLABELLED: In humans, cognitively demanding tasks of many types recruit common frontoparietal brain areas. Pervasive activation of this "multiple-demand" (MD) network suggests a core function in supporting goal-oriented behavior. A similar network might therefore be predicted in nonhuman primates that readily perform similar tasks after training. However, an MD network in nonhuman primates has not been described. Single-cell recordings from macaque frontal and parietal cortex show some similar properties to human MD fMRI responses (e...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Richárd Fiáth, Patrícia Beregszászi, Domonkos Horváth, Lucia Wittner, Arno A A Aarts, Patrick Ruther, Hercules P Neves, Hajnalka Bokor, Laszlo Acsady, István Ulbert
Recording simultaneous activity of a large number of neurons in distributed neuronal networks is crucial to understand higher order brain functions. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo performance of a recently developed electrophysiological recording system comprising a two-dimensional, multi-shank, high-density silicon probe with integrated CMOS electronics. The system implements the concept of electronic depth control (EDC), which enables the electronic selection of a limited number of recording sites on each of the probe shafts...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Christopher A Baker, Yishai M Elyada, Andres Parra, M McLean Bolton
We describe refinements in optogenetic methods for circuit mapping that enable measurements of functional synaptic connectivity with single-neuron resolution. By expanding a two-photon beam in the imaging plane using the temporal focusing method and restricting channelrhodopsin to the soma and proximal dendrites, we are able to reliably evoke action potentials in individual neurons, verify spike generation with GCaMP6s, and determine the presence or absence of synaptic connections with patch-clamp electrophysiological recording...
2016: ELife
Armin Wiegner, Charles G Wright, Maike Vollmer
BACKGROUND: Animal models for chronic multichannel cochlear implant stimulation and selective neuronal activation contribute to a better understanding of auditory signal processing and central neural plasticity. NEW METHOD: This paper describes the design and surgical implantation of a multichannel cochlear implant (CI) system for chronic use in the free-moving gerbil. For chronic stimulation, adult-deafened gerbils were connected to a multichannel commutator that allowed low resistance cable rotation and stable electric connectivity to the current source...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Luz M Alonso-Valerdi, David A Gutiérrez-Begovich, Janet Argüello-García, Francisco Sepulveda, Ricardo A Ramírez-Mendoza
Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Deirdre M Twomey, Simon P Kelly, Redmond G O'Connell
UNLABELLED: Electrophysiological research has isolated neural signatures of decision formation in a variety of brain regions. Studies in rodents and monkeys have focused primarily on effector-selective signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, but, more recently, research on the human brain has identified an abstract signature of evidence accumulation that does not appear to play any direct role in action preparation. The functional dissociations between these distinct signal types have only begun to be characterized, and their dynamics during decisions with deferred actions with or without foreknowledge of stimulus-effector mapping, a commonly studied task scenario in single-unit and functional imaging investigations, have not been established...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aliette Lochy, Marie Van Reybroeck, Bruno Rossion
Reading, one of the most important cultural inventions of human society, critically depends on posterior brain areas of the left hemisphere in proficient adult readers. In children, this left hemispheric cortical specialization for letter strings is typically detected only after approximately 1 y of formal schooling and reading acquisition. Here, we recorded scalp electrophysiological (EEG) brain responses in 5-y-old (n = 40) prereaders presented with letter strings appearing every five items in rapid streams of pseudofonts (6 items per second)...
July 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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