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Electrophysiological mapping of the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030110/where-and-what-tms-activates-experiments-and-modeling
#1
Ilkka Laakso, Takenobu Murakami, Akimasa Hirata, Yoshikazu Ugawa
BACKGROUND: Despite recent developments in navigation and modeling techniques, the type and location of the structures that are activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relationships between electrophysiological measurements and electric fields induced in the brain to locate the TMS activation site. METHODS: The active and resting motor thresholds of the first dorsal interosseous muscle were recorded in 19 subjects (7 female, 12 male, age 22 ± 4 years) using anteromedially oriented monophasic TMS at multiple locations over the left primary motor cortex (M1)...
September 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990168/automated-analysis-of-seizure-semiology-and-brain-electrical-activity-in-presurgery-evaluation-of-epilepsy-a-focused-survey
#2
REVIEW
David Ahmedt-Aristizabal, Clinton Fookes, Sasha Dionisio, Kien Nguyen, João Paulo S Cunha, Sridha Sridharan
Epilepsy being one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide, and with almost 30-40% of patients experiencing partial epilepsy being nonresponsive to medication, epilepsy surgery is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic option. Presurgical evaluation has advanced significantly using noninvasive techniques based on video monitoring, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological and neuropsychological tests; however, certain clinical settings call for invasive intracranial recordings such as stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG), aiming to accurately map the eloquent brain networks involved during a seizure...
October 9, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973156/semantic-and-phonological-encoding-times-in-adults-who-stutter-brain-electrophysiological-evidence
#3
Nathan D Maxfield
Purpose: Some psycholinguistic theories of stuttering propose that language production operates along a different time course in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically fluent adults (TFA). However, behavioral evidence for such a difference has been mixed. Here, the time course of semantic and phonological encoding in picture naming was compared in AWS (n = 16) versus TFA (n = 16) by measuring 2 event-related potential (ERP) components: NoGo N200, an ERP index of response inhibition, and lateralized readiness potential, an ERP index of response preparation...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912157/approaching-the-ground-truth-revealing-the-functional-organization-of-human-multisensory-stc-using-ultra-high-field-fmri
#4
Francesco Gentile, Nienke van Atteveldt, Federico De Martino, Rainer Goebel
Integrating inputs across sensory systems is a property of the brain that is vitally important in everyday life. More than two decades of fMRI research have revealed crucial insights on multisensory processing, yet the multisensory operations at the neuronal level in humans have remained largely unknown. Understanding the fine-scale spatial organization of multisensory brain regions is fundamental to shed light on their neuronal operations. Monkey electrophysiology revealed that the bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is topographically organized according to the modality preference (visual, auditory, and bimodal) of its neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841121/elaborate-mapping-of-the-posterior-visual-pathway-in-awake-craniotomy
#5
Tal Shahar, Akiva Korn, Gal Barkay, Tali Biron, Amir Hadanny, Tomer Gazit, Erez Nossek, Margaret Ekstein, Anat Kesler, Zvi Ram
OBJECTIVE Resection of intraaxial tumors adjacent to the optic radiation (OR) may be associated with postoperative visual field (VF) deficits. Intraoperative navigation using MRI-based tractography and electrophysiological monitoring of the visual pathways may allow maximal resection while preserving visual function. In this study, the authors evaluated the value of visual pathway mapping in a series of patients undergoing awake craniotomy for tumor resection. METHODS A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted in 18 patients who underwent an awake craniotomy for resection of intraaxial tumors involving or adjacent to the OR...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813643/multi-connection-pattern-analysis-decoding-the-representational-content-of-neural-communication
#6
Yuanning Li, Robert Mark Richardson, Avniel Singh Ghuman
The lack of multivariate methods for decoding the representational content of interregional neural communication has left it difficult to know what information is represented in distributed brain circuit interactions. Here we present Multi-Connection Pattern Analysis (MCPA), which works by learning mappings between the activity patterns of the populations as a factor of the information being processed. These maps are used to predict the activity from one neural population based on the activity from the other population...
August 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782684/principles-of-dynamic-network-reconfiguration-across-diverse-brain-states
#7
REVIEW
James M Shine, Russell A Poldrack
Recent methodological advances have enabled researchers to track the network structure of the human brain over time. Together, these studies provide novel insights into effective brain function, highlighting the importance of the systems-level perspective in understanding the manner in which the human brain organizes its activity to facilitate behavior. Here, we review a range of recent fMRI and electrophysiological studies that have mapped the relationship between inter-regional communication and network structure across a diverse range of brain states...
August 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772097/what-have-we-learned-about-movement-disorders-from-functional-neurosurgery
#8
Andres M Lozano, William D Hutchison, Suneil K Kalia
Modern functional neurosurgery for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia involves the placement of focal lesions or the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) within circuits that modulate motor function. Precise targeting of these motor structures can be further refined by the use of electrophysiological approaches. In particular, microelectrode recordings enable the delineation of neuroanatomic structures. In the course of these operations, there is an opportunity not only to map basal ganglia structures but also to gain insights into how disturbances in neural activity produce movement disorders...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770364/inter-study-and-inter-individual-consistency-and-variability-of-eeg-erp-microstate-sequences-in-referential-word-production
#9
Marina Laganaro
Periods of stable global electric field at scalp unfolding during a cognitive task can be linked to brain processes and are therefore well suited to investigate simultaneously qualitative and quantitative differences across conditions or populations of interest. The electrophysiological event-related (ERP) spatio-temporal dynamic has been repetitively investigated in referential word production, but the different designs, settings and analyses do not allow to conclude on the reliability of the microstate sequences across studies and individuals...
August 2, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737272/dynamic-coupling-between-fmri-local-connectivity-and-interictal-eeg-in-focal-epilepsy-a-wavelet-analysis-approach
#10
Amir Omidvarnia, Mangor Pedersen, David N Vaughan, Jennifer M Walz, David F Abbott, Andrew Zalesky, Graeme D Jackson
Simultaneous scalp EEG-fMRI recording is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique for combining electrophysiological and hemodynamic aspects of brain function. Despite the time-varying nature of both measurements, their relationship is usually considered as time-invariant. The aim of this study was to detect direct associations between scalp-recorded EEG and regional changes of hemodynamic brain connectivity in focal epilepsy through a time-frequency paradigm. To do so, we developed a voxel-wise framework that analyses wavelet coherence between dynamic regional phase synchrony (DRePS, calculated from fMRI) and band amplitude fluctuation (BAF) of a target EEG electrode with dominant interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs)...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667175/the-relevance-of-agrp-neuron-derived-gaba-inputs-to-pomc-neurons-differs-for-spontaneous-and-evoked-release
#11
Andrew R Rau, Shane T Hentges
Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-dependent vesicle fusion...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653335/catlas-an-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-three-dimensional-cortical-atlas-and-tissue-probability-maps-for-the-domestic-cat-felis-catus
#12
Daniel Stolzberg, Carmen Wong, Blake E Butler, Stephen G Lomber
Brain atlases play an important role in effectively communicating results from neuroimaging studies in a standardized coordinate system. Furthermore, brain atlases extend analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data by delineating regions of interest over which to evaluate the extent of functional activation as well as measures of inter-regional connectivity. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional atlas of the cat cerebral cortex based on established cytoarchitectonic and electrophysiological findings...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589753/evaluating-the-gray-and-white-matter-energy-budgets-of-human-brain-function
#13
Yuguo Yu, Peter Herman, Douglas L Rothman, Divyansh Agarwal, Fahmeed Hyder
The insatiable appetite for energy to support human brain function is mainly supplied by glucose oxidation (CMRglc(ox)). But how much energy is consumed for signaling and nonsignaling processes in gray/white matter is highly debated. We examined this issue by combining metabolic measurements of gray/white matter and a theoretical calculation of bottom-up energy budget using biophysical properties of neuronal/glial cells in conjunction with species-exclusive electrophysiological and morphological data. We calculated a CMRglc(ox)-derived budget and confirmed it with experimental results measured by PET, autoradiography, (13)C-MRS, and electrophysiology...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587898/a-decade-of-decoding-reward-related-fmri-signals-and-where-we-go-from-here
#14
REVIEW
Thorsten Kahnt
Information about potential rewards in the environment is essential for guiding adaptive behavior, and understanding neural reward processes may provide insights into neuropsychiatric dysfunctions. Over the past 10 years, multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques have been used to study brain areas encoding information about expected and experienced outcomes. These studies have identified reward signals throughout the brain, including the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parietal cortex...
June 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539659/involvement-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#15
Matthieu F Bastide, Christelle Glangetas, Evelyne Doudnikoff, Qin Li, Mathieu Bourdenx, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Éric C Dumont, François Georges, Erwan Bézard
A whole brain immediate early gene mapping highlighted the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBST) as a structure putatively involved in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID), the debilitating side-effects of chronic dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). dlBST indeed displayed an overexpression of ∆FosB, ARC, Zif268 and FRA2 only in dyskinetic rats. We thus hypothesized that dlBST could play a role in LID hyperkinetic manifestations. To assess the causal role of the dlBST in LID, we used Daun02 inactivation to selectively inhibit the electrical activity of dlBST ΔFosB-expressing neurons...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506482/technical-principles-of-direct-bipolar-electrostimulation-for-cortical-and-subcortical-mapping-in-awake-craniotomy
#16
J Pallud, E Mandonnet, R Corns, E Dezamis, E Parraga, M Zanello, G Spena
INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative application of electrical current to the brain is a standard technique during brain surgery for inferring the function of the underlying brain. The purpose of intraoperative functional mapping is to reliably identify cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in eloquent functions, especially motor, sensory, language and cognitive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to review the rationale and the electrophysiological principles of the use of direct bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474167/effects-of-stimulus-size-and-contrast-on-the-initial-primary-visual-cortical-response-in-humans
#17
Nigel Gebodh, M Isabel Vanegas, Simon P Kelly
Decades of intracranial electrophysiological investigation into the primary visual cortex (V1) have produced many fundamental insights into the computations carried out in low-level visual circuits of the brain. Some of the most important work has been simply concerned with the precise measurement of neural response variations as a function of elementary stimulus attributes such as contrast and size. Surprisingly, such simple but fundamental characterization of V1 responses has not been carried out in human electrophysiology...
July 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461461/high-spatial-correspondence-at-a-columnar-level-between-activation-and-resting-state-fmri-signals-and-local-field-potentials
#18
Zhaoyue Shi, Ruiqi Wu, Pai-Feng Yang, Feng Wang, Tung-Lin Wu, Arabinda Mishra, Li Min Chen, John C Gore
Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in a resting state, and whether these spatial relationships vary across functionally distinct cortical areas are not known. To address these critical questions, we directly compared the spatial extents of stimulated activations and the local profiles of intervoxel resting state correlations for both high-resolution BOLD at 9...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461059/high-resolution-functional-mri-identified-distinct-global-intrinsic-functional-networks-of-nociceptive-posterior-insula-and-s2-regions-in-squirrel-monkey-brain
#19
Ruiqi Wu, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, Li Min Chen
Numerous functional imaging and electrophysiological studies in humans and animals indicate that the two contiguous areas of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and posterior insula (pIns) are core regions in nociceptive processing and pain perception. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the S2-pIns connection serves as a hub for connecting distinct sensory and affective nociceptive processing networks in the squirrel monkey brain. At 9.4T, we first mapped the brain regions that respond to nociceptive heat stimuli with high-resolution fMRI, and then used seed-based resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) analysis to delineate and refine the global intrinsic functional connectivity circuits of the proximal S2 and pIns regions...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452617/intradiploic-encephalocele-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-an-adult-patient-electrophysiological-implications-during-surgery
#20
Luca Valci, Martina Dalolio, Dominique Kuhlen, Emanuele Pravatà, Claudio Gobbi, Michael Reinert
Encephaloceles are herniations of brain parenchyma through congenital or acquired osseous-dural defects of the skull base or cranial vault. Different types of symptoms, due to CSF fistulas, meningitis, or seizures, are often associated with this condition. The authors present a rare case of spontaneous right frontal parasagittal encephalocele in a 70-year-old man who was experiencing a spastic progressive paresis of his left lower limb. Results of routine electrophysiological workup (motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and electroneuromyography), as well as those of MRI of the spinal cord, were normal...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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