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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935682/role-of-eosinophils-in-the-initiation-and-progression-of-pancreatitis-pathogenesis
#1
Murli Manohar, Alok Kumar Verma, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Anil Mishra
Eosinophilic pancreatitis (EP) is reported in human; however, the etiology and the role of eosinophils in EP pathogenesis is a poorly understood and not excusably explored. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the role of eosinophils in the initiation and progression of pancreatitis pathogenesis. Therefore, we performed real time PCR, ELISA, western blot, anti-MBP immunostaining, Chloroesterase and Massons' trichrome analysis were performed to examine transcript and protein levels of eosinophil active cytokines, chemokines, eosinophils, mast cells and collagen tissue accumulation...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935639/isolation-and-characterization-of-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-cells-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Toshio Suzuki, Erica J Carrier, Megha A Talati, Anandharajan Rathinasabapathy, Xinping Chen, Rintaro Nishimura, Yuji Tada, Koichiro Tatsumi, James D West
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a process in which endothelial cells lose polarity and cell-to-cell contacts, and undergo a dramatic remodeling of the cytoskeleton. It has been implicated in initiation and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the characteristics of cells which have undergone EndMT-cells in vivo have not been reported and so remain unclear. To study this, sugen5416 and hypoxia (SuHx)-induced PAH was established in Cdh5-Cre / Gt(ROSA)26Sor(tm4(ACTB-tdTomato,-EGFP)Luo)/J double-transgenic mice, in which GFP was stably expressed in pan-endothelial cells...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919801/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-smad3-independent-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-type-i-collagen-glomerulopathy
#3
Amanda C Brodeur, Anna M Roberts-Pilgrim, Kimberlee L Thompson, Craig L Franklin, Charlotte L Phillips
The glomerulofibrotic Col1a2-deficient mouse model demonstrates glomerular homotrimeric type I collagen deposition in mesangial and subendothelial spaces. In this report, we investigate the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in myofibroblast activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in this glomerulopathy. Immunohistochemical analyses of glomerular α-sma, desmin, vimentin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen demonstrated parietal epithelial cell proliferation and EMT in late stages of the glomerulopathy in the Col1a2-deficient mice...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916199/erk-and-rock-functionally-interact-in-a-signaling-network-that-is-compensationally-upregulated-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#4
Niko Hensel, Svetlana Baskal, Lisa Marie Walter, Hella Brinkmann, Manuela Gernert, Peter Claus
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a motoneuron disease caused by low levels of functional survival of motoneuron protein (SMN). Molecular disease mechanisms downstream of functional SMN loss are still largely unknown. Previous studies suggested an involvement of Rho kinase (ROCK) as well as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathways in the pathomechanism. Both pathways are bi-directionally linked and inhibit each other. Thus, we hypothesize that both pathways regulate SMA pathophysiology in vivo in a combined manner rather than acting separately...
September 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915589/casticin-attenuates-liver-fibrosis-and-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-by-blocking-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#5
Ling Zhou, Xiaoying Dong, Linlin Wang, Lanlan Shan, Ting Li, Wanfu Xu, Yan Ding, Mingqiang Lai, Xiaojun Lin, Meng Dai, Xiaochun Bai, Chunhong Jia, Hang Zheng
Although many advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, few options are available for treatment. Casticin, one of the major flavonoids in Fructus Viticis extracts, has shown hepatoprotective potential, but its effects on liver fibrosis are not clear. In this study, we investigated the antifibrotic activity of casticin and its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Male mice were injected intraperitoneally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) to induce liver fibrosis, followed by treatment with casticin or vehicle...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915312/dce-and-dw-mri-as-early-imaging-biomarkers-of-treatment-response-in-a-preclinical-model-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#6
Stephanie L Barnes, Anna G Sorace, Jennifer G Whisenant, J Oliver McIntyre, Hakmook Kang, Thomas E Yankeelov
This work evaluates quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) parameters as early biomarkers of response in a preclinical model of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The standard Tofts' model of DCE-MRI returns estimates of the volume transfer constant (K(trans) ) and the extravascular extracellular volume fraction (ve ). DW-MRI returns estimates of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Mice (n = 38) were injected subcutaneously with MDA-MB-231...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904861/a-modified-graft-versus-host-induced-model-for-systemic-sclerosis-with-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rag2-deficient-mice
#7
Xue Yang, Chi Liu, Masayuki Fujino, Ji Yang, Xiao-Kang Li, Hejian Zou
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease that results in fibrosis in multiple organs. Various animal models for this disease have been developed, both genetic and induced. One of the induced models, sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease (scl-GvHD), exhibits the main characteristics of SSc, but involves lethal γ-irradiation of recipients. We sought to develop a modified scl-GvHD model. Spleen cells from B10.D2 donor mice were transplanted into immunodeficient Rag-2 recipients on the BALB/c genetic background...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899515/the-water-extract-of-liuwei-dihuang-possesses-multi-protective-properties-on-neurons-and-muscle-tissue-against-deficiency-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein
#8
Yu-Ting Tseng, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Wei-Fang Liang, Fang-Rong Chang, Yi-Ching Lo
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887614/the-pro-fibrotic-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-ccn2-correlates-with-the-number-of-necrotic-regenerative-foci-in-dystrophic-muscle
#9
María Gabriela Morales, María José Acuña, Daniel Cabrera, Roel Goldschmeding, Enrique Brandan
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) has strong inflammatory and profibrotic activities. Its expression is enhanced in skeletal muscular dystrophies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a myopathy characterized by exacerbated inflammation and fibrosis. In dystrophic tissue, necrotic-regenerative foci, myofibroblasts, newly-regenerated muscle fibers and necrosis all occur simultaneously. To determine if CCN2 is involved in the appearance of the foci, we studied their presence and characteristics in mdx mice (DMD mouse model) compared to mdx mice hemizygous for CCN2 (mdx-Ccn2+/-)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886261/syndecan-2-attenuates-radiation-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-inhibits-fibroblast-activation-by-regulating-pi3k-akt-rock-pathway-via-cd148
#10
Konstantin Tsoyi, Sarah G Chu, Nasly G Patino-Jaramillo, Julie Wilder, Julian Villalba, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Jacob McDonald, Xiaoli Liu, Souheil El-Chemaly, Mark A Perrella, Ivan O Rosas
RATIONALE: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis is a severe complication of patients treated with thoracic irradiation. We have previously shown that syndecan-2 reduces fibrosis by exerting alveolar epithelial cytoprotective effects. Here, we investigate whether syndecan-2 attenuates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting fibroblast activation. METHODS: C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress human syndecan-2 in alveolar macrophages were exposed to 14 Gy whole thoracic radiation...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884252/microrna-192-regulates-hypertrophic-scar-fibrosis-by-targeting-sip1
#11
Yan Li, Julei Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yang Liu, Yuehua Li, Kejia Wang, Yijie Zhang, Chen Yang, Xiaoqiang Li, Jihong Shi, Linlin Su, Dahai Hu
Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibro-proliferative disorder which is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen and accumulative activity of myofibroblasts. Increasing evidences have demonstrated miRNAs play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of HS. MiR-192 is closely associated with renal fibrosis, but its effect on HS formation and skin fibrosis remains unknown. In the study, we presented that miR-192 was up-regulated in HS and HS derived fibroblasts (HSFs) compared to normal skin (NS) and NS derived fibroblasts (NSFs), accompanied by the reduction of smad interacting protein 1 (SIP1) expression and the increase of Col1, Col3 and α-SMA levels...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883697/protective-effects-of-foeniculum-vulgare-root-bark-extract-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-mice
#12
Cai Zhang, Xing Tian, Ke Zhang, Guo-Yu Li, Hang-Yu Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
AIM: To investigate the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare root bark (FVRB), a traditional Uyghur medicine, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. METHODS: Mice were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 20 each). Except for the normal control group, mice in the rest groups were intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) with 0.1% CCl4-olive oil mixture at 10 mL/kg twice a week to induce liver fibrosis. After 4 wk, mice were treated concurrently with the 70% ethanol extract of FVRB (88, 176, 352 and 704 mg/kg, respectively) daily by oral gavage for 4 wk to evaluate its protective effects...
August 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873450/bromide-supplementation-exacerbated-the-renal-dysfunction-injury-and-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-alport-syndrome
#13
Tsubasa Yokota, Kohei Omachi, Mary Ann Suico, Haruka Kojima, Misato Kamura, Keisuke Teramoto, Shota Kaseda, Jun Kuwazuru, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Hirofumi Kai
A seminal study recently demonstrated that bromide (Br-) has a critical function in the assembly of type IV collagen in basement membrane (BM), and suggested that Br- supplementation has therapeutic potential for BM diseases. Because salts of bromide (KBr and NaBr) have been used as antiepileptic drugs for several decades, repositioning of Br- for BM diseases is probable. However, the effects of Br- on glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease such as Alport syndrome (AS) and its impact on the kidney are still unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872257/acellular-dermal-matrix-scaffolds-coated-with-connective-tissue-growth-factor-accelerate-diabetic-wound-healing-by-increasing-fibronectin-through-pkc-signaling-pathway
#14
Wenxia Yan, Hanping Liu, Xiaoyuan Deng, Ying Jin, Ning Wang, Jing Chu
The regional injection of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) for diabetic wound healing requires multiple components and results in a substantial loss of its biological activity. Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) scaffolds are optimal candidates for delivering these factors to local ischemic environments. In this study, we explored whether CTGF loaded on ADM scaffolds can enhance fibronectin (FN) expression to accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. The performance of CTGF and CTGF+PKC inhibitor, which were loaded on ADM scaffolds to treat dorsal skin wounds in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, were evaluated with naked ADM as a control...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864782/ozone-oil-promotes-wound-healing-by-increasing-the-migration-of-fibroblasts-via-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#15
Weirong Xiao, Hua Tang, Meng Wu, Yangying Liao, Ke Li, Lan Li, Xiaopeng Xu
Background: Skin injury affects millions of people via the uncontrolled inflammation and infection. Many cellular components including fibroblasts and signaling pathways such as TGF-β were activated to facilitate the wound healing to repair injured tissues. Methods and Results: C57BL/6 female mice were divided into control and ozone oil treated groups. Excisional wounds were created on the dorsal skin and the fibroblasts were isolated from granulation tissues. The skin injured mouse model revealed that ozone oil could significantly decrease the wound area and accelerate wound healing compared with control group...
September 1, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845525/rgs3-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signalling-in-adventitial-fibroblasts
#16
Fang Xu, Ying Liu, Lei Shi, Hongjing Cai, Wei Liu, Yejia Hu, Yuling Li, Wendan Yuan
Recent evidence suggests that adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) are crucially implicated in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms by which AFs are dysfunctional and contribute to atherosclerosis remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of regulator of G-protein signalling 3 (RGS3) in the regulation of AFs using apoE knockout mouse as the model. Pathological changes in aortic arteries of apoE knockout mice fed with hyperlipid diet were examined by Movat staining. The expression of RGS3, α-SMA, TGF-β1, Smad2, and Smad3 in the adventitia was detected by immunohistochemistry...
August 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837246/c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-in-pancreatic-tumor-stroma-augments-tumor-development-in-mice
#17
Takeshi Sato, Wataru Shibata, Yohko Hikiba, Yoshihiro Kaneta, Nobumi Suzuki, Sozaburo Ihara, Yasuaki Ishii, Soichiro Sue, Eri Kameta, Makoto Sugimori, Hiroaki Yamada, Hiroaki Kaneko, Tomohiko Sasaki, Tomohiro Ishii, Toshihide Tamura, Masaaki Kondo, Shin Maeda
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a life-threatening disease, and there is an urgent need to develop improved therapeutic approaches. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in PDAC stroma is not well defined even though dense desmoplastic reactions are characteristic of PDAC histology. We aimed to explore the role of JNK in PDAC stroma in mice. We crossed Ptf1a(Cre/+) ;Kras(G12D/+) mice with JNK1(-/-) mice to generate Ptf1a(Cre/+) ;Kras(G12D/+) ;JNK1(-/-) (Kras;JNK1(-/-) ) mice. The tumor weight were significantly lower in Kras;JNK1(-/-) mice than in Kras;JNK1(+/-) mice, whereas histopathological features were similar...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831484/protective-effects-of-theasinensin-a-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#18
Wei-Lun Hung, Guliang Yang, Yu-Chuan Wang, Yi-Shiou Chiou, Yen-Chen Tung, Meei-Ju Yang, Bi-Ni Wang, Chi-Tang Ho, Yu Wang, Min-Hsiung Pan
Theasinensins have been identified as a major group of unique catechin dimers mainly found in oolong tea and black tea. Among several types of theasinensins, theasinensin A (TSA), an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) dimer with an R-biphenyl bond, is the most abundant theasinensin prevalent in oolong tea. Previous studies have reported that TSA exhibits antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the hepatoprotective effect of TSA. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of TSA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice...
September 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819748/lipoxin-a4-attenuates-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-via-upregulation-of-let-7c-and-downregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway
#19
Xiao-Qing Chen, Sheng-Hua Wu, Yan-Yan Luo, Bing-Jie Li, Shu-Jun Li, Hong-Yan Lu, Rui Jin, Zhong-Yi Sun
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are key regulators for lung development and progress of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The mechanisms by which lipoxin A4 (LXA4) attenuates development of BPD have not been clarified. Neonatal murine BPD models were inducted by hyperoxia treatment. Neonatal mice were exposed to room air or 85% O2 hyperoxia with or without treatment with 5S,6R-methyl-LXA4 or anti-TGF-β antibodies. Mouse lung epithelial cells (MLE-12 cells) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 cells) were cultured in room air or 85% O2 followed by treatment of LXA4, anti-TGF-β antibodies, and let-7c mimic/anti-microRNA transfections...
August 17, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819185/deletion-of-ep4-in-s100a4-lineage-cells-reduces-scar-tissue-formation-during-early-but-not-later-stages-of-tendon-healing
#20
Jessica E Ackerman, Katherine T Best, Regis J O'Keefe, Alayna E Loiselle
Tendon injuries heal via scar tissue rather than regeneration. This healing response forms adhesions between the flexor tendons in the hand and surrounding tissues, resulting in impaired range of motion and hand function. Mechanistically, inflammation has been strongly linked to adhesion formation, and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is associated with both adhesion formation and tendinopathy. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that deletion of the PGE2 receptor EP4 in S100a4-lineage cells would decrease adhesion formation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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