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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109006/attitudes-towards-non-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-among-obstetricians-in-pakistan-a-developing-islamic-country
#2
Shenaz Ahmed, Hussain Jafri, Yasmin Rashid, Gerald Mason, Yasmin Ehsan, Mushtaq Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Stakeholders' views are essential for informing implementation strategies for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Little is known about such views in developing countries. We explored attitudes toward NIPT among obstetricians in Pakistan, a developing Islamic country. METHODS: A 35-item questionnaire was distributed and collected at eight events (a national conference and seven workshops in five cities) for obstetric professionals on advances in fetal medicine...
January 20, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108997/risk-of-high-grade-precancerous-lesions-and-invasive-cancers-in-high-risk-hpv-positive-women-with-normal-cervix-or-cin-1-at-baseline-a-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Srabani Mittal, Partha Basu, Richard Muwonge, Dipanwita Banerjee, Ishita Ghosh, Mitali Mukherjee Sengupta, Pradip Das, Priatosh Dey, Ranajit Mandal, Chinmay Panda, Jaydip Biswas, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan
Infection with High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is transient and clears on its own in majority of the women. Only a few women who have persistent infection may finally develop Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer in later years. The risk of progression in the HR-HPV positive women with normal cervix or low grade lesion on colposcopy and histopathology at baseline is less studied. We performed a longitudinal study on 650 HR-HPV positive women with colposcopy and/or histopathology proved normal or CIN1 diagnosis at baselineto assess the cumulative risk of development of high-grade CIN...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108993/experience-from-a-multi-country-initiative-to-improve-the-monitoring-of-selected-reproductive-health-indicators-in-africa
#4
Maria Barreix, Özge Tunçalp, Namuunda Mutombo, Ayotunde A Adegboyega, Lale Say
Universal access to sexual and reproductive health remains part of the unfinished business of global development in the Africa. To achieve it, health interventions should be monitored using programmatic indicators. WHO's Strengthening Measurement of Reproductive Health Indicators in Africa initiative, implemented in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, aimed to improve national information systems for routine monitoring of reproductive health indicators. Participating countries developed action plans employing a two-pronged strategy: (1) revising, standardizing, and harmonizing existing information-system reproductive health indicators; and (2) building data-collection capacity through training and supervision at select pilot sites...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108768/severe-hypercapnia-and-outcome-of-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-moderate-or-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
Nicolas Nin, Alfonso Muriel, Oscar Peñuelas, Laurent Brochard, José Angel Lorente, Niall D Ferguson, Konstantinos Raymondos, Fernando Ríos, Damian A Violi, Arnaud W Thille, Marco González, Asisclo J Villagomez, Javier Hurtado, Andrew R Davies, Bin Du, Salvatore M Maggiore, Luis Soto, Gabriel D'Empaire, Dimitrios Matamis, Fekri Abroug, Rui P Moreno, Marco Antonio Soares, Yaseen Arabi, Freddy Sandi, Manuel Jibaja, Pravin Amin, Younsuck Koh, Michael A Kuiper, Hans-Henrik Bülow, Amine Ali Zeggwagh, Antonio Anzueto, Jacob I Sznajder, Andres Esteban
PURPOSE: To analyze the relationship between hypercapnia developing within the first 48 h after the start of mechanical ventilation and outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of three prospective non-interventional cohort studies focusing on ARDS patients from 927 intensive care units (ICUs) in 40 countries. These patients received mechanical ventilation for more than 12 h during 1-month periods in 1998, 2004, and 2010...
January 20, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108747/national-guidelines-for-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-literature-review-and-evidence-analysis
#6
Marjolein Verbiest, Evelyn Brakema, Rianne van der Kleij, Kate Sheals, Georgia Allistone, Siân Williams, Andy McEwen, Niels Chavannes
: National guidelines for smoking cessation in primary care can be effective in improving clinical practice. This study assessed which parties are involved in the development of such guidelines worldwide, which national guidelines address primary care, what recommendations are made for primary care settings, and how these recommendations correlate with each other and with current evidence. We identified national guidelines using an online resource. Only the most recent version of a guideline was included...
December 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108382/new-xanthones-and-cytotoxic-constituents-from-garcinia-mangostana-fruit-hulls-against-human-hepatocellular-breast-and-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#7
Gamal A Mohamed, Ahmed M Al-Abd, Ali M El-Halawany, Hossam M Abdallah, Sabrin R M Ibrahim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cancer has proceeded to surpass one of the most chronic illnesses to be the major cause of mortality in both the developing and developed world. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, family Guttiferae) known as the queen of fruits, is one of the most popular tropical fruits. It is cultivated in Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Philippines. Traditionally, numerous parts of G. mangostana have been utilized to treat various ailments such as abdominal pain, haemorrhoids, food allergies, arthritis, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, wound infection, suppuration, and chronic ulcer...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108370/application-of-environmental-dna-analysis-for-the-detection-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-dna-in-water-samples
#8
Hiroki Hashizume, Megumi Sato, Marcello Otake Sato, Sumire Ikeda, Tippayarat Yoonuan, Surapol Sanguankiat, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Kazuhiko Moji, Toshifumi Minamoto
Opisthorchiasis, which can lead to cholangiocarcinoma in cases of chronic infection, is a major public health problem in Southeast Asian countries. The trematode, Opisthorchis viverrini, is the causative agent of the disease. Accurate and rapid monitoring of O. viverrini is crucial for disease prevention and containment. Therefore, in this study we sought to develop a novel species-specific real-time PCR assay for detecting O. viverrini using environmental DNA (eDNA). The diagnostic sensitivity of the newly developed real-time PCR assay was similar to that of the traditional PCR assay for 50 fecal samples collected in Lao PDR (21 and 19 samples were positive by real-time PCR and traditional PCR, respectively)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107963/chromatographic-fingerprinting-as-a-strategy-to-identify-regulated-plants-in-illegal-herbal-supplements
#9
D Custers, N Van Praag, P Courselle, S Apers, E Deconinck
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a sexual disorder characterized by the inability to achieve or maintain a sufficiently rigid erection. Despite the availability of non-invasive oral treatment options, many patients turn to herbal alternatives. Furthermore, herbal supplements are increasingly gaining popularity in industrialized countries and, as a consequence, quality control is a highly important issue. Unfortunately, this is not a simple task since plants are often crushed and mixed with other plants, which complicates their identification by usage of classical approaches such as microscopy...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107876/a-survey-exploring-factors-associated-with-2890-companion-rabbit-owners-knowledge-of-rabbit-care-and-the-neuter-status-of-their-companion-rabbit
#10
Tasha Welch, Jason B Coe, Lee Niel, Emily McCobb
Pet owners' knowledge of pet care has been shown to affect the human-animal relationship and the welfare of companion animals. With rabbits being the third most common companion animal in many regions, and evidence of owners' lack of awareness for the standards of care required to care for companion rabbits, it is important to understand the knowledge level of rabbit owners and determine how companion rabbits are being cared for. The purpose of this study was to survey rabbit owners in order to explore factors associated with their knowledge of rabbit care, and the neuter status of their companion rabbit...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107788/the-indications-and-role-of-paediatric-bronchoscopy-in-a-developing-country-with-high-prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-hiv
#11
Irwin Webster, Pierre Goussard, Robert Gie, Jacques Janson, Gawie Rossouw
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy, an important investigation for the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases, is widely used in high income countries. There is limited information on value of paediatric bronchoscopy in low and middle income countries (LMIC). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Aim was to describe the indications, findings and complications of bronchoscopy in a middle income country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of a database over a 3...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107374/combining-social-norms-and-social-marketing-to-address-underage-drinking-development-and-process-evaluation-of-a-whole-of-community-intervention
#13
Sandra C Jones, Kelly Andrews, Kate Francis
Youth alcohol consumption has been steadily declining in Australia, as in other countries; fewer young people are drinking and the age of initiation is increasing. However, young people, their parents and others in their communities continue to believe that adolescent (excessive) drinking is the norm. This perception, and the concurrent misperception that the majority of parents are happy to provide their underage children with alcohol, creates a perceived culture of acceptance of youth alcohol consumption...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107362/population-muscle-strength-predicts-olympic-medal-tallies-evidence-from-20-countries-in-the-pure-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Darryl P Leong, Martin McKee, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: National sporting achievement at the Olympic Games is important for national pride and prestige, and to promote participation in sport. Summer Olympic Games medal tallies have been associated with national wealth, and also social development and healthcare expenditure. It is uncertain however, how these socioeconomic factors translate into Olympic success. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between population muscle strength and Olympic medal tallies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107098/early-initiation-of-breastfeeding-among-maya-mothers-in-the-western-highlands-of-guatemala
#15
Natalie N Atyeo, Tahvi D Frank, Emma F Vail, William A L Sperduto, David L Boyd
BACKGROUND: Guatemala exhibits the sixth highest rate of child stunting worldwide, and stunting disproportionately affects Guatemala indigenous communities. In a country struggling to combat this result of malnutrition, early child nutrition is especially critical. Specifically, early initiation of breastfeeding is important for the development of newborn infants. Understanding beliefs and practices related to early initiation of breastfeeding in Maya Guatemala may provide an avenue to guide nutrition interventions in indigenous communities...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106988/factors-governing-the-performance-of-bauxite-for-fluoride-remediation-of-groundwater
#16
Aruna Kirani Katyayani Cherukumilli, Caroline Delaire, Susan E Amrose, Ashok J Gadgil
Globally, 200 million people drink groundwater contaminated with fluoride concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended level (WHO-MCL =1.5 mg F-/L). This study investigates the use of minimally-processed (dried/milled) bauxite ore as an inexpensive adsorbent for remediating fluoride-contaminated groundwater in resource-constrained areas. Adsorption experiments in synthetic groundwater using bauxites from Guinea, Ghana, USA, and India as single-use batch dispersive media demonstrated that doses of ~10-23 g/L could effectively remediate 10 mg F-/L...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106896/the-2016-bowman-lecture-conjunctival-curses-scarring-conjunctivitis-30-years-on
#17
J K Dart
This review is in two sections. The first section summarises 35 conditions, both common and infrequent, causing cicatrising conjunctivitis. Guidelines for making a diagnosis are given together with the use of diagnostic tests, including direct and indirect immunofluorescence, and their interpretation. The second section evaluates our knowledge of ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, which is the commonest cause of cicatrizing conjunctivitis in most developed countries. The clinical characteristics, demographics, and clinical signs of the disease are described...
January 20, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106826/colorectal-carcinoma-a-general-overview-and-future-perspectives-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Inés Mármol, Cristina Sánchez-de-Diego, Alberto Pradilla Dieste, Elena Cerrada, María Jesús Rodriguez Yoldi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Most cases of CRC are detected in Western countries, with its incidence increasing year by year. The probability of suffering from colorectal cancer is about 4%-5% and the risk for developing CRC is associated with personal features or habits such as age, chronic disease history and lifestyle. In this context, the gut microbiota has a relevant role, and dysbiosis situations can induce colonic carcinogenesis through a chronic inflammation mechanism...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106781/family-food-providers-perceptions-of-the-causes-of-obesity-and-effectiveness-of-weight-control-strategies-in-five-countries-in-the-asia-pacific-region-a-cross-sectional-survey
#19
Anthony Worsley, Wei Wang, Rani Sarmugam, Quynh Pham, Judhiastuty Februhartanty, Stacey Ridley
The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group's awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents...
January 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106593/genetic-and-genomic-competencies-for-nursing-informatics-internationally
#20
Kathleen A Mc Cormick, Kathleen A Calzone
The majority of health professionals now have genetic and genomic competencies and some are measured by certification standards. Nursing has a proud history of defining roles for nursing in informatics and genetics. In addition, the nursing professional organization, the American Nurses Association, has a Certification Center that has successfully achieved ISO 9001:2008 certification in the design, development, and delivery of global credentialing services which encompasses certification of advanced practice nurses in genetics...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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