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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222631/an-advanced-simulator-for-orthopedic-surgical-training
#1
J Cecil, Avinash Gupta, Miguel Pirela-Cruz
PURPOSE: The purpose of creating the virtual reality (VR) simulator is to facilitate and supplement the training opportunities provided to orthopedic residents. The use of VR simulators has increased rapidly in the field of medical surgery for training purposes. This paper discusses the creation of the virtual surgical environment (VSE) for training residents in an orthopedic surgical process called less invasive stabilization system (LISS) surgery which is used to address fractures of the femur...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206799/simulation-based-educational-module-improves-intern-and-medical-student-performance-of-closed-reduction-and-percutaneous-pinning-of-pediatric-supracondylar-humeral-fractures
#2
Bennet A Butler, Cort D Lawton, Jamie Burgess, Earvin S Balderama, Katherine A Barsness, John F Sarwark
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based education has been integrated into many orthopaedic residency programs to augment traditional teaching models. Here we describe the development and implementation of a combined didactic and simulation-based course for teaching medical students and interns how to properly perform a closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of a pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture. METHODS: Subjects included in the study were either orthopaedic surgery interns or subinterns at our institution...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179116/evaluation-of-fly-ash-pellets-for-phosphorus-removal-in-a-laboratory-scale-denitrifying-bioreactor
#3
Shiyang Li, Richard A Cooke, Xiangfeng Huang, Laura Christianson, Rabin Bhattarai
Nitrate and orthophosphate from agricultural activities contribute significantly to nutrient loading in surface water bodies around the world. This study evaluated the efficacy of woodchips and fly ash pellets in tandem to remove nitrate and orthophosphate from simulated agricultural runoff in flow-through tests. The fly ash pellets had previously been developed specifically for orthophosphate removal for this type of application, and the sorption bench testing showed a good promise for flow-through testing...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179040/surface-integrity-and-corrosion-performance-of-biomedical-magnesium-calcium-alloy-processed-by-hybrid-dry-cutting-finish-burnishing
#4
M Salahshoor, C Li, Z Y Liu, X Y Fang, Y B Guo
Biodegradable magnesium-calcium (MgCa) alloy is a very attractive orthopedic biomaterial compared to permanent metallic alloys. However, the critical issue is that MgCa alloy corrodes too fast in the human organism. Compared to dry cutting, the synergistic dry cutting-finish burnishing can significantly improve corrosion performance of MgCa0.8 (wt%) alloy by producing a superior surface integrity including good surface finish, high compressive hook-shaped residual stress profile, extended strain hardening in subsurface, and little change of grain size...
November 21, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159731/effects-of-population-variability-on-knee-loading-during-simulated-human-gait
#5
Rebecca J Nesbitt, Nathaniel A Bates, Marepalli B Rao, Grant Schaffner, Jason T Shearn
Cadaveric simulation models allow researchers to study native tissues in situ. However, as tests are conducted using donor specimens with unmatched kinematics, techniques that impose population average motions are subject to deviation from true physiologic conditions. This study aimed to identify factors which explain the kinetic variability observed during robotic simulations of a single human gait motion using a sample of human cadaver knees. Twelve human cadaver limbs (58 ± 16 years) were subjected to tibiofemoral geometrical analysis and cyclical stiffness testing in each anatomical degree of freedom...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158995/the-role-of-biomaterials-in-the-treatment-of-meniscal-tears
#6
Crystal O Kean, Robert J Brown, James Chapman
Extensive investigations over the recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical and functional importance of the meniscus in the knee joint. As a functioning part of the joint, it serves to prevent the deterioration of articular cartilage and subsequent osteoarthritis. To this end, meniscus repair and regeneration is of particular interest from the biomaterial, bioengineering and orthopaedic research community. Even though meniscal research is previously of a considerable volume, the research community with evolving material science, biology and medical advances are all pushing toward emerging novel solutions and approaches to the successful treatment of meniscal difficulties...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156291/engineering-the-next-generation-tin-containing-%C3%AE-titanium-alloys-with-high-strength-and-low-modulus-for-orthopedic-applications
#7
Sumit Bahl, Suvam Das, Satyam Suwas, Kaushik Chatterjee
Metastable β Ti alloys are the new emerging class of biomaterial for load bearing orthopedic applications. However, these alloys in the single β phase microstructure have insufficient strength for use in load bearing applications. It is imperative to strengthen these alloys by carefully designed thermo-mechanical processing routes that typically involve aging treatment. In this investigation two newly designed Sn based β Ti alloys of composition Ti-32Nb-(2, 4) Sn are evaluated. The effects of Sn content on the mechanical properties and biological performance of these alloys processed through designed thermo-mechanical processing route are investigated...
November 11, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145968/effectiveness-of-a-step-by-step-oral-recount-before-a-practical-simulation-of-fracture-fixation
#8
Marcelo Abagge, Christiano Saliba Uliana, Sergei Taggesell Fischer, Kodi Edson Kojima
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a step-by-step oral recount by residents before the final execution of a practical exercise simulating a surgical fixation of a radial diaphyseal fracture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 10 residents of orthopaedics and traumatology (four second- year and six first-year residents) divided into two groups with five residents each. All participants initially gathered in a room in which a video was presented demonstrating the practical exercise to be performed...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145437/assessment-of-the-suitability-of-biodegradable-rods-for-use-in-posterior-lumbar-fusion-an-in-vitro-biomechanical-evaluation-and-finite-element-analysis
#9
Fon-Yih Tsuang, Yueh-Ying Hsieh, Yi-Jie Kuo, Chia-Hsien Chen, Feng-Huei Lin, Chen-Sheng Chen, Chang-Jung Chiang
Interbody fusion with posterior instrumentation is a common method for treating lumbar degenerative disc diseases. However, the high rigidity of the fusion construct may produce abnormal stresses at the adjacent segment and lead to adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). As such, biodegradable implants are becoming more popular for use in orthopaedic surgery. These implants offer sufficient stability for fusion but at a reduced stiffness. Tailored to degrade over a specific timeframe, biodegradable implants could potentially mitigate the drawbacks of conventional stiff constructs and reduce the loading on adjacent segments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142320/biocompatibility-and-biodegradation-studies-of-a-commercial-zinc-alloy-for-temporary-mini-implant-applications
#10
M Bobby Kannan, Corey Moore, Shruti Saptarshi, Sahadev Somasundaram, Mohamed Rahuma, Andreas L Lopata
In this study, the biocompatibility and in vitro degradation behaviour of a commercial zinc-based alloy (Zn-5 Al-4 Mg) were evaluated and compared with that of pure zinc for temporary orthopaedic implant applications. Biocompatibility tests were conducted using human alveolar lung epithelial cells (A549), which showed that the zinc alloy exhibits similar biocompatibility as compared to pure zinc. In vitro degradation evaluation was performed using weight loss and electrochemical methods in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141359/-analysis-of-the-tibial-baseplate-coverage-and-symmetrical-tibial-prosthesis-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty
#11
C L Zhao, J P Wang, Z H Sun, M Li, J W Chen
Objective: To investigate the tibial baseplate coverage with symmnetrical tibial prosthesis in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: From August 2014 to February 2015, 39 patients (39 knees) with varus knee osteoarthritis were retrospective reviewed in Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Xiqing Hospital. Nine males and 30 females; aged 50 to 78 years (67±6 year). 3D tibia models of the knee were built with Mimics 10.01 software, simulated TKA surgeries were performed. The morphology of the proximal tibia was measured, including the mediolateral (ML), anteroposterior (AP) and medial and lateral tibial plateau AP dimensions...
November 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138688/effect-on-chest-deformation-of-simultaneous-correction-of-pectus-excavatum-with-scoliosis
#12
Jin-Duo Ye, Guang-Pu Lu, Jing-Jing Feng, Wei-Hong Zhong
Objective: This paper is to understand the effect of simultaneous correction of pectus excavatum with scoliosis and to provide some useful information for clinical orthopedic surgery design. Methods: The method of a three-dimensional reconstruction has been used to the reconstruction of the chest model of pectus excavatum with scoliosis, and the numerical stimulation has been conducted to the process of minimally invasive correction. Three kinds of correction methods have been considered in the numerical simulation, stretch spine, stretch spine and minimally invasive correction at the same time, and release stretch spine after stretch spine and minimally invasive correction of pectus excavatum at the same time...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130876/efficacy-of-arthroscopic-teaching-methods-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Luke Robinson, Jonathon Spanyer, Zachary Yenna, Patrick Burchell, Andrew Garber, John Riehl
Arthroscopic education research recently has been focused on the use of skills labs to facilitate resident education and objective measure development to gauge technical skill. This study evaluates the effectiveness of three different teaching methods. Medical students were randomized into three groups. The first group received only classroom-based lecture. The second group received the same lecture and 28 minutes of lab-based hands-off arthroscopy instruction using a cadaver and arthroscopy setup. The final group received the same lecture and 7 minutes of hands-on arthroscopy instruction in the lab on a cadaver knee...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126353/potential-for-bias-and-the-american-orthopaedic-foot-and-ankle-society-ankle-hindfoot-scoring-system
#14
Alec Macaulay, Sreeharsha V Nandyala, Christopher P Miller, Mohammad Ghorbanhoseini, Kempland C Walley, John Y Kwon
BACKGROUND: The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scoring System (AOFAS-AH) has not been validated and has significant risk for researcher bias, given that 40 out of 100 points are assessed by study staff subjectively. The purpose of this study is to evaluate its recent use in the orthopaedic literature to determine the percentage of previously published studies for which study conclusions would be changed if the AOFAS-AH scores were artificially altered, representing the effect of a systematic researcher bias...
November 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101896/a-simplified-application-app-for-the-parametric-design-of-screw-plate-fixation-of-bone-fractures
#15
Chen-Yuan Chung
Screw and plate fixation is commonly used to treat bone fractures. A prototype application (APP) for presurgical simulation was developed and validated by comparing it with current analytical approach and other models. In this APP, alternative plate designs and materials to limit the effects of stress shielding could be tested. In addition, the number and position of screws and the gap between bone and plate that achieved acceptable stability were predicted. The fixation stability providing a situation of interfragmentary strain between 2% and 10% is necessary for callus formation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100205/influence-of-cement-compressive-strength-and-porosity-on-augmentation-performance-in-a-model-of-orthopedic-screw-pull-out
#16
Michael Pujari-Palmer, Celine Robo, Cecilia Persson, Philip Procter, Håkan Engqvist
Disease and injuries that affect the skeletal system may require surgical intervention and internal fixation, i.e. orthopedic plate and screw insertion, to stabilize the injury and facilitate tissue repair. If the surrounding bone quality is poor the screws may migrate, or the bone may fail, resulting in fixation failure. While numerous studies have shown that cement augmentation of the interface between bone and implant can increase screw pull-out force, the physical properties of cement that influence pull-out force have not been investigated...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098589/integrating-water-quality-responses-to-best-management-practices-in-portugal
#17
André Fonseca, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
Nutrient nonpoint pollution has a significant impact on water resources worldwide. The main challenge of this work was to assess the application of best management practices in agricultural land to comply with water quality legislation for surface waters. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN was used to evaluate water quality of Ave River in Portugal. Best management practices (infiltration basin) (BMP) were applied to agricultural land (for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% area) with removal efficiencies of 50% for fecal coliforms and 30% for nitrogen, phosphorus, and biochemical oxygen demand...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095489/modeling-and-evaluation-of-a-high-resolution-cmos-detector-for-cone-beam-ct-of-the-extremities
#18
Qian Cao, Alejandro Sisniega, Michael Brehler, J Webster Stayman, John Yorkston, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen, Wojciech Zbijewski
PURPOSE: Quantitative assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture in extremity cone-beam CT (CBCT) would benefit from the high spatial resolution, low electronic noise, and fast scan time provided by complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) x-ray detectors. We investigate the performance of CMOS sensors in extremity CBCT, in particular with respect to potential advantages of thin (<0.7 mm) scintillators offering higher spatial resolution. METHODS: A cascaded systems model of a CMOS x-ray detector incorporating the effects of CsI:Tl scintillator thickness was developed...
November 2, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089192/use-of-surveillance-data-to-calculate-the-sample-size-and-the-statistical-power-of-randomized-clinical-trials-testing-staphylococcus-aureus-vaccine-efficacy-in-orthopedic-surgery
#19
Marie-Paule Gustin, Robin Ohannessian, Marine Giard, Emmanuelle Caillat-Vallet, Anne Savey, Philippe Vanhems
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) would be a worthy population for anti-staphylococcal vaccines. The objective is to assess sample size for significant vaccine efficacy (VE) in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). METHODS: Data from a surveillance network of surgical site infection in France between 2008 and 2011 were used. The outcome was S. aureus SSI (SASSI) within 30 days after surgery. Statistical power was estimated by simulations repeated for theoretical VE ranging from 20% to 100% and for sample sizes from 250 to 8000 individuals per arm...
October 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081149/-effect-of-simulating-leg-length-inequality-on-spinal-and-pelvic-posture-in-the-elderly
#20
H F Zhang, J L Liao, M Ji, S Y Tang, J F Jin, L Chen, L J Wu
Objective: To study the effects of simulating leg length inequality on the spine and pelvic posture in standing and walking states and to explore their compensatory laws. Methods: From January to April, a total of 44 healthy volunteers were rasterstereographically examined for spine and pelvis in Institute of Digitized Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University and Department of Orthopaedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University.Volunteers wore uniform shoes, and single 5 mm thick insoles were customized...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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