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Electrophysiological mapping of the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589753/evaluating-the-gray-and-white-matter-energy-budgets-of-human-brain-function
#1
Yuguo Yu, Peter Herman, Douglas L Rothman, Divyansh Agarwal, Fahmeed Hyder
The insatiable appetite for energy to support human brain function is mainly supplied by glucose oxidation (CMRglc(ox)). But how much energy is consumed for signaling and nonsignaling processes in gray/white matter is highly debated. We examined this issue by combining metabolic measurements of gray/white matter and a theoretical calculation of bottom-up energy budget using biophysical properties of neuronal/glial cells in conjunction with species-exclusive electrophysiological and morphological data. We calculated a CMRglc(ox)-derived budget and confirmed it with experimental results measured by PET, autoradiography, (13)C-MRS, and electrophysiology...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587898/a-decade-of-decoding-reward-related-fmri-signals-and-where-we-go-from-here
#2
REVIEW
Thorsten Kahnt
Information about potential rewards in the environment is essential for guiding adaptive behavior, and understanding neural reward processes may provide insights into neuropsychiatric dysfunctions. Over the past 10 years, multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques have been used to study brain areas encoding information about expected and experienced outcomes. These studies have identified reward signals throughout the brain, including the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parietal cortex...
June 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539659/involvement-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#3
Matthieu F Bastide, Christelle Glangetas, Evelyne Doudnikoff, Qin Li, Mathieu Bourdenx, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Éric C Dumont, François Georges, Erwan Bézard
A whole brain immediate early gene mapping highlighted the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBST) as a structure putatively involved in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID), the debilitating side-effects of chronic dopamine replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). dlBST indeed displayed an overexpression of ∆FosB, ARC, Zif268 and FRA2 only in dyskinetic rats. We thus hypothesized that dlBST could play a role in LID hyperkinetic manifestations. To assess the causal role of the dlBST in LID, we used Daun02 inactivation to selectively inhibit the electrical activity of dlBST ΔFosB-expressing neurons...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506482/technical-principles-of-direct-bipolar-electrostimulation-for-cortical-and-subcortical-mapping-in-awake-craniotomy
#4
J Pallud, E Mandonnet, R Corns, E Dezamis, E Parraga, M Zanello, G Spena
INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative application of electrical current to the brain is a standard technique during brain surgery for inferring the function of the underlying brain. The purpose of intraoperative functional mapping is to reliably identify cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in eloquent functions, especially motor, sensory, language and cognitive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to review the rationale and the electrophysiological principles of the use of direct bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474167/effects-of-stimulus-size-and-contrast-on-the-initial-primary-visual-cortical-response-in-humans
#5
Nigel Gebodh, M Isabel Vanegas, Simon P Kelly
Decades of intracranial electrophysiological investigation into the primary visual cortex (V1) have produced many fundamental insights into the computations carried out in low-level visual circuits of the brain. Some of the most important work has been simply concerned with the precise measurement of neural response variations as a function of elementary stimulus attributes such as contrast and size. Surprisingly, such simple but fundamental characterization of V1 responses has not been carried out in human electrophysiology...
May 4, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461461/high-spatial-correspondence-at-a-columnar-level-between-activation-and-resting-state-fmri-signals-and-local-field-potentials
#6
Zhaoyue Shi, Ruiqi Wu, Pai-Feng Yang, Feng Wang, Tung-Lin Wu, Arabinda Mishra, Li Min Chen, John C Gore
Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in a resting state, and whether these spatial relationships vary across functionally distinct cortical areas are not known. To address these critical questions, we directly compared the spatial extents of stimulated activations and the local profiles of intervoxel resting state correlations for both high-resolution BOLD at 9...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461059/high-resolution-functional-mri-identified-distinct-global-intrinsic-functional-networks-of-nociceptive-posterior-insula-and-s2-regions-in-squirrel-monkey-brain
#7
Ruiqi Wu, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, Li Min Chen
Numerous functional imaging and electrophysiological studies in humans and animals indicate that the two contiguous areas of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) and posterior insula (pIns) are core regions in nociceptive processing and pain perception. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the S2-pIns connection serves as a hub for connecting distinct sensory and affective nociceptive processing networks in the squirrel monkey brain. At 9.4T, we first mapped the brain regions that respond to nociceptive heat stimuli with high-resolution fMRI, and then used seed-based resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) analysis to delineate and refine the global intrinsic functional connectivity circuits of the proximal S2 and pIns regions...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452617/intradiploic-encephalocele-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-an-adult-patient-electrophysiological-implications-during-surgery
#8
Luca Valci, Martina Dalolio, Dominique Kuhlen, Emanuele Pravatà, Claudio Gobbi, Michael Reinert
Encephaloceles are herniations of brain parenchyma through congenital or acquired osseous-dural defects of the skull base or cranial vault. Different types of symptoms, due to CSF fistulas, meningitis, or seizures, are often associated with this condition. The authors present a rare case of spontaneous right frontal parasagittal encephalocele in a 70-year-old man who was experiencing a spastic progressive paresis of his left lower limb. Results of routine electrophysiological workup (motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, and electroneuromyography), as well as those of MRI of the spinal cord, were normal...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389384/correspondence-between-fmri-and-electrophysiology-during-visual-motion-processing-in-human-mt
#9
Anna Gaglianese, Mariska J Vansteensel, Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin, Natalia Petridou, Nick F Ramsey
Changes in brain neuronal activity are reflected by hemodynamic responses mapped through Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a primary tool to measure brain functioning non-invasively. However, the exact relationship between hemodynamics and neuronal function is still a matter of debate. Here, we combine 3T BOLD fMRI and High Frequency Band (HFB) electrocorticography (ECoG) signals to investigate the relationship between neuronal activity and hemodynamic responses in the human Middle Temporal complex (hMT+), a higher order brain area involved in visual motion processing...
April 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335018/dissecting-gamma-frequency-activity-during-human-memory-processing
#10
Michal T Kucewicz, Brent M Berry, Vaclav Kremen, Benjamin H Brinkmann, Michael R Sperling, Barbara C Jobst, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer A Sheth, Joel M Stein, Sandthitsu R Das, Richard Gorniak, S Matthew Stead, Daniel S Rizzuto, Michael J Kahana, Gregory A Worrell
Gamma frequency activity (30-150 Hz) is induced in cognitive tasks and is thought to reflect underlying neural processes. Gamma frequency activity can be recorded directly from the human brain using intracranial electrodes implanted in patients undergoing treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Previous studies have independently explored narrowband oscillations in the local field potential and broadband power increases. It is not clear, however, which processes contribute to human brain gamma frequency activity, or their dynamics and roles during memory processing...
March 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323164/mapping-the-pharmacological-modulation-of-brain-oxygen-metabolism-the-effects-of-caffeine-on-absolute-cmro2-measured-using-dual-calibrated-fmri
#11
Alberto Merola, Michael A Germuska, Esther Ah Warnert, Lewys Richmond, Daniel Helme, Sharmila Khot, Kevin Murphy, Peter J Rogers, Judith E Hall, Richard G Wise
This study aims to map the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on grey matter oxygen metabolism and haemodynamics with a novel MRI method. Sixteen healthy caffeine consumers (8 males, age=24.7±5.1) were recruited to this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was scanned on two days before and after the delivery of an oral caffeine (250mg) or placebo capsule. Our measurements were obtained with a newly proposed estimation approach applied to data from a dual calibration fMRI experiment that uses hypercapnia and hyperoxia to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322026/objective-3d-surface-evaluation-of-intracranial-electrophysiologic-correlates-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-abnormalities-in-children-with-focal-epilepsy
#12
Jeong-Won Jeong, Eishi Asano, Vinod Kumar Pilli, Yasuo Nakai, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
To determine the spatial relationship between 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) metabolic and intracranial electrophysiological abnormalities in children undergoing two-stage epilepsy surgery, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to correlate hypo- and hypermetabolic cortical regions with ictal and interictal electrocorticography (ECoG) changes mapped onto the brain surface. Preoperative FDG-PET scans of 37 children with intractable epilepsy (31 with non-localizing MRI) were compared with age-matched pseudo-normal pediatric control PET data...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319187/the-impact-of-high-grade-glial-neoplasms-on-human-cortical-electrophysiology
#13
S Kathleen Bandt, Jarod L Roland, Mrinal Pahwa, Carl D Hacker, David T Bundy, Jonathan D Breshears, Mohit Sharma, Joshua S Shimony, Eric C Leuthardt
OBJECTIVE: The brain's functional architecture of interconnected network-related oscillatory patterns in discrete cortical regions has been well established with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies or direct cortical electrophysiology from electrodes placed on the surface of the brain, or electrocorticography (ECoG). These resting state networks exhibit a robust functional architecture that persists through all stages of sleep and under anesthesia. While the stability of these networks provides a fundamental understanding of the organization of the brain, understanding how these regions can be perturbed is also critical in defining the brain's ability to adapt while learning and recovering from injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283747/magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-proof-of-concept-and-histological-correlation
#14
A T D L Alho, C Hamani, E J L Alho, R E da Silva, G A B Santos, R C Neves, L L Carreira, C M M Araújo, G Magalhães, D B Coelho, M C Alegro, M G M Martin, L T Grinberg, C A Pasqualucci, H Heinsen, E T Fonoff, E Amaro
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been proposed as target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with postural instability and gait disorders due to its involvement in muscle tonus adjustments and control of locomotion. However, it is a deep-seated brainstem nucleus without clear imaging or electrophysiological markers. Some studies suggested that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may help guiding electrode placement in the PPN by showing the surrounding fiber bundles, but none have provided a direct histological correlation...
March 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276522/experimental-assessment-of-the-safety-and-potential-efficacy-of-high-irradiance-photostimulation-of-brain-tissues
#15
Senova Suhan, Scisniak Ilona, Chiang Chih-Chieh, Doignon Isabelle, Palfi Stéphane, Chaillet Antoine, Martin Claire, Pain Frédéric
Optogenetics is widely used in fundamental neuroscience. Its potential clinical translation for brain neuromodulation requires a careful assessment of the safety and efficacy of repeated, sustained optical stimulation of large volumes of brain tissues. This study was performed in rats and not in non-human primates for ethical reasons. We studied the spatial distribution of light, potential damage, and non-physiological effects in vivo, in anesthetized rat brains, on large brain volumes, following repeated high irradiance photo-stimulation...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269579/development-of-semi-chronic-microdrive-system-for-large-scale-circuit-mapping-in-macaque-mesolimbic-and-basal-ganglia-systems
#16
Shaoyu Qiao, Kevin A Brown, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Bijan Pesaran
The development of novel neurotechnologies for treating refractory neuropsychiatry disorders depends on understanding and manipulating the dynamics of neural circuits across large-scale brain networks. The mesolimbic pathway plays an essential role in reward processing and mood regulation and disorders of this pathway underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present the design of a customized semi-chronic microdrive array that precisely targets the anatomical structures of non-human primate (NHP) mesolimbic and basal ganglia systems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269287/a-measure-of-cortico-cortical-potentials-evoked-by-10-hz-direct-electrical-stimulation-of-the-brain-and-by-means-of-a-differential-recording-mode-of-electrocorticographic-signals
#17
Marion Vincent, Olivier Rossel, Hugues Duffau, Francois Bonnetblanc, David Guiraud
Direct electrical stimulation (DES) at 60 Hz is used to perform real-time functional mapping of the brain during wide-awake neurosurgery. The electrophysiological effects of DES are largely unknown, locally and at a more remote distance. Here, by lowering the DES frequency to 10 Hz and by using a differential recording mode of electro-corticographic (ECoG) signals to improve the focality, we were able to record cortico-cortical evoked potentials easily with standard current amplitude of stimulation (2 mA). DES applied at 10 Hz and differential recording of ECoG could be used to map on-line the connectivity between different sub-cortical and cortical areas with a higher spatial accuracy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269275/development-of-a-brain-monitoring-system-for-multimodality-investigation-in-awake-rats
#18
Kanokwan Limnuson, Raj K Narayan, Amrit Chiluwal, Chad Bouton, Ping Wang, Chunyan Li
Multimodal brain monitoring is an important approach to gain insight into brain function, modulation, and pathology. We have developed a unique micromachined neural probe capable of real-time continuous monitoring of multiple physiological, biochemical and electrophysiological variables. However, to date, it has only been used in anesthetized animals due to a lack of an appropriate interface for awake animals. We have developed a versatile headstage for recording the small neural signal and bridging the sensors to the remote sensing units for multimodal brain monitoring in awake rats...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258583/resting-state-intrinsic-eeg-impacts-on-go-stimulus-response-processes
#19
Diana Karamacoska, Robert J Barry, Genevieve Z Steiner
Neuropsychological research and practice rely on cognitive task performance measures as indicators of brain functioning. The neural activity underlying stimulus-response processes can be assessed with ERPs, but the relations between these cognitive processes and the brain's intrinsic resting state EEG activity are less understood. This study focused on the neurocognitive functioning of 20 healthy young adults in an equiprobable go/no-go task to map the ERP correlates of behavioral responses and examine contributions of the resting state intrinsic EEG to task-related outcomes...
March 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240392/abnormal-task-driven-neural-oscillations-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-visuomotor-meg-study
#20
Eleanor L Barratt, Prejaas K Tewarie, Margareta A Clarke, Emma L Hall, Penny A Gowland, Peter G Morris, Susan T Francis, Nikos Evangelou, Matthew J Brookes
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease commonly attributed to degradation of white matter myelin. Symptoms include fatigue, as well as problems associated with vision and movement. Although areas of demyelination in white matter are observed routinely in patients undergoing MRI scans, such measures are often a poor predictor of disease severity. For this reason, it is instructive to measure associated changes in brain function. Widespread white-matter demyelination may lead to delays of propagation of neuronal activity, and with its excellent temporal resolution, magnetoencephalography can be used to probe such delays in controlled conditions (e...
February 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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