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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341132/acanthoic-acid-suppresses-lipin1-2-via-tlr4-and-irak4-signalling-pathways-in-etoh-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatic-lipogenesis
#1
Jian Song, Xin Han, You-Li Yao, Ya-Mei Li, Jing Zhang, Dan-Yang Shao, Li-Shuang Hou, Ying Fan, Shun-Zong Song, Li-Hua Lian, Ji-Xing Nan, Yan-Ling Wu
OBJECTIVES: In alcoholic liver disease, alcohol and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are major stimulation factors of hepatic lipogenesis. Our objective was to determine the protective mechanism of acanthoic acid (AA) in EtOH- and LPS-induced hepatic lipogenesis. METHODS: HSC-T6 cells were treated with ethanol (200 mm) plus LPS (1 μg/ml) for 1 h, followed by AA (10 or 20 μm) for another 6 h. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with of AA (20 and 40 mg/kg) or equal volume of saline and then exposed to three doses of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) within 24 h...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338156/attenuating-effect-of-long-term-culture-of-umbilical-cord-vein-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Maryam Moradi, Mohammad Ali Rezaee, Mehdi Mohammadi, Mohammad Jafar Rezaie, Ali Jalili, Mohammad Reza Rahmani
In recent studies, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been increasingly employed to treat various diseases like pulmonary fibrosis (PF). There are very few MSCs in tissues so in order to obtain their sufficient numbers for therapeutic applications, their in vitro expansion is necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term culture of the human umbilical cord vein MSCs (hUCV-MSCs) on pulmonary fibrosis in mice. MSCs were first isolated from human umbilical cord vein and cultured up to 18 passages...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320561/%C3%AE-smooth-muscle-actin-is-not-a-marker-of-fibrogenic-cell-activity-in-skeletal-muscle-fibrosis
#3
Wanming Zhao, Xingyu Wang, Kai-Hui Sun, Lan Zhou
α-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is used as a marker for a subset of activated fibrogenic cells, myofibroblasts, which are regarded as important effector cells of tissue fibrogenesis. We address whether α-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts are detectable in fibrotic muscles of mdx5cv mice, a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and whether the α-SMA expression correlates with the fibrogenic function of intramuscular fibrogenic cells. α-SMA immunostaining signal was not detected in collagen I (GFP)-expressing cells in fibrotic muscles of ColI-GFP/mdx5cv mice, but it was readily detected in smooth muscle cells lining intramuscular blood vessel walls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316633/investigation-of-new-morpholino-oligomers-to-increase-survival-motor-neuron-protein-levels-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#4
Agnese Ramirez, Sebastiano G Crisafulli, Mafalda Rizzuti, Nereo Bresolin, Giacomo P Comi, Stefania Corti, Monica Nizzardo
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive childhood motor neuron disease and the main genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which results in SMN protein deficiency. Only one approved drug has recently become available and allows for the correction of aberrant splicing of the paralogous SMN2 gene by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), leading to production of full-length SMN protein. We have already demonstrated that a sequence of an ASO variant, Morpholino (MO), is particularly suitable because of its safety and efficacy profile and is both able to increase SMN levels and rescue the murine SMA phenotype...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313812/pathogenic-commonalities-between-spinal-muscular-atrophy-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-converging-roads-to-therapeutic-development
#5
REVIEW
Melissa Bowerman, Lyndsay M Murrray, Frédérique Scamps, Bernard L Schneider, Rashmi Kothary, Cédric Raoul
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are the two most common motoneuron disorders, which share typical pathological hallmarks while remaining genetically distinct. Indeed, SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene whilst ALS, albeit being mostly sporadic, can also be caused by mutations within genes, including superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), Fused in Sarcoma (FUS), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72)...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306153/a-pathogenetic-role-for-m1-macrophages-in-peritoneal-dialysis-associated-fibrosis
#6
Qing Li, Min Zheng, Yueheng Liu, Wei Sun, Jun Shi, Jie Ni, Qiong Wang
Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) is a frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) accompanied by the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Recently, the function of macrophages in an inflammatory microenvironment during PD remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the role of distinct macrophage phenotypes in the progression of PF through macrophage depletion in a peritoneal dialysis-induced mouse model. After injection of 200 μl liposomal clodronate (LC) at the start of instillation PD fluids (PDFs), mice were injected with 100 μL LC every 4 days after the first time injection for longer macrophage depletion, while control mice were co-treated with PBS liposomes...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305174/inhibition-of-autophagy-reverses-alcohol-induced-hepatic-stellate-cells-activation-through-activation-of-nrf2-keap1-are-signaling-pathway
#7
Zheng-Yuan Xie, Zhi-Hua Xiao, Fen-Fen Wang
BACKGROUND: Numerous documents have indicated a critical role of autophagy in alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF), but few papers have reported its function in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. The current study aimed to investigate the regulation effect of autophagy in HSCs activation, in further to explore the underlying mechanism involved. METHODS: HSC-T6 cells were treated with ethanol, 3-MA (autophagy inhibitor) or rapamycin (autophagy inducer), and cells were also transfected with si-Nrf2 or si-Keap1...
January 2, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304157/conditional-deletion-of-rb1-in-the-tie2-lineage-leads-to-aortic-valve-regurgitation
#8
Marina Freytsis, Lauren Baugh, Zhiyi Liu, Irene Georgakoudi, Philip W Hinds, Lauren D Black, Gordon S Huggins
OBJECTIVE: Aortic valve disease is a complex process characterized by valve interstitial cell activation, disruption of the extracellular matrix culminating in valve mineralization occurring over many years. We explored the function of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in aortic valve disease, given its critical role in mesenchymal cell differentiation including bone development and mineralization. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We generated a mouse model of conditional pRb knockout (cKO) in the aortic valve regulated by Tie2-Cre-mediated excision of floxed RB1 alleles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298862/deregulation-of-hippo-taz-pathway-during-renal-injury-confers-a-fibrotic-maladaptive-phenotype
#9
Sandybell Anorga, Jessica M Overstreet, Lucas L Falke, Jiaqi Tang, Roel G Goldschmeding, Paul J Higgins, Rohan Samarakoon
Although yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), nuclear transducers of the Hippo pathway, are mostly silent in adult organs, aberrant activation of YAP/TAZ promotes tumorigenesis and abnormal tissue repair. The extent of involvement of TAZ in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. In our study, increased TAZ nuclear accumulation and expression in the tubulointerstitium was readily evident in 3 models of renal injury including obstructive, aristolochic acid (AA), and diabetic nephropathy, correlating with fibrosis progression...
January 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281826/converging-mechanisms-of-p53-activation-drive-motor-neuron-degeneration-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#10
Christian M Simon, Ya Dai, Meaghan Van Alstyne, Charalampia Koutsioumpa, John G Pagiazitis, Joshua I Chalif, Xiaojian Wang, Joseph E Rabinowitz, Christopher E Henderson, Livio Pellizzoni, George Z Mentis
The hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an inherited disease caused by ubiquitous deficiency in the SMN protein, is the selective degeneration of subsets of spinal motor neurons. Here, we show that cell-autonomous activation of p53 occurs in vulnerable but not resistant motor neurons of SMA mice at pre-symptomatic stages. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of p53 prevents motor neuron death, demonstrating that induction of p53 signaling drives neurodegeneration. At late disease stages, however, nuclear accumulation of p53 extends to resistant motor neurons and spinal interneurons but is not associated with cell death...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281143/the-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulator-iw-1973-prevents-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
Roger Flores-Costa, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Esther Titos, Cristina López-Vicario, Mireia Casulleras, Marta Duran-Güell, Bibiana Rius, Alba Diaz, Katherine Hall, Courtney Shea, Renee Sarno, Mark Currie, Jaime L Masferrer, Joan Clària
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is characterized by steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulation reduces inflammation and fibrosis in experimental models of lung, kidney and heart disease. Here, we tested whether sGC stimulation is also effective in experimental NASH. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Mice (n=35) were induced to NASH by a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat (CDAAH) diet and received either placebo or the sGC stimulator IW-1973 at two different doses (1 and 3 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks...
December 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279415/leucine-rich-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-promotes-lung-fibrosis-by-modulating-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-fibroblasts
#12
Hiromi Honda, Minoru Fujimoto, Satoshi Serada, Hayato Urushima, Takashi Mishima, Hyun Lee, Tomoharu Ohkawara, Nobuoki Kohno, Noboru Hattori, Akihito Yokoyama, Tetsuji Naka
TGF-β has an important role in fibrotic diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Detailed analysis of TGF-β signaling in pulmonary fibrosis at the molecular level is needed to identify novel therapeutic targets. Recently, leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein (LRG) was reported to function as a modulator of TGF-β signaling in angiogenesis and tumor progression. However, the involvement of LRG in fibrotic disorders, including IPF, has not yet been investigated. In this study, we investigated the role of LRG in fibrosis by analyzing LRG knockout (KO) mice with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278707/metformin-ameliorates-activation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-hepatic-fibrosis-by-succinate-and-gpr91-inhibition
#13
Giang Nguyen, So Young Park, Cong Thuc Le, Won Sun Park, Dae Hee Choi, Eun-Hee Cho
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease is becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) trans-differentiate into activated myofibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix. Succinate and succinate receptor (G-protein coupled receptor91, GPR91) signaling pathway has now emerged as a regulator of metabolic signaling. A previous study showed that succinate and its specific receptor, GPR91, are involved in the activation of HSCs and the overexpression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)...
December 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273418/pirfenidone-protects-against-paraquat-induced-lung-injury-and-fibrosis-in-mice-by-modulation-of-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-gene-expression
#14
Fateme Pourgholamhosein, Rokhsana Rasooli, Mostafa Pournamdari, Leyla Pourgholi, Mitra Samareh-Fekri, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari, Maryam Iranpour, Hamid-Reza Poursalehi, Mahmoud-Reza Heidari, Ali Mandegary
In this study we investigated the protective effects and possible mechanisms of pirfenidone (PF) in paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. Lung injury was induced by injection of PQ (20 mg/kg). Thereafter, mice orally received water and PF (100 and 200 mg/kg) for four weeks. After 28 days, the inflammation and fibrosis were determined in the lungs by analysis of histopathology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count, lung wet/dry weight ratio, hydroxyproline content, and oxidative stress biomarkers...
December 19, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250925/cucurbitacin-b-attenuates-ccl4-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-mice-through-inhibition-of-stat-3
#15
Alaliaa M Sallam, Ahmed Esmat, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim
Liver fibrosis is a major health concern worldwide. Inhibitors of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) have been reported to attenuate experimental liver fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of current study was to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of cucurbitacin-B (Cucu-B) against CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis in mice. Treatment with Cucu-B (5 mg/kg) preserved hepatocellular membrane integrity and amended the metabolic function as indicated by preventing the rise of serum liver function markers...
December 17, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247950/baicalin-attenuates-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-via-suppressing-jnk-signaling-pathways
#16
Xueqing Zhong, Hailin Liu
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis may develop into hepatic cirrhosis. The therapeutic drugs for NASH are absent. Baicalin (BC) has hepatoprotective effect, while whether BC could prevent the development of NASH is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of BC on the development of diet induced NASH and the possible mechanisms involved. Mice were fed with high fat and high cholesterol (HFC) diet to establish a NASH model, BC (0.5% w/w) was added into the diet to evaluate its effect on NASH. Mice fed an HFC diet developed NASH in 12 weeks...
December 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238727/glycyrrhizic-acid-prevents-diabetic-nephropathy-by-activating-ampk-sirt1-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-db-db-mice
#17
Shaozhang Hou, Ting Zhang, Yuan Li, Fengying Guo, Xiu Jin
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is an effective inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We investigated the role of GA in the progression of renal injury in DN. Albumin (Alb)/creatinine (crea) levels were significantly lower, and renal histopathology was attenuated in the diabetic db/db mice that were treated with GA (15 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection) once per day for eight weeks. These changes were associated with significantly lower levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237724/dual-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-and-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-5-blockade-attenuates-fibrotic-and-vascular-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-systemic-sclerosis
#18
Gianluca Bagnato, Natasha Irrera, Gabriele Pizzino, Domenico Santoro, William Neal Roberts, Gianfilippo Bagnato, Giovanni Pallio, Mario Vaccaro, Francesco Squadrito, Antonino Saitta, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by fibroblast activation and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Alterations in cell-integrin interaction are sufficient to initiate pro-fibrotic processes. SSc fibroblasts express both αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins and their activation induces myofibroblasts differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the anb3 and anb5 inhibitor, cilengitide, on the development of vascular and fibrotic changes in the chronic oxidant stress murine model of systemic sclerosis...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237572/the-role-of-adipor1-and-adipor2-in-liver-fibrosis
#19
Badr Alzahrani, Tristan Iseli, Mehdi Ramezani-Moghadam, Vikki Ho, Miriam Wankell, Eun Jin Sun, Liang Qiao, Jacob George, Lionel W Hebbard
Activation of the adiponectin (APN) signaling axis retards liver fibrosis. However, understanding of the role of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in mediating this response is still rudimentary. Here, we sought to elucidate the APN receptor responsible for limiting liver fibrosis by employing AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 knock-out mice in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model of liver fibrosis. In addition, we knocked down receptor function in primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro. Following the development of fibrosis, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 KO mice had no quantitative difference in fibrosis by Sirius red staining...
December 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230844/cyclophilin-d-promotes-tubular-cell-damage-and-the-development-of-interstitial-fibrosis-in-the-obstructed-kidney
#20
Weiping Hou, Khai G Leong, Elyce Ozols, Greg H Tesch, David J Nikolic-Paterson, Frank Y Ma
Cyclophilin D (CypD) is an important component in mitochondrial-dependent tubular cell death in acute kidney injury. However, it is not known whether CypD contributes to tubular cell damage in chronic interstitial fibrosis. We investigated this question in the unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) model of renal interstitial fibrosis. Groups of CypD-/- and wild type (WT) mice were killed 7 or 12 days after UUO surgery. The significant tubular cell apoptosis seen in WT UUO was significantly reduced in CypD-/- UUO based on TUNEL and cleaved caspase 3 staining...
December 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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