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Simulation AND Virtual

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544316/negating-the-fulcrum-effect-in-manual-laparoscopic-surgery-investigating-skill-acquisition-with-a-haptic-simulator
#1
Adam J Spiers, Sarah Baillie, Tony G Pipe, George Asimakopolous
BACKGROUND: Manual laparoscopic surgery requires extensive training and familiarization. It has been suggested that motion inversion caused by the 'fulcrum effect' is key to motor challenges. We investigate the potential of a conceptual semi-robotic handheld tool that negates natural inversion. METHODS: A custom laparoscopic simulator with haptic feedback was developed to allow interactive evaluation of the conceptual tool via virtual prototyping, prior to fabricating a physical prototype...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542866/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-marbofloxacin-as-a-single-injection-for-pasteurellaceae-respiratory-infections-in-cattle-using-population-pharmacokinetics-and-monte-carlo-simulations
#2
A Paulin, M Schneider, F Dron, F Woehrle
Population pharmacokinetic of marbofloxacin was investigated with 52 plasma concentration-time profiles obtained after intramuscular administration of Forcyl® in cattle. Animal's status, pre-ruminant, ruminant, or dairy cow, was retained as a relevant covariate for clearance. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a stratification by status, and 1000 virtual disposition curves were generated in each bovine subpopulation for the recommended dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg as a single injection. The probability of target attainment (PTA) of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios associated with clinical efficacy and prevention of resistance was determined in each simulated subpopulation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541602/three-dimensional-printing-in-cardiology-current-applications-and-future-challenges
#3
Hongxing Luo, Jarosław Meyer-Szary, Zhongmin Wang, Robert Sabiniewicz, Yuhao Liu
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has attracted a huge interest in recent years. Broadly speaking, it refers to the technology which converts a predesigned virtual model to a touchable object. In clinical medicine, it usually converts a series of two-dimensional medical images acquired through computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or 3D echocardiography into a physical model. Medical 3D printing consists of three main steps: image acquisition, virtual reconstruction and 3D manufacturing. It is a promising tool for preoperative evaluation, medical device design, hemodynamic simulation and medical education, it is also likely to reduce operative risk and increase operative success...
May 25, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540452/can-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-use-virtual-reality-driving-simulation-training-to-evaluate-and-improve-driving-performance-an-exploratory-study
#4
Daniel J Cox, Timothy Brown, Veerle Ross, Matthew Moncrief, Rose Schmitt, Gary Gaffney, Ron Reeve
Investigate how novice drivers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) differ from experienced drivers and whether virtual reality driving simulation training (VRDST) improves ASD driving performance. 51 novice ASD drivers (mean age 17.96 years, 78% male) were randomized to routine training (RT) or one of three types of VRDST (8-12 sessions). All participants followed DMV behind-the-wheel training guidelines for earning a driver's license. Participants were assessed pre- and post-training for driving-specific executive function (EF) abilities and tactical driving skills...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539091/in-silico-identification-of-potential-drug-compound-against-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-by-virtual-screening-and-toxicity-studies-for-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#5
Smrita Singh, Aparajita Mohanty
Diabetic Nephropathy is a serious complication of Diabetes Mellitus. Current therapeutic strategies of Diabetic Nephropathy are based on control of modifiable risks like hypertension, glucose levels, and dyslipidemia. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is implicated in several metabolic syndromes including Diabetic Nephropathy, besides obesity, insulin insensitivity, dislipidemia, inflammation and hypertension. In the present study, virtual screening of 617 compounds from two different public databases was done against PPAR- γ with an objective to find a possible lead compound...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538573/pursuing-mirror-image-reconstruction-in-unilateral-microtia-customizing-auricular-framework-by-application-of-three-dimensional-imaging-and-three-dimensional-printing
#6
Hsin-Yu Chen, Li-Shia Ng, Chun-Shin Chang, Ting-Chen Lu, Ning-Hung Chen, Zung-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Advances in three-dimensional imaging and three-dimensional printing technology have expanded the frontier of presurgical design for microtia reconstruction from two-dimensional curved lines to three-dimensional perspectives. This study presents an algorithm for combining three-dimensional surface imaging, computer-assisted design, and three-dimensional printing to create patient-specific auricular frameworks in unilateral microtia reconstruction. METHODS: Between January of 2015 and January of 2016, six patients with unilateral microtia were enrolled...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537779/simulation-model-for-laparoscopic-foregut-surgery-the-university-of-north-carolina-foregut-model
#7
Francisco Schlottmann, Neal S Murty, Marco G Patti
BACKGROUND: A significant gap presently exists between box-lap and virtual-reality simulators and live surgery. Live animal and cadaver use has significant downsides. We have developed a high fidelity, real tissue simulator that allows training in laparoscopic foregut operations. METHODS: Our foregut surgery model is based on porcine tissue blocks that include lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus, diaphragm, stomach, duodenum, liver, and spleen. The tissue block is mounted in a human mannequin and perfused with artificial blood...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534731/speech-recognition-in-nonnative-versus-native-english-speaking-college-students-in-a-virtual-classroom
#8
Dorothy Neave-DiToro, Adrienne Rubinstein, Arlene C Neuman
BACKGROUND: Limited attention has been given to the effects of classroom acoustics at the college level. Many studies have reported that nonnative speakers of English are more likely to be affected by poor room acoustics than native speakers. An important question is how classroom acoustics affect speech perception of nonnative college students. PURPOSE: The combined effect of noise and reverberation on the speech recognition performance of college students who differ in age of English acquisition was evaluated under conditions simulating classrooms with reverberation times (RTs) close to ANSI recommended RTs...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534312/evaluation-of-a-novel-multi-articulated-endoscope-proof-of-concept-through-a-virtual-simulation
#9
Tuukka Karvonen, Yusuke Muranishi, Goshiro Yamamoto, Tomohiro Kuroda, Toshihiko Sato
PURPOSE: In endoscopic surgery such as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and laparoscopic surgery, providing the surgeon a good view of the target is important. Rigid endoscope has for years been the go-to tool for this purpose, but it has certain limitations like the inability to work around obstacles. To improve on current tools, a novel multi-articulated endoscope (MAE) is currently under development. To investigate its feasibility and possible value, we performed a user test using virtual prototype of the MAE with the intent to show that it outperforms the conventional endoscope while bringing minimal additional burden to the operator...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534081/power-of-pedigree-likelihood-analysis-in-extended-pedigrees-to-classify-rare-variants-of-uncertain-significance-in-cancer-risk-genes
#10
Elisabeth A Rosenthal, John Michael O Ranola, Brian H Shirts
Rare and private variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are routinely identified in clinical panel, exome, and genome sequencing. We investigated the power of single family co-segregation analysis to aid classification of VUS. We simulated thousands of pedigrees using demographics in China and the United States, segregating benign and pathogenic variants. Genotypes and phenotypes were simulated using penetrance models for Lynch syndrome and breast/ovarian cancer. We calculated LOD scores adjusted for proband ascertainment (LODadj), to determine power to yield quantitative evidence for, or against, pathogenicity of the VUS...
May 22, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534025/atrial-fibrillation-dynamics-and-ionic-block-effects-in-six-heterogeneous-human-3d-virtual-atria-with-distinct-repolarization-dynamics
#11
Carlos Sánchez, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Esther Pueyo, Blanca Rodríguez
Atrial fibrillation (AF) usually manifests as reentrant circuits propagating through the whole atria creating chaotic activation patterns. Little is yet known about how differences in electrophysiological and ionic properties between patients modulate reentrant patterns in AF. The goal of this study is to quantify how variability in action potential duration (APD) at different stages of repolarization determines AF dynamics and their modulation by ionic block using a set of virtual whole-atria human models...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531373/identification-of-potential-inhibitors-for-hcv-ns3-genotype-4a-by-combining-protein-ligand-interaction-fingerprint-3d-pharmacophore-docking-and-dynamic-simulation
#12
Mahmoud Abd El-Monem El-Hasab, Eman Esmat El-Bastawissy, Tarek Faathy El-Moselhy
HCV NS3 protease domain has been one of the most attractive targets for developing new drugs for HCV infection and many drugs were successfully developed, but all of them were designed for targeting HCV genotype 1 infection. HCV genotype 4a dominant in Egypt has paid less attention. Here we describe our protocol of virtual screening in identification of novel potential potent inhibitors for HCV NS3 of genotype 4a using homology modelling, PLIF (protein ligand interaction fingerprint), docking, pharmacophore and dynamic simulation...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531127/virtual-lattice-based-intrusion-detection-algorithm-over-actuator-assisted-underwater-wireless-sensor-networks
#13
Jing Yan, Xiaolei Li, Xiaoyuan Luo, Xinping Guan
Due to the lack of a physical line of defense, intrusion detection becomes one of the key issues in applications of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), especially when the confidentiality has prime importance. However, the resource-constrained property of UWSNs such as sparse deployment and energy constraint makes intrusion detection a challenging issue. This paper considers a virtual-lattice-based approach to the intrusion detection problem in UWSNs. Different from most existing works, the UWSNs consist of two kinds of nodes, i...
May 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529634/novel-linear-peptides-with-high-affinity-to-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-for-precise-tumor-identification
#14
Yi Ma, Guanhua Ai, Congying Zhang, Menglu Zhao, Xue Dong, Zhihao Han, Zhaohui Wang, Min Zhang, Yuxi Liu, Weidong Gao, Siwen Li, Yueqing Gu
Development of alternative linear peptides for targeting αvβ3 integrin has attracted much attention, as the traditional peptide ligand, cyclic RGD, is limited by inferior water-solubility and complex synthesis. Using pharmacophore-based virtual screening and high-throughput molecular docking, we identified two novel linear small peptides RWr and RWrNM with high affinity and specificity to αvβ3 integrin. The competitive binding with cyclic RGD (c(RGDyK)) and cellular uptake related to the integrin expression levels verified their affinity to αvβ3 integrin...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529102/comparative-study-of-three-kinds-of-fibula-cutting-guides-in-reshaping-fibula-for-the-reconstruction-of-mandible-an-accuracy-simulation-study-in%C3%A2-vitro
#15
Zhiwei Dong, Bei Li, Rui Xie, Qin Wu, Li Zhang, Shizhu Bai
OBJECTIVES: In order to get predictable reassembling and higher accuracy in the reconstruction of the mandible, we designed three kinds of fibula cutting guides: (1) Two-edge wide groove guide (WGG); (2) Two-edge narrow groove guide (NGG); and (3) One-edge guide (OEG). The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of fibula remodelling using the three kinds of fibula cutting guides above in a simulation procedure in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cutting and reshaping of fibula analogs were guided by the three kinds of guides mentioned above...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529084/toward-virtual-simulation-for-parents-of-children-with-asthma
#16
David Drummond, Eleonora Fabbro, Antoine Tesnière, Alice Hadchouel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528016/the-influence-of-humeral-neck-shaft-angle-and-glenoid-lateralization-on-range-of-motion-in-reverse-shoulder-arthroplasty
#17
Birgit S Werner, Jean Chaoui, Gilles Walch
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) have focused on changes in several design-related parameters, including humeral component design, to allow for easier convertibility. Alterations in humeral inclination and offset on shoulder kinematics may have a relevant influence on postoperative outcome. This study used a virtual computer simulation to evaluate the influence of humeral neck shaft angle and glenoid lateralization on range of motion in onlay design RSA...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524798/revisiting-the-rules-for-freehand-ventriculostomy-a-virtual-reality-analysis
#18
Clemens Raabe, Jens Fichtner, Jürgen Beck, Jan Gralla, Andreas Raabe
OBJECTIVE Frontal ventriculostomy is one of the most frequent and standardized procedures in neurosurgery. However, many first and subsequent punctures miss the target, and suboptimal placement or misplacement of the catheter is common. The authors therefore reexamined the landmarks and rules to determine the entry point and trajectory with the best hit rate (HtR). METHODS The authors randomly selected CT scans from their institution's DICOM pool that had been obtained in 50 patients with normal ventricular and skull anatomy and without ventricular puncture...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523743/applying-lessons-from-social-psychology-to-transform-the-culture-of-error-disclosure
#19
Jason Han, Denise LaMarra, Neha Vapiwala
CONTEXT: The ability to carry out prompt and effective error disclosure has been described in the literature as an essential skill among physicians that can lead to improved patient satisfaction, staff well-being and hospital outcomes. However, few studies have addressed the social psychology principles that may influence physician behaviour. METHODS: The authors provide an overview of recent administrative measures designed to encourage physicians to disclose error, but note that deliberate practice, buttressed with lessons from social psychology, is needed to implement further productive behavioural changes...
May 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523006/virtual-plant-tissue-building-blocks-for-next-generation-plant-growth-simulation
#20
Dirk De Vos, Abdiravuf Dzhurakhalov, Sean Stijven, Przemyslaw Klosiewicz, Gerrit T S Beemster, Jan Broeckhove
Motivation: Computational modeling of plant developmental processes is becoming increasingly important. Cellular resolution plant tissue simulators have been developed, yet they are typically describing physiological processes in an isolated way, strongly delimited in space and time. Results: With plant systems biology moving toward an integrative perspective on development we have built the Virtual Plant Tissue (VPTissue) package to couple functional modules or models in the same framework and across different frameworks...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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