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Electrophysiological mapping of the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899686/cortical-statistical-correlation-tomography-of-eeg-resting-state-networks
#1
Chuang Li, Han Yuan, Guofa Shou, Yoon-Hee Cha, Sridhar Sunderam, Walter Besio, Lei Ding
Resting state networks (RSNs) have been found in human brains during awake resting states. RSNs are composed of spatially distributed regions in which spontaneous activity fluctuations are temporally and dynamically correlated. A new computational framework for reconstructing RSNs with human EEG data has been developed in the present study. The proposed framework utilizes independent component analysis (ICA) on short-time Fourier transformed inverse source maps imaged from EEG data and statistical correlation analysis to generate cortical tomography of electrophysiological RSNs...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865937/investigating-the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-concrete-and-abstract-word-processing-through-direct-electric-stimulation-des-during-awake-surgery
#2
E F Orena, D Caldiroli, F Acerbi, I Barazzetta, C Papagno
Neuropsychological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies demonstrate that abstract and concrete word processing relies not only on the activity of a common bilateral network but also on dedicated networks. The neuropsychological literature has shown that a selective sparing of abstract relative to concrete words can be documented in lesions of the left anterior temporal regions. We investigated concrete and abstract word processing in 10 patients undergoing direct electrical stimulation (DES) for brain mapping during awake surgery in the left hemisphere...
June 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863681/recording-and-modulation-of-epileptiform-activity-in-rodent-brain-slices-coupled-to-microelectrode-arrays
#3
Gabriella Panuccio, Ilaria Colombi, Michela Chiappalone
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common partial complex epileptic syndrome and the least responsive to medications. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach when pharmacological treatment fails or neurosurgery is not recommended. Acute brain slices coupled to microelectrode arrays (MEAs) represent a valuable tool to study neuronal network interactions and their modulation by electrical stimulation. As compared to conventional extracellular recording techniques, they provide the added advantages of a greater number of observation points and a known inter-electrode distance, which allow studying the propagation path and speed of electrophysiological signals...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804919/ultrasound-produces-extensive-brain-activation-via-a-cochlear-pathway
#4
Hongsun Guo, Mark Hamilton, Sarah J Offutt, Cory D Gloeckner, Tianqi Li, Yohan Kim, Wynn Legon, Jamu K Alford, Hubert H Lim
Ultrasound (US) can noninvasively activate intact brain circuits, making it a promising neuromodulation technique. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we apply transcranial US and perform brain mapping studies in guinea pigs using extracellular electrophysiology. We find that US elicits extensive activation across cortical and subcortical brain regions. However, transection of the auditory nerves or removal of cochlear fluids eliminates the US-induced activity, revealing an indirect auditory mechanism for US neural activation...
May 19, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791914/atlas-independent-electrophysiological-mapping-of-the-optimal-locus-of-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-the-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-disease
#5
Erin C Conrad, James M Mossner, Kelvin L Chou, Parag G Patil
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). However, motor outcomes can be variable, perhaps due to inconsistent positioning of the active contact relative to an unknown optimal locus of stimulation. Here, we determine the optimal locus of STN stimulation in a geometrically unconstrained, mathematically precise, and atlas-independent manner, using Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor outcomes and an electrophysiological neuronal stimulation model...
May 23, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787867/investigating-common-coding-of-observed-and-executed-actions-in-the-monkey-brain-using-cross-modal-multi-variate-fmri-classification
#6
Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Saloni Sharma, Jan Jastorff, Koen Nelissen
Mirror neurons are generally described as a neural substrate hosting shared representations of actions, by simulating or 'mirroring' the actions of others onto the observers' own motor system. Since single neuron recordings are rarely feasible in humans, it has been argued that cross-modal multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) of non-invasive fMRI data is a suitable technique to investigate common coding of observed and executed actions, allowing researchers to infer the presence of mirror neurons in the human brain...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783119/in-vivo-imaging-of-neuronal-calcium-during-electrode-implantation-spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-damage-and-recovery
#7
James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Implantable electrode devices enable long-term electrophysiological recordings for brain-machine interfaces and basic neuroscience research. Implantation of these devices, however, leads to neuronal damage and progressive neural degeneration that can lead to device failure. The present study uses in vivo two-photon microscopy to study the calcium activity and morphology of neurons before, during, and one month after electrode implantation to determine how implantation trauma injures neurons. We show that implantation leads to prolonged, elevated calcium levels in neurons within 150 μm of the electrode interface...
August 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748648/high-yield-in-vitro-recordings-from-neurons-functionally-characterized-in-vivo
#8
Simon Weiler, Joel Bauer, Mark Hübener, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Tobias Rose, Volker Scheuss
In vivo two-photon calcium imaging provides detailed information about the activity and response properties of individual neurons. However, in vitro methods are often required to study the underlying neuronal connectivity and physiology at the cellular and synaptic levels at high resolution. This protocol provides a fast and reliable workflow for combining the two approaches by characterizing the response properties of individual neurons in mice in vivo using genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), followed by retrieval of the same neurons in brain slices for further analysis in vitro (e...
June 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742889/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-a-review-of-techniques-used-for-brain-tumor-surgery-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Keewon Kim, Charles Cho, Moon-Suk Bang, Hyung-Ik Shin, Ji-Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim
Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) utilizes electrophysiological techniques as a surrogate test and evaluation of nervous function while a patient is under general anesthesia. They are increasingly used for procedures, both surgical and endovascular, to avoid injury during an operation, examine neurological tissue to guide the surgery, or to test electrophysiological function to allow for more complete resection or corrections. The application of IOM during pediatric brain tumor resections encompasses a unique set of technical issues...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719243/active-zone-scaffold-protein-ratios-tune-functional-diversity-across-brain-synapses
#10
Andreas Fulterer, Till F M Andlauer, Anatoli Ender, Marta Maglione, Katherine Eyring, Jennifer Woitkuhn, Martin Lehmann, Tanja Matkovic-Rachid, Joerg R P Geiger, Alexander M Walter, Katherine I Nagel, Stephan J Sigrist
High-throughput electron microscopy has started to reveal synaptic connectivity maps of single circuits and whole brain regions, for example, in the Drosophila olfactory system. However, efficacy, timing, and frequency tuning of synaptic vesicle release are also highly diversified across brain synapses. These features critically depend on the nanometer-scale coupling distance between voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) and the synaptic vesicle release machinery. Combining light super resolution microscopy with in vivo electrophysiology, we show here that two orthogonal scaffold proteins (ELKS family Bruchpilot, BRP, and Syd-1) cluster-specific (M)Unc13 release factor isoforms either close (BRP/Unc13A) or further away (Syd-1/Unc13B) from VGCCs across synapses of the Drosophila olfactory system, resulting in different synapse-characteristic forms of short-term plasticity...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717625/remote-changes-in-cortical-excitability-after-experimental-tbi-and-functional-reorganization
#11
Derek R Verley, Daneil Torolira, Brandon Pulido, Boris Gutman, Anatol Bragin, Andrew Mayer, Neil G Harris
Although cognitive and behavioral deficits are well known to occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), motor deficits that occur, even after mild trauma are far less known, yet are equally persistent. This study was aimed at making progress toward determining how the brain reorganizes in response to TBI. We used the adult rat, controlled cortical impact injury model to study the ipsilesional forelimb map evoked by electrical stimulation of the affected limb, as well as the contralesional forelimb map evoked by stimulation of the unaffected limb, both before injury and at 1,2,3 and 4wks after using fMRI...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652127/optical-probes-for-neurobiological-sensing-and-imaging
#12
Eric H Kim, Gregory Chin, Guoxin Rong, Kira E Poskanzer, Heather A Clark
Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells...
May 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614077/a-probabilistic-distributed-recursive-mechanism-for-decision-making-in-the-brain
#13
Javier A Caballero, Mark D Humphries, Kevin N Gurney
Decision formation recruits many brain regions, but the procedure they jointly execute is unknown. Here we characterize its essential composition, using as a framework a novel recursive Bayesian algorithm that makes decisions based on spike-trains with the statistics of those in sensory cortex (MT). Using it to simulate the random-dot-motion task, we demonstrate it quantitatively replicates the choice behaviour of monkeys, whilst predicting losses of otherwise usable information from MT. Its architecture maps to the recurrent cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops, whose components are all implicated in decision-making...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536594/detailed-spatiotemporal-brain-mapping-of-chromatic-vision-combining-high-resolution-vep-with-fmri-and-retinotopy
#14
Sabrina Pitzalis, Francesca Strappini, Alessandro Bultrini, Francesco Di Russo
Neuroimaging studies have identified so far, several color-sensitive visual areas in the human brain, and the temporal dynamics of these activities have been separately investigated using the visual-evoked potentials (VEPs). In the present study, we combined electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods to determine a detailed spatiotemporal profile of chromatic VEP and to localize its neural generators. The accuracy of the present co-registration study was obtained by combining standard fMRI data with retinotopic and motion mapping data at the individual level...
March 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529359/tissue-like-neural-probes-for-understanding-and-modulating-the-brain
#15
Guosong Hong, Robert D Viveros, Theodore J Zwang, Xiao Yang, Charles M Lieber
Electrophysiology tools have contributed substantially to understanding brain function, yet the capabilities of conventional electrophysiology probes have remained limited in key ways because of large structural and mechanical mismatches with respect to neural tissue. In this Perspective, we discuss how the general goal of probe design in biochemistry, that the probe or label have a minimal impact on the properties and function of the system being studied, can be realized by minimizing structural, mechanical, and topological differences between neural probes and brain tissue, thus leading to a new paradigm of tissue-like mesh electronics...
March 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519998/hcn2-rescues-brain-defects-by-enforcing-endogenous-voltage-pre-patterns
#16
Vaibhav P Pai, Alexis Pietak, Valerie Willocq, Bin Ye, Nian-Qing Shi, Michael Levin
Endogenous bioelectrical signaling coordinates cell behaviors toward correct anatomical outcomes. Lack of a model explaining spatialized dynamics of bioelectric states has hindered the understanding of the etiology of some birth defects and the development of predictive interventions. Nicotine, a known neuroteratogen, induces serious defects in brain patterning and learning. Our bio-realistic computational model explains nicotine's effects via the disruption of endogenous bioelectrical gradients and predicts that exogenous HCN2 ion channels would restore the endogenous bioelectric prepatterns necessary for brain patterning...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496611/optogenetic-fmri-and-electrophysiological-identification-of-region-specific-connectivity-between-the-cerebellar-cortex-and-forebrain
#17
Katrina Y Choe, Carlos F Sanchez, Neil G Harris, Thomas S Otis, Paul J Mathews
Complex animal behavior is produced by dynamic interactions between discrete regions of the brain. As such, defining functional connections between brain regions is critical in gaining a full understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Evidence suggests that discrete regions of the cerebellar cortex functionally project to the forebrain, mediating long-range communication potentially important in motor and non-motor behaviors. However, the connectivity map remains largely incomplete owing to the challenge of driving both reliable and selective output from the cerebellar cortex, as well as the need for methods to detect region specific activation across the entire forebrain...
June 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467145/electrophysiological-signatures-of-spatial-boundaries-in-the-human-subiculum
#18
Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F Miller, Andrew J Watrous, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A Worrell, Brent M Berry, Joshua P Aronson, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R Das, Joel M Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs
Environmental boundaries play a crucial role in spatial navigation and memory across a wide range of distantly related species. In rodents, boundary representations have been identified at the single-cell level in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation. Although studies of hippocampal function and spatial behavior suggest that similar representations might exist in humans, boundary-related neural activity has not been identified electrophysiologically in humans until now. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed intracranial recordings from the hippocampal formation of surgical epilepsy patients (of both sexes) while they performed a virtual spatial navigation task and compared the power in three frequency bands (1-4, 4-10, and 30-90 Hz) for target locations near and far from the environmental boundaries...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404403/electrical-stimulation-modulates-high-%C3%AE-activity-and-human-memory-performance
#19
Michal T Kucewicz, Brent M Berry, Vaclav Kremen, Laura R Miller, Fatemeh Khadjevand, Youssef Ezzyat, Joel M Stein, Paul Wanda, Michael R Sperling, Richard Gorniak, Kathryn A Davis, Barbara C Jobst, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, S Matt Stead, Daniel S Rizzuto, Michael J Kahana, Gregory A Worrell
Direct electrical stimulation of the brain has emerged as a powerful treatment for multiple neurological diseases, and as a potential technique to enhance human cognition. Despite its application in a range of brain disorders, it remains unclear how stimulation of discrete brain areas affects memory performance and the underlying electrophysiological activities. Here, we investigated the effect of direct electrical stimulation in four brain regions known to support declarative memory: hippocampus (HP), parahippocampal region (PH) neocortex, prefrontal cortex (PF), and lateral temporal cortex (TC)...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381054/mesh-nanoelectronics-seamless-integration-of-electronics-with-tissues
#20
Xiaochuan Dai, Guosong Hong, Teng Gao, Charles M Lieber
Nanobioelectronics represents a rapidly developing field with broad-ranging opportunities in fundamental biological sciences, biotechnology, and medicine. Despite this potential, seamless integration of electronics has been difficult due to fundamental mismatches, including size and mechanical properties, between the elements of the electronic and living biological systems. In this Account, we discuss the concept, development, key demonstrations, and future opportunities of mesh nanoelectronics as a general paradigm for seamless integration of electronics within synthetic tissues and live animals...
February 20, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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