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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415419/lsp-mao-composite-bio-coating-on-az80-magnesium-alloy-for-biomedical-application
#1
Ying Xiong, Qiang Hu, Renguo Song, Xiaxia Hu
A composite bio-coating was fabricated on AZ80 magnesium (Mg) alloy by using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) under the pretreatment of laser shock peening (LSP) in order to improve the bio-corrosion resistance and the mechanical integrity. LSP treatment could induce grain refinement and compressive residual stress field on the surface of material. MAO bio-coating was grown in alkaline electrolyte with hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) to improve the biological properties of the material. The microstructure, element and phase composition for untreated based material (BM) and treated samples (LSP layer, MAO bio-coating and LSP/MAO composite bio-coating) were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410527/mechanisms-of-the-photochemical-release-of-phosphate-from-resuspended-sediments-under-solar-irradiation
#2
Xiaolu Li, Yiyong Zhou, Guanglong Liu, Hongjun Lei, Duanwei Zhu
In previous studies, resuspended sediments that were exposed to simulated solar irradiation could release dissolved phosphate (PO4(3-)). However, the mechanisms of phosphate release remain unclear. In this research, a battery of experiments was performed to reveal the mechanisms of the photochemical release of phosphate from resuspended sediments of a shallow eutrophic lake under solar irradiation. The results show that the PO4(3-) released in resuspended sediments was significantly higher than that in the dark control or in water alone after treatment with solar irradiation for 6h...
April 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389485/operational-strategies-to-manage-non-elective-orthopaedic-surgical-flows-a-simulation-modelling-study
#3
Marie Persson, Helena Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Maria Unbeck, Olof Gustaf Sköldenberg, Andreas Stark, Paula Kelly-Pettersson, Pamela Mazzocato
OBJECTIVES: To explore the value of simulation modelling in evaluating the effects of strategies to plan and schedule operating room (OR) resources aimed at reducing time to surgery for non-elective orthopaedic inpatients at a Swedish hospital. METHODS: We applied discrete-event simulation modelling. The model was populated with real world data from a university hospital with a strong focus on reducing waiting time to surgery for patients with hip fracture. The system modelled concerned two patient groups that share the same OR resources: hip-fracture and other non-elective orthopaedic patients in need of surgical treatment...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376059/skeletal-assessment-with-finite-element-analysis-relevance-pitfalls-and-interpretation
#4
Graeme Michael Campbell, Claus-C Glüer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Finite element models simulate the mechanical response of bone under load, enabling noninvasive assessment of strength. Models generated from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) incorporate the geometry and spatial distribution of bone mineral density (BMD) to simulate physiological and traumatic loads as well as orthopaedic implant behaviour. The present review discusses the current strengths and weakness of finite element models for application to skeletal biomechanics...
April 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374679/in-vitro-study-of-electrodeposited-fluoridated-hydroxyapatite-coating-on-g-ii-titanium-with-a-nanostructured-tio2-interlayer
#5
Jin-Shyong Lin, Tzung-Bau Tsai, Wen-Ching Say, Chun Chiu, Shih-Hsun Chen
Titanium and its alloys have been widely used as orthopedic and dental implants for several decades due to their superior mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Recently, many researches revealed that the hydroxyapatite coatings on biomedical materials can further improve their biocompatibility and bioactivity. However, hydroxyapatite coatings are easily decomposed, weakening the bonding between implants and bone tissues and resulting in a high dissolution rate in the biological environment...
April 4, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374350/teaching-the-basics-development-and-validation-of-a-distal-radius-reduction-and-casting-model
#6
Mark A Seeley, Peter D Fabricant, J Todd R Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of reduced pediatric distal radius fractures redisplace, resulting in further treatment. Two major modifiable risk factors for loss of reduction are reduction adequacy and cast quality. Closed reduction and immobilization of distal radius fractures is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education residency milestone. Teaching and assessing competency could be improved with a life-like simulation training tool. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Our goal was to develop and validate a realistic distal radius fracture reduction and casting simulator as determined by (1) a questionnaire regarding the "realism" of the model and (2) the quantitative assessments of reduction time, residual angulation, and displacement...
April 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373673/influences-of-surface-treatments-with-abrasive-paper-and-sand-blasting-on-surface-morphology-hydrophilicity-mineralization-and-osteoblasts-behaviors-of-n-cs-pk-composite
#7
Xiaoming Tang, Kai Huang, Jian Dai, Zhaoying Wu, Liang Cai, Lili Yang, Jie Wei, Hailang Sun
The surfaces of nano-calcium silicate (n-CS)/polyetheretherketone (PK) composites were treated with abrasive paper and sand-blasting, and the surfaces performances of the as-treated composites were studied. The results showed that the surface roughness, hydrophilicity and mineralization of the simulated body fluid (SBF) of the composites surfaces were significantly improved, and the properties of the composites treated by with sand-blasting were better than those treated with abrasive paper. Moreover, the treated composites significantly promoted osteoblasts responses, such as cell attachment, spreading, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, compared to un-treated composites, and the cellular responses to the composites treated with sand-blasting were better than those treated with abrasive paper...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359859/raman-spectroscopy-of-biomedical-polyethylenes
#8
REVIEW
Giuseppe Pezzotti
With the development of three-dimensional Raman algorithms for local mapping of oxidation and plastic strain, and the ability to resolve molecular orientation patterns with microscopic spatial resolution, there is an opportunity to re-examine many of the foundations on which our understanding of biomedical grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) are based. By implementing polarized Raman spectroscopy into an automatized tool with an improved precision in non-destructively resolving Euler angles, oxidation levels, and microscopic strain, we become capable to make accurate and traceable measurements of the in vitro and in vivo tribological responses of a variety of commercially available UHMWPE bearings for artificial hip and knee joints...
March 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355085/validation-of-a-dry-model-for-assessing-the-performance-of-arthroscopic-hip-labral-repair
#9
Lisa Phillips, Jeffrey J H Cheung, Daniel B Whelan, Michael Lucas Murnaghan, Jas Chahal, John Theodoropoulos, Darrell Ogilvie-Harris, Ian Macniven, Tim Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic hip labral repair is a technically challenging and demanding surgical technique with a steep learning curve. Arthroscopic simulation allows trainees to develop these skills in a safe environment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a combination of assessment ratings for the performance of arthroscopic hip labral repair on a dry model. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332159/electromagnetically-tracked-personalized-templates-for-surgical-navigation
#10
Andrew W L Dickinson, Michelle L Zec, David R Pichora, Brian J Rasquinha, Randy E Ellis
PURPOSE: An electromagnetic (EM) surgical tracking system was developed for orthopedic navigation. The reportedly poor accuracy of point-based EM navigation was improved by using anatomical impressions, which were EM-tracked personalized templates. Lines, rather than points, were consistently used for calibration and error evaluation. METHODS: Technical accuracy was tested using models derived from CT scans of ten cadaver shoulders. Tracked impressions were first designed, calibrated, and tested using lines as fiducial objects...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326347/the-insufficiencies-of-risk-analysis-of-impending-pathological-fractures-in-patients-with-femoral-metastases-a-literature-review
#11
Emir Benca, Janina M Patsch, Winfried Mayr, Dieter H Pahr, Reinhard Windhager
PURPOSE: Pathologic fractures in patients with bone metastases are a common problem in clinical orthopaedic routine. On one hand recognition of metastatic lesions, which are at a high risk of fracture, is essential for timely prophylactic fixation, while on the other hand patients with a low risk of pathologic fractures should be spared from overtreatment. The purpose of this review is to identify all methods for fracture risk evaluation in patients with femoral metastases in the literature and to evaluate their predictive values in clinical applications...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319734/novel-mechanical-impact-simulator-designed-to-generate-clinically-relevant-anterior-cruciate-ligament-ruptures
#12
Nathaniel A Bates, Nathan D Schilaty, Christopher V Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
BACKGROUND: Over 250,000 anterior cruciate ligament ruptures occur each year; therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms of these injuries. The objective of the current investigation was to develop and analyze an impact test device that consistently produces anterior cruciate ligament failure in a clinically relevant manner. METHOD: A mechanical impact simulator was developed to simulate the ground reaction force impulse generated from landing in a physiologic and clinically relevant manner...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315814/a-closer-look-at-the-in-vitro-electrochemical-characterisation-of-titanium-alloys-for-biomedical-applications-using-in-situ-methods
#13
J-L Wang, R L Liu, T Majumdar, S A Mantri, V A Ravi, R Banerjee, N Birbilis
Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in several biomedical applications, particularly as permanent orthopaedic implants. Electrochemical testing provides a means to perform accelerated corrosion testing, however whilst results from polarisation testing for Ti and its alloys to date have been generally useful, they are also rather limited on the basis of several reasons. One reason is that the polarisation curves for Ti and its alloys in simulated body fluids all appear rather similar, and they do not present a classical 'breakdown' or pitting potential, making discrimination between alloys difficult...
March 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300369/perturbation-effects-of-the-carbon-fiber-peek-screws-on-radiotherapy-dose-distribution
#14
Alexander Nevelsky, Egor Borzov, Shahar Daniel, Raquel Bar-Deroma
Radiation therapy, in conjunction with surgical implant fixation, is a common combined treatment in cases of bone metastases. However, metal implants generally used in orthopedic implants perturb radiation dose distributions. Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) material has been recently introduced for production of intramedullary nails and plates. The purpose of this work was to investigate the perturbation effects of the new CFR-PEEK screws on radiotherapy dose distributions and to evaluate these effects in comparison with traditional titanium screws...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295123/new-proximal-femoral-compaction-blade-provides-strong-antirotation-stability-of-the-femoral-head
#15
Shinya Hayashi, Yukiaki Hirata, Daiki Okamoto, Satoshi Kakunai, Shingo Hashimoto, Koji Takayama, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Takahiro Niikura, Takaaki Fujishiro, Takafumi Hiranaka, Kotaro Nishida, Ryosuke Kuroda
This study investigated the mechanical properties of a new rectangular compaction blade and compared this blade with other types of nail. Three types of nail were tested: the Magnum lag screw (Robert Reid Inc, Tokyo, Japan), proximal femoral nail, and Magnum Fid blade (Robert Reid Inc). The nails were inserted into solid rigid polyurethane foam, and the torsional moments were loaded with an Instron testing machine (Instron, Kanagawa, Japan). The force curve was recorded, and the average maximum torque was calculated from this curve...
March 14, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292485/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-reverse-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-versus-hemiarthroplasty-for-the-management-of-complex-proximal-humeral-fractures-in-the-elderly
#16
Georg Osterhoff, Nathan N O'Hara, Jennifer D'Cruz, Sheila A Sprague, Nick Bansback, Nathan Evaniew, Gerard P Slobogean
BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal surgical treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) compared with hemiarthroplasty (HA) in the management of complex proximal humeral fractures, using a cost-utility analysis. METHODS: On the basis of data from published literature, a cost-utility analysis was conducted using decision tree and Markov modeling...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285545/to-reduce-the-maximum-stress-and-the-stress-shielding-effect-around-a-dental-implant-bone-interface-using-radial-functionally-graded-biomaterials
#17
H Asgharzadeh Shirazi, M R Ayatollahi, A Asnafi
In a dental implant system, the value of stress and its distribution plays a pivotal role on the strength, durability and life of the implant-bone system. A typical implant consists of a Titanium core and a thin layer of biocompatible material such as the hydroxyapatite. This coating has a wide range of clinical applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Low bonding strength and sudden variation of mechanical properties between the coating and the metallic layers are the main disadvantages of such common implants...
March 13, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274193/a-peptide-based-biological-coating-for-enhanced-corrosion-resistance-of-titanium-alloy-biomaterials-in-chloride-containing-fluids
#18
Noah Muruve, Yuanchao Feng, Jaye Platnich, Daniel Hassett, Randall Irvin, Daniel Muruve, Frank Cheng
Titanium alloys are common materials in the manufacturing of dental and orthopedic implants. Although these materials exhibit excellent biocompatibility, corrosion in response to biological fluids can impact prosthesis performance and longevity. In this work, a PEGylated metal binding peptide (D-K122-4-PEG), derived from bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was applied on a titanium (Ti) alloy, and the corrosion resistance of the coated alloy specimen was investigated in simulated chloride-containing physiological fluids by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and micro-electrochemical measurements, surface characterization, and biocompatibility testing...
March 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258117/augmented-reality-in-bone-tumour-resection-an-experimental-study
#19
H S Cho, Y K Park, S Gupta, C Yoon, I Han, H-S Kim, H Choi, J Hong
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the accuracy of augmented reality (AR)-based navigation assistance through simulation of bone tumours in a pig femur model. METHODS: We developed an AR-based navigation system for bone tumour resection, which could be used on a tablet PC. To simulate a bone tumour in the pig femur, a cortical window was made in the diaphysis and bone cement was inserted. A total of 133 pig femurs were used and tumour resection was simulated with AR-assisted resection (164 resection in 82 femurs, half by an orthropaedic oncology expert and half by an orthopaedic resident) and resection with the conventional method (82 resection in 41 femurs)...
March 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244929/can-a-novel-low-cost-simulation-model-be-used-to-teach-anterior-cruciate-ligament-graft-preparation
#20
Christopher M Brusalis, John Todd R Lawrence, Sheena C Ranade, Joy C Kerr, Nicholas Pulos, Lawrence Wells, Theodore J Ganley
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft preparation simulation learning model for use by orthopaedic surgery trainees. METHODS: A simulation model for ACL graft preparation was constructed using shoelace as graft material and a wooden graft preparation board that matched the dimensions of existing products. A 12-minute instructional video targeted at novice learners was created to accompany the simulation model. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted on orthopaedic surgery residents divided into 2 groups with equal distributions of postgraduate year (PGY) status...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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