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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910776/molecular-pathology-of-malignant-transformation-of-oral-submucous-fibrosis
#1
Amit Chattopadhyay, Jay Gopal Ray
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is prevalent mostly in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. Chewing betel nuts and betel leaves, with or without tobacco, has been associated with OSF. Betel quid contents including guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, and chavibetol are considered to play an important part in the occurrence of OSF. Transformation of OSF to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is variable, but up to 13% conversion of OSF to SCC has been reported. Various genetic and molecular mechanisms impact the malignant transformation of OSF, causing changes in the cell cycle, DNA, keratinocytes, and keratin; tumor-cell proliferation and survival; angiogenesis; fibrosis through epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), and tissue hypoxia...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#2
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906114/p38%C3%AE-mapk-disables-kmt1a-mediated-repression-of-myogenic-differentiation-program
#3
Biswanath Chatterjee, David W Wolff, Mathivanan Jothi, Munmun Mal, Asoke K Mal
BACKGROUND: Master transcription factor MyoD can initiate the entire myogenic gene expression program which differentiates proliferating myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. We previously demonstrated that histone methyltransferase KMT1A associates with and inhibits MyoD in proliferating myoblasts, and must be removed to allow differentiation to proceed. It is known that pro-myogenic signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT and p38α MAPK play critical roles in enforcing associations between MyoD and transcriptional activators, while removing repressors...
August 22, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906108/heme-oxygenase-and-carbon-monoxide-protect-from-muscle-dystrophy
#4
Mun Chun Chan, Olivia Ziegler, Laura Liu, Glenn C Rowe, Saumya Das, Leo E Otterbein, Zoltan Arany
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases of children worldwide and is 100% fatal. Steroids, the only therapy currently available, are marred by poor efficacy and a high side-effect profile. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. METHODS: Here, we leverage PGC-1α, a powerful transcriptional coactivator known to protect against dystrophy in the mdx murine model of DMD, to search for novel mechanisms of protection against dystrophy...
November 28, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902597/whole-exome-sequencing-of-independent-lung-adenocarcinoma-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-malignant-peritoneal-mesothelioma-a-case-report
#5
Irene Vanni, Simona Coco, Silvia Bonfiglio, Davide Cittaro, Carlo Genova, Federica Biello, Marco Mora, Valeria Rossella, Maria Giovanna Dal Bello, Anna Truini, Barbara Banelli, Dejan Lazarevic, Angela Alama, Erika Rijavec, Giulia Barletta, Francesco Grossi
The presence of multiple primary tumors (MPT) in a single patient has been identified with an increasing frequency. A critical issue is to establish if the second tumor represents an independent primary cancer or a metastasis. Therefore, the assessment of MPT clonal origin might help understand the disease behavior and improve the management/prognosis of the patient.Herein, we report a 73-year-old male smoker who developed 2 primary lung cancers (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) and a malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (PM)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902441/biosynthesis-of-selenate-reductase-in-salmonella-enterica-critical-roles-for-the-signal-peptide-and-dmsd
#6
Katherine Connelly, Calum Stevenson, Holger Kneuper, Frank Sargent
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram negative bacterium with a flexible respiratory capability. Under anaerobic conditions, S. enterica can utilise a range of terminal electron acceptors to sustain respiratory electron transport chains, including the potentially toxic compound selenate. The S. enterica selenate reductase is a membrane-bound enzyme encoded by the ynfEFGH-dmsD operon. The active enzyme is predicted to comprise at least three subunits where YnfE is a molybdenum-containing catalytic subunit...
October 20, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902312/genetic-mutations-in-live-infectious-bronchitis-vaccine-viruses-following-single-or-dual-in-vitro-infection-of-tracheal-organ-cultures
#7
Christopher Ball, Sarah Bennett, Anne Forrester, Kannan Ganapathy
Despite regular co-vaccination of two different strains of live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses, little is known about possible mutations in these viruses following vaccination. As an alternative to chicks, this study used an in-vitro infection model to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the part-S1 gene of two live IBV vaccine strains (793B and Massachusetts) following single or dual inoculation onto tracheal organ cultures (TOCs). Results indicate that viral titres reduced over the duration of the study, conversely the amount of detected IBV genome increased...
October 12, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899885/interacting-cannabinoid-and-opioid-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-control-adolescent-social-play
#8
Antonia Manduca, Olivier Lassalle, Marja Sepers, Patrizia Campolongo, Vincenzo Cuomo, Giovanni Marsicano, Brigitte Kieffer, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Viviana Trezza, Olivier J J Manzoni
Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899595/panther-version-11-expanded-annotation-data-from-gene-ontology-and-reactome-pathways-and-data-analysis-tool-enhancements
#9
Huaiyu Mi, Xiaosong Huang, Anushya Muruganujan, Haiming Tang, Caitlin Mills, Diane Kang, Paul D Thomas
The PANTHER database (Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships, http://pantherdb.org) contains comprehensive information on the evolution and function of protein-coding genes from 104 completely sequenced genomes. PANTHER software tools allow users to classify new protein sequences, and to analyze gene lists obtained from large-scale genomics experiments. In the past year, major improvements include a large expansion of classification information available in PANTHER, as well as significant enhancements to the analysis tools...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899075/thermal-sensitivity-of-growth-indicates-heritable-variation-in-1-year-old-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#10
Matti Janhunen, Juha Koskela, Nguyễn Hữu Ninh, Harri Vehviläinen, Heikki Koskinen, Antti Nousiainen, Ngô Phú Thỏa
BACKGROUND: Rainbow trout is an important aquaculture species, which has a worldwide distribution across various production environments. The diverse locations of trout farms involve remarkable variation in environmental factors such as water temperature, which is of major importance for the performance of fish. Thus, robust fish that could thrive under different and suboptimal thermal conditions is a desirable goal for trout breeding. Using a split-family experimental design (40 full-/half-sib groups) for a rainbow trout population derived from the Finnish national breeding program, we studied how two different rearing temperatures (14 and 20 °C) affect feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio in 1-year-old fish...
November 29, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898850/genetic-evaluations-for-growth-heat-tolerance-in-angus-cattle
#11
H L Bradford, B O Fragomeni, J K Bertrand, D A L Lourenco, I Misztal
The objectives were to assess the impact of heat stress and to develop a model for genetic evaluation of growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle. The American Angus Association provided weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW) data, and records from the Upper South region were used because of the hot climatic conditions. Heat stress was characterized by a weaning (yearling) heat load function defined as the mean temperature-humidity index (THI) units greater than 75 (70) for 30 (150) d prior to the weigh date...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895705/improved-sugar-yields-from-biomass-sorghum-feedstocks-comparing-low-lignin-mutants-and-pretreatment-chemistries
#12
Bruno Godin, Nick Nagle, Scott Sattler, Richard Agneessens, Jérôme Delcarte, Edward Wolfrum
BACKGROUND: For biofuel production processes to be economically efficient, it is essential to maximize the production of monomeric carbohydrates from the structural carbohydrates of feedstocks. One strategy for maximizing carbohydrate production is to identify less recalcitrant feedstock cultivars by performing some type of experimental screening on a large and diverse set of candidate materials, or by identifying genetic modifications (random or directed mutations or transgenic plants) that provide decreased recalcitrance...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895323/elevated-cyp2c19-expression-is-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-and-hippocampal-homeostasis-impairment
#13
M M Jukić, N Opel, J Ström, T Carrillo-Roa, S Miksys, M Novalen, A Renblom, S C Sim, E M Peñas-Lledó, P Courtet, A Llerena, B T Baune, D J de Quervain, A Papassotiropoulos, R F Tyndale, E B Binder, U Dannlowski, M Ingelman-Sundberg
The polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes psychoactive compounds and is expressed in the adult liver and fetal brain. Previously, we demonstrated that the absence of CYP2C19 is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in 1472 Swedes. Conversely, transgenic mice carrying the human CYP2C19 gene (2C19TG) have shown an anxious phenotype and decrease in hippocampal volume and adult neurogenesis. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine whether the 2C19TG findings could be translated to humans, (2) evaluate the usefulness of the 2C19TG strain as a tool for preclinical screening of new antidepressants and (3) provide an insight into the molecular underpinnings of the 2C19TG phenotype...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895208/diurnal-solar-energy-conversion-and-photoprotection-in-rice-canopies
#14
Katherine Georgina Meacham, Xavier Sirault, W Paul Quick, Susanne von Caemmerer, Robert T Furbank
Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photo-protection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of Oryza sativa in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894337/intestinal-dysbiosis-is-common-in-systemic-sclerosis-and-associated-with-gastrointestinal-and-extraintestinal-features-of-disease
#15
Kristofer Andréasson, Zaid Alrawi, Anita Persson, Göran Jönsson, Jan Marsal
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a link between autoimmunity and the intestinal microbial composition in several rheumatic diseases including systemic sclerosis (SSc). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of intestinal dysbiosis in SSc and to characterise patients suffering from this potentially immunomodulatory deviation. METHODS: This study consisted of 98 consecutive patients subject to in-hospital care. Stool samples were analysed for intestinal microbiota composition using a validated genome-based microbiota test (GA-map™ Dysbiosis Test, Genetic Analysis, Oslo, Norway)...
November 29, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893164/diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-human-prion-detection-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#16
Aaron Foutz, Brian S Appleby, Clive Hamlin, Xiaoqin Liu, Sheng Yang, Yvonne Cohen, Wei Chen, Janis Blevins, Cameron Fausett, Han Wang, Pierluigi Gambetti, Shulin Zhang, Andrew Hughson, Curtis Tatsuoka, Lawrence B Schonberger, Mark L Cohen, Byron Caughey, Jiri G Safar
Objective-Several prion amplification systems have been proposed for detection of prions in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), most recently, the measurements of prion seeding activity with second-generation real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC). The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of the RT-QuIC prion test in the broad phenotypic spectrum of prion diseases. Methods- We performed CSF RT-QuIC testing in 2,141 patients who had rapidly progressive neurological disorders, determined diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in 272 cases which were autopsied, and evaluated the impact of mutations and polymorphisms in the PRNP gene, and Type 1 or Type 2 of human prions on diagnostic performance...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889388/cellular-aging-contributes-to-failure-of-cold-induced-beige-adipocyte-formation-in-old-mice-and-humans
#17
Daniel C Berry, Yuwei Jiang, Robert W Arpke, Elizabeth L Close, Aki Uchida, David Reading, Eric D Berglund, Michael Kyba, Jonathan M Graff
Cold temperatures induce progenitor cells within white adipose tissue to form beige adipocytes that burn energy and generate heat; this is a potential anti-diabesity therapy. However, the potential to form cold-induced beige adipocytes declines with age. This creates a clinical roadblock to potential therapeutic use in older individuals, who constitute a large percentage of the obesity epidemic. Here we show that aging murine and human beige progenitor cells display a cellular aging, senescence-like phenotype that accounts for their age-dependent failure...
November 21, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887563/the-trans-generational-impact-of-population-density-signals-on-host-parasite-interactions
#18
Jessica Michel, Dieter Ebert, Matthew D Hall
BACKGROUND: The density of a host population is a key parameter underlying disease transmission, but it also has implications for the expression of disease through its effect on host physiology. In response to higher densities, individuals are predicted to either increase their immune investment in response to the elevated risk of parasitism, or conversely to decrease their immune capacity as a consequence of the stress of a crowded environment. However, an individual's health is shaped by many different factors, including their genetic background, current environmental conditions, and maternal effects...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885273/fatty-acid-binding-protein-fabp4-mechanistically-links-obesity-with-aggressive-aml-by-enhancing-aberrant-dna-methylation-in-aml-cells
#19
F Yan, N Shen, J X Pang, Y W Zhang, E Y Rao, A M Bode, A Al-Kali, D E Zhang, M R Litzow, B Li, S J Liu
Obesity is becoming more prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in adults, remains a frequently fatal disease. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which obesity favors AML growth and uncovered the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) regulatory axis that mediates aggressive AML in obesity. We showed that leukemia burden was much higher in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, which had higher levels of FABP4 and IL-6 in sera...
November 25, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875299/lipids-cooperate-with-the-reovirus-membrane-penetration-peptide-to-facilitate-particle-uncoating
#20
Anthony J Snyder, Pranav Danthi
Virus-host interactions play a role in many stages of the viral lifecycle, including entry. Reovirus, a model system for studying the entry mechanisms of nonenveloped viruses, undergoes a series of regulated structural transitions that culminate in delivery of the viral genetic material. Lipids can trigger one of these conformational changes, infectious subviral particle (ISVP)-to-ISVP* conversion. ISVP* formation releases two virally encoded peptides, myristoylated μ1N (myr-μ1N) and φ. Among these, myr-μ1N is sufficient to form pores within membranes...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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