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Electrophysiological mapping of the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069927/impact-of-altered-cholinergic-tones-on-the-neurovascular-coupling-response-to-whisker-stimulation
#1
Clotilde Lecrux, Claire H Sandoe, Sujaya Neupane, Pascal Kropf, Xavier Toussay, Xin-Kang Tong, María Lacalle-Aurioles, Amir Shmuel, Edith Hamel
Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity rely on the coupling between electrophysiology and hemodynamics, a phenomenon referred to "neurovascular coupling" (NVC). It is unknown whether this relationship remains reliable under altered brain states associated to acetylcholine (ACh) levels, such as attention and arousal, and in pathological conditions like Alzheimer's disease. We therefore assessed the effects of varying ACh tone on whisker evoked-NVC responses in rat barrel cortex, measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurophysiological recordings (local field potentials, LFPs)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064015/cognitive-memory-and-mapping-in-a-brain-like-system-for-robotic-navigation
#2
Huajin Tang, Weiwei Huang, Aditya Narayanamoorthy, Rui Yan
Electrophysiological studies in animals may provide a great insight into developing brain-like models of spatial cognition for robots. These studies suggest that the spatial ability of animals requires proper functioning of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex (EC). The involvement of the hippocampus in spatial cognition has been extensively studied, both in animal as well as in theoretical studies, such as in the brain-based models by Edelman and colleagues. In this work, we extend these earlier models, with a particular focus on the spatial coding properties of the EC and how it functions as an interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex, as proposed by previous work...
December 7, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034697/the-representation-of-space-in-the-brain
#3
REVIEW
Roddy M Grieves, Kate J Jeffery
Animals can navigate vast distances and often display behaviours or activities that indicate a detailed, internal spatial representation of their surrounding environment or a 'cognitive map'. Over a century of behavioural research on spatial navigation in humans and animals has greatly increased our understanding of how this highly complex feat is achieved. In turn this has inspired half a century of electrophysiological spatial navigation and memory research which has further advanced our understanding of the brain...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007585/the-prrt2-knockout-mouse-recapitulates-the-neurological-diseases-associated-with-prrt2-mutations
#4
Caterina Michetti, Enrico Castroflorio, Ivan Marchionni, Nicola Forte, Bruno Sterlini, Francesca Binda, Floriana Fruscione, Pietro Baldelli, Flavia Valtorta, Federico Zara, Anna Corradi, Fabio Benfenati
Heterozygous and rare homozygous mutations in PRoline-Rich Transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) underlie a group of paroxysmal disorders including epilepsy, kinesigenic dyskinesia episodic ataxia and migraine. Most of the mutations lead to impaired PRRT2 expression and/or function. Recently, an important role for PRTT2 in the neurotransmitter release machinery, brain development and synapse formation has been uncovered. In this work, we have characterized the phenotype of a mouse in which the PRRT2 gene has been constitutively inactivated (PRRT2 KO)...
December 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991562/local-recording-of-biological-magnetic-fields-using-giant-magneto-resistance-based-micro-probes
#5
Francesca Barbieri, Vincent Trauchessec, Laure Caruso, Josué Trejo-Rosillo, Bartosz Telenczuk, Elodie Paul, Thierry Bal, Alain Destexhe, Claude Fermon, Myriam Pannetier-Lecoeur, Gilles Ouanounou
The electrical activity of brain, heart and skeletal muscles generates magnetic fields but these are recordable only macroscopically, such as in magnetoencephalography, which is used to map neuronal activity at the brain scale. At the local scale, magnetic fields recordings are still pending because of the lack of tools that can come in contact with living tissues. Here we present bio-compatible sensors based on Giant Magneto-Resistance (GMR) spin electronics. We show on a mouse muscle in vitro, using electrophysiology and computational modeling, that this technology permits simultaneous local recordings of the magnetic fields from action potentials...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991029/the-electrophysiological-signature-of-remember-know-is-confounded-with-memory-strength-and-cannot-be-interpreted-as-evidence-for-dual-process-theory-of-recognition
#6
Noam Brezis, Zohar Z Bronfman, Galit Yovel, Yonatan Goshen-Gottstein
The quantity and nature of the processes underlying recognition memory remains an open question. A majority of behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain studies have suggested that recognition memory is supported by two dissociable processes: recollection and familiarity. It has been conversely argued, however, that recollection and familiarity map onto a single continuum of mnemonic strength and hence that recognition memory is mediated by a single process. Previous electrophysiological studies found marked dissociations between recollection and familiarity, which have been widely held as corroborating the dual-process account...
February 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974609/resting-state-hemodynamics-are-spatiotemporally-coupled-to-synchronized-and-symmetric-neural-activity-in-excitatory-neurons
#7
Ying Ma, Mohammed A Shaik, Mariel G Kozberg, Sharon H Kim, Jacob P Portes, Dmitriy Timerman, Elizabeth M C Hillman
Brain hemodynamics serve as a proxy for neural activity in a range of noninvasive neuroimaging techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In resting-state fMRI, hemodynamic fluctuations have been found to exhibit patterns of bilateral synchrony, with correlated regions inferred to have functional connectivity. However, the relationship between resting-state hemodynamics and underlying neural activity has not been well established, making the neural underpinnings of functional connectivity networks unclear...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965557/the-multivariate-temporal-response-function-mtrf-toolbox-a-matlab-toolbox-for-relating-neural-signals-to-continuous-stimuli
#8
Michael J Crosse, Giovanni M Di Liberto, Adam Bednar, Edmund C Lalor
Understanding how brains process sensory signals in natural environments is one of the key goals of twenty-first century neuroscience. While brain imaging and invasive electrophysiology will play key roles in this endeavor, there is also an important role to be played by noninvasive, macroscopic techniques with high temporal resolution such as electro- and magnetoencephalography. But challenges exist in determining how best to analyze such complex, time-varying neural responses to complex, time-varying and multivariate natural sensory stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955948/array-focal-cortical-stimulation-enhances-motor-function-recovery-and-brain-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemia
#9
Jing Yang, Lu Liu, Tao Li, Chengyan Li
OBJECTIVE: Using a new microelectrode array implanted into the cranial window employing a new stimulation protocol, we investigated the effects of the implanted electrode arrays on both motor map plasticity and neural regeneration in a rodent model of stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were pretrained on single-pellet retrieval task, then received focal ischemic infarction and microelectrode arrays implantation. Rats in the cortical stimulation (CS) group received daily electrical stimulation (1 hour each day) for 14 days whereas animals in the no stimulation (NS) group did not receive electrical stimulation and only underwent motor mapping...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920095/functional-characterization-of-the-left-ventrolateral-premotor-cortex-in-humans-a-direct-electrophysiological-approach
#10
L Fornia, V Ferpozzi, M Montagna, M Rossi, M Riva, F Pessina, F Martinelli Boneschi, P Borroni, R N Lemon, L Bello, G Cerri
In monkeys, motor outputs from premotor cortex (PM) involve cortico-cortical connections with primary motor cortex (M1). However, in humans, the functional organization of PM and its relationship with the corticospinal tract (CST) is still uncertain. This study was carried out in 21 patients undergoing intraoperative brain mapping prior to tumor resection. The left ventrolateral premotor cortex (vlPM-BA6) was identified preoperatively by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and then investigated intraoperatively using high frequency direct electrical stimulation (HF-DES) of the convexity of M1 and vlPM-BA6, with simultaneous recording of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from oro-facial, hand and arm muscles...
December 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918346/electrical-stimulation-for-seizure-induction-and-functional-mapping-in-stereoelectroencephalography
#11
Agnès Trébuchon, Patrick Chauvel
The challenge in epilepsy surgery is to remove the epileptogenic zone without compromising postoperative function. Electrical stimulation (ES) was developed to identify with greater anatomical and physiological precision cortical structures essential to language and motor function. Because the language network is widely distributed in the left (dominant) hemisphere, and often varies among patients, brain mapping should delineate eloquent areas at the individual level. Although ES for language is commonly performed during a presurgical investigation, the procedure remains nonstandardized among centers, and differences between grids and intracerebral depth electrodes (stereoelectroencephalography) should be taken into account when comparing results from different series...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916830/influence-of-fragrances-on-human-psychophysiological-activity-with-special-reference-to-human-electroencephalographic-response
#12
REVIEW
Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan, Songmun Kim
The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence...
November 29, 2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896005/cerebral-blood-flow-is-decoupled-from-blood-pressure-and-linked-to-eeg-bursting-after-resuscitation-from-cardiac-arrest
#13
Christian Crouzet, Robert H Wilson, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Donald Lee, Juan Alcocer, Bruce J Tromberg, Bernard Choi, Yama Akbari
In the present study, we have developed a multi-modal instrument that combines laser speckle imaging, arterial blood pressure, and electroencephalography (EEG) to quantitatively assess cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and brain electrophysiology before, during, and after asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Using the acquired data, we quantified the time and magnitude of the CBF hyperemic peak and stabilized hypoperfusion after resuscitation. Furthermore, we assessed the correlation between CBF and MAP before and after stabilized hypoperfusion...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802387/graphene-encapsulated-copper-microwires-as-highly-mri-compatible-neural-electrodes
#14
Siyuan Zhao, Xiaojun Liu, Zheng Xu, Huaying Ren, Bing Deng, Miao Tang, Linlin Lu, Xuefeng Fu, Hailin Peng, Zhongfan Liu, Xiaojie Duan
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible neural electrodes are important for combining high-resolution electrophysiological measurements with more global MRI mapping of brain activity, which is critical for fundamental neuroscience studies, as well as clinical evaluation and monitoring. Copper is a favorable material to use in MRI because it has magnetic susceptibility close to water and tissues. However, the cytotoxicity of copper precludes its direct implantation for neural recording. Here, we overcome this limitation by developing a graphene encapsulated copper (G-Cu) microelectrode...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798186/genetically-targeted-all-optical-electrophysiology-with-a-transgenic-cre-dependent-optopatch-mouse
#15
Shan Lou, Yoav Adam, Eli N Weinstein, Erika Williams, Katherine Williams, Vicente Parot, Nikita Kavokine, Stephen Liberles, Linda Madisen, Hongkui Zeng, Adam E Cohen
: Recent advances in optogenetics have enabled simultaneous optical perturbation and optical readout of membrane potential in diverse cell types. Here, we develop and characterize a Cre-dependent transgenic Optopatch2 mouse line that we call Floxopatch. The animals expressed a blue-shifted channelrhodopsin, CheRiff, and a near infrared Archaerhodopsin-derived voltage indicator, QuasAr2, via targeted knock-in at the rosa26 locus. In Optopatch-expressing animals, we tested for overall health, genetically targeted expression, and function of the optogenetic components...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798181/nogo-receptor-1-confines-a-disinhibitory-microcircuit-to-the-critical-period-in-visual-cortex
#16
Céleste-Élise Stephany, Taruna Ikrar, Collins Nguyen, Xiangmin Xu, Aaron W McGee
: A characteristic of the developing mammalian visual system is a brief interval of plasticity, termed the "critical period," when the circuitry of primary visual cortex is most sensitive to perturbation of visual experience. Depriving one eye of vision (monocular deprivation [MD]) during the critical period alters ocular dominance (OD) by shifting the responsiveness of neurons in visual cortex to favor the nondeprived eye. A disinhibitory microcircuit involving parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons initiates this OD plasticity...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760158/optogenetically-blocking-sharp-wave-ripple-events-in-sleep-does-not-interfere-with-the-formation-of-stable-spatial-representation-in-the-ca1-area-of-the-hippocampus
#17
Krisztián A Kovács, Joseph O'Neill, Philipp Schoenenberger, Markku Penttonen, Damaris K Ranguel Guerrero, Jozsef Csicsvari
During hippocampal sharp wave/ripple (SWR) events, previously occurring, sensory input-driven neuronal firing patterns are replayed. Such replay is thought to be important for plasticity-related processes and consolidation of memory traces. It has previously been shown that the electrical stimulation-induced disruption of SWR events interferes with learning in rodents in different experimental paradigms. On the other hand, the cognitive map theory posits that the plastic changes of the firing of hippocampal place cells constitute the electrophysiological counterpart of the spatial learning, observable at the behavioral level...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747989/predictive-coding-accelerates-word-recognition-and-learning-in-the-early-stages-of-language-development
#18
Sari Ylinen, Alexis Bosseler, Katja Junttila, Minna Huotilainen
The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725948/correlation-between-volumetric-oxygenation-responses-and-electrophysiology-identifies-deep-thalamocortical-activity-during-epileptic-seizures
#19
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660241/the-neural-code-for-pain-from-single-cell-electrophysiology-to-the-dynamic-pain-connectome
#20
REVIEW
Aaron Kucyi, Karen D Davis
Pain occurs in time. In naturalistic settings, pain perception is sometimes stable but often varies in intensity and quality over the course of seconds, minutes, and days. A principal aim in classic electrophysiology studies of pain was to uncover a neural code based on the temporal patterns of single neuron firing. In contrast, modern neuroimaging studies have placed emphasis on uncovering the spatial pattern of brain activity (or "map") that may reflect the pain experience. However, in the emerging field of connectomics, communication within and among brain networks is characterized as intrinsically dynamic on multiple time scales...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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