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Simulation AND Virtual

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925741/ultratransparent-media-and-transformation-optics-with-shifted-spatial-dispersions
#1
Jie Luo, Yuting Yang, Zhongqi Yao, Weixin Lu, Bo Hou, Zhi Hong Hang, C T Chan, Yun Lai
By using pure dielectric photonic crystals, we demonstrate the realization of ultratransparent media, which allow near 100% transmission of light for all incident angles and create aberration-free virtual images. The ultratransparency effect is well explained by spatially dispersive effective medium theory for photonic crystals, and verified by both simulations and proof-of-principle microwave experiments. Designed with shifted elliptical equal frequency contours, such ultratransparent media not only provide a low-loss and feasible platform for transformation optics devices at optical frequencies, but also enable new freedom for phase manipulation beyond the local medium framework...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925649/the-predictive-value-of-ultrasound-learning-curves-across-simulated-and-clinical-settings
#2
Mette E Madsen, Lone N Nørgaard, Ann Tabor, Lars Konge, Charlotte Ringsted, Martin G Tolsgaard
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether learning curves on a virtual-reality (VR) sonographic simulator can be used to predict subsequent learning curves on a physical mannequin and learning curves during clinical training. METHODS: Twenty midwives completed a simulation-based training program in transvaginal sonography. The training was conducted on a VR simulator as well as on a physical mannequin. A subgroup of 6 participants underwent subsequent clinical training...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924680/atomic-insight-into-designed-carbamate-based-derivatives-as-acetylcholine-esterase-ache-inhibitors-a-computational-study-by-multiple-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#3
Tecush Mohammadi, Yousef Ghayeb
Over 100 variants have been designed and studied, using multiple docking methods such as Autodock Vina, ArgusLab, Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD), and Hex-Cuda, to study the effect of alteration in the structure of carbamate based acetylcholyne esterase (AChE) inhibitors. 16 selected systems were then subjected to 14 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Results from all the docking methods are in agreement. Variants that involved biphenyl substituents possess the most negative binding energies in the -37.64 to -39...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924276/mypresto-omegagene-a-gpu-accelerated-molecular-dynamics-simulator-tailored-for-enhanced-conformational-sampling-methods-with-a-non-ewald-electrostatic-scheme
#4
Kota Kasahara, Benson Ma, Kota Goto, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Junichi Higo, Ikuo Fukuda, Tadaaki Mashimo, Yutaka Akiyama, Haruki Nakamura
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a promising computational approach to investigate dynamical behavior of molecular systems at the atomic level. Here, we present a new MD simulation engine named "myPresto/omegagene" that is tailored for enhanced conformational sampling methods with a non-Ewald electrostatic potential scheme. Our enhanced conformational sampling methods, e.g., the virtual-system-coupled multi-canonical MD (V-McMD) method, replace a multi-process parallelized run with multiple independent runs to avoid inter-node communication overhead...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922735/virtual-cell-imaging-a-review-on-simulation-methods-employed-in-image-cytometry
#5
REVIEW
Vladimír Ulman, David Svoboda, Matti Nykter, Michal Kozubek, Pekka Ruusuvuori
The simulations of cells and microscope images thereof have been used to facilitate the development, selection, and validation of image analysis algorithms employed in cytometry as well as for modeling and understanding cell structure and dynamics beyond what is visible in the eyepiece. The simulation approaches vary from simple parametric models of specific cell components-especially shapes of cells and cell nuclei-to learning-based synthesis and multi-stage simulation models for complex scenes that simultaneously visualize multiple object types and incorporate various properties of the imaged objects and laws of image formation...
December 6, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920524/monte-carlo-simulations-guided-by-imaging-to-predict-the-in-vitro-ranking-of-radiosensitizing-nanoparticles
#6
Paul Retif, Aurélie Reinhard, Héna Paquot, Valérie Jouan-Hureaux, Alicia Chateau, Lucie Sancey, Muriel Barberi-Heyob, Sophie Pinel, Thierry Bastogne
This article addresses the in silico-in vitro prediction issue of organometallic nanoparticles (NPs)-based radiosensitization enhancement. The goal was to carry out computational experiments to quickly identify efficient nanostructures and then to preferentially select the most promising ones for the subsequent in vivo studies. To this aim, this interdisciplinary article introduces a new theoretical Monte Carlo computational ranking method and tests it using 3 different organometallic NPs in terms of size and composition...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918689/vertical-jump-biomechanics-altered-with-virtual-overhead-goal
#7
Kevin R Ford, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Eric J Hegedus, Jeffrey B Taylor
Virtual environments with real-time feedback can simulate extrinsic goals that mimic real life conditions. The purpose was to compare jump performance and biomechanics with a physical overhead goal (POG) and with a virtual overhead goal (VOG). Fourteen female subjects participated (age: 18.8±1.1 years, height: 163.2±8.1 cm, weight 63.0±7.9 kg). Sagittal plane trunk, hip, and knee biomechanics were calculated during the landing and take-off phases of DVJ with different goal conditions. Repeated measures ANOVAs determined differences between goal conditions...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917367/the-role-of-interaction-model-in-simulation-of-drug-interactions-and-qt-prolongation
#8
REVIEW
Barbara Wiśniowska, Sebastian Polak
Computational modelling is a cornerstone of Comprehensive In Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay and is re-increasingly being used in drug development. Electrophysiological effects of drug-drug interactions can be predicted in silico, e.g. with the use of in vitro cardiac ion channel data, PK profiles and human ventricular cardiomyocyte models. There are, however, several approaches with different assumptions used to assess the combined effect of multiple drugs, and there is no agreed standard interaction model. The aim of this study was to assess whether the choice of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) model (Bliss independence, Loewe additivity, or simple sum) influences the results of QT interval simulation trial...
2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916634/lateral-heterogeneity-of-the-proton-potential-along-the-thylakoid-membranes-of-chloroplasts
#9
Alexey V Vershubskii, Boris V Trubitsin, Vladimir I Priklonskii, Alexander N Tikhonov
This work is devoted to critical analysis and reexamination of the problem of lateral heterogeneity of the trans-thylakoid pH difference (ΔpH=pHout-pHin) in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Correct measurements of ΔpH may be complicated by nonuniform partitioning of the protons pumped into the lumen of granal (stacked) and stroma-exposed thylakoids. We have compared results of ΔpH estimations in isolated bean chloroplasts by two different methods. One of the methods is based on the use of pH-sensitive spin-probes...
December 1, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913617/evaluating-sequence-based-genomic-prediction-with-an-efficient-new-simulator
#10
Miguel Pérez-Enciso, Natalia Forneris, Gustavo de Los Campos, Andrés Legarra
The vast amount of sequence data to analyze complex traits is posing new challenges in terms of analysis and interpretation of the results. Although simulation is a fundamental tool to investigate the reliability of genomic analyses and to optimize experimental design, existing software cannot simulate complete genomes realistically. To remedy this, we have developed a new strategy (Sequence Based Virtual Breeding, SBVB) that consists of using real sequence data and simulating new offspring genomes and phenotypes in a very efficient and flexible manner...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913265/hearing-preservation-during-anterior-petrosectomy-the-cochlear-safety-line
#11
Xiaoming Guo, Halima Tabani, Dylan Griswold, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Jose Juan Gonzalez Sanchez, Michael T Lawton, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: Identification and protection of the cochlea during anterior petrosectomy is key to prevent hearing loss. Currently, there is no optimal method to infer the position of the cochlea in relation to the Kawase quadrangle, therefore damage to the cochlea during anterior petrosectomy remains a substantial risk. OBJECTIVES: To identify and define landmarks available during anterior petrosectomy to locate the cochlea and prevent its damage. METHODS: Kawase approach was simulated in eleven specimens...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912878/selecting-optimum-protein-nano-carriers-for-natural-polyphenols-using-chemoinformatics-tools
#12
AbdelKader A Metwally, Sherweit H El-Ahmady, Rania M Hathout
BACKGROUND: The normal fate of any natural product with a therapeutic potential is to be formulated into an effective medicine. However, the conventional methods of selecting the suitable formulations or carriers based on the formulator experiences, trials and errors as well as materials availability do not usually yield the optimal results. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize the possibility of the virtual optimum selection of a protein carrier for two polyphenolic compounds widely investigated for their chemopreventive effects; resveratrol and curcumin using a combination of some chemoinformatics tools...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911234/ventriculostomy-associated-hemorrhage-a-risk-assessment-by-radiographic-simulation
#13
Faith C Robertson, Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Srinivasan Mukundan, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Ventriculostomy entry sites are commonly selected by freehand estimation of Kocher's point or approximations from skull landmarks and a trajectory toward the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. A recognized ventriculostomy complication is intracranial hemorrhage from cortical vessel damage; reported rates range from 1% to 41%. In this report, the authors assess hemorrhagic risk by simulating traditional ventriculostomy trajectories and using CT angiography (CTA) with venography (CTV) data to identify potential complications, specifically from cortical draining veins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909833/verification-of-a-virtual-fields-method-to-extract-the-mechanical-properties-of-human-optic-nerve-head-tissues-in-vivo
#14
Liang Zhang, Sri Gowtham Thakku, Meghna R Beotra, Mani Baskaran, Tin Aung, James C H Goh, Nicholas G Strouthidis, Michael J A Girard
We aimed to verify a custom virtual fields method (VFM) to estimate the patient-specific biomechanical properties of human optic nerve head (ONH) tissues, given their full-field deformations induced by intraocular pressure (IOP). To verify the accuracy of VFM, we first generated 'artificial' ONH displacements from predetermined (known) ONH tissue biomechanical properties using finite element analysis. Using such deformations, if we are able to match back the known biomechanical properties, it would indicate that our VFM technique is accurate...
December 1, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908072/perceptual-attributes-for-the-comparison-of-head-related-transfer-functions
#15
Laurent S R Simon, Nick Zacharov, Brian F G Katz
The benefit of using individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) in binaural audio is well documented with regards to improving localization precision. However, with the increased use of binaural audio in more complex scene renderings, cognitive studies, and virtual and augmented reality simulations, the perceptual impact of HRTF selection may go beyond simple localization. In this study, the authors develop a list of attributes which qualify the perceived differences between HRTFs, providing a qualitative understanding of the perceptual variance of non-individual binaural renderings...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906468/optimal-timing-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-patients-on-the-liver-transplant-waiting-list
#16
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Sumeyye Samur, Brian Kues, Turgay Ayer, Mark S Roberts, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Drew Michael S Donnell, Raymond T Chung
: The availability of oral direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) has altered the hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment paradigm for both pre- and post-liver transplant (LT) patients. There is a perceived trade-off between pre- versus post-LT treatment of HCV-treatment may improve liver function but potentially decrease the likelihood of a necessary LT. Our objective was to identify LT-eligible patients with decompensated cirrhosis who would benefit (and not benefit) from pre-LT treatment based on their MELD scores...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906372/depth-based-refocusing-for-reducing-directional-aliasing-artifacts
#17
Ensun Lee, Seohee Yang, Miseon Han, Jeongtae Kim
We investigate a depth-based refocusing method using four-dimensional (4D) light field data, which can reduce directional aliasing artifacts in a refocused image. Unlike conventional filtering-based methods, the proposed method estimates the amount of aliasing artifacts using the disparity information between two neighboring views. It then applies an exact smoothing operation to the refocused image in order to remove the aliasing artifacts. By doing that, the proposed method is able to generate a smoothly blurred image in the out-of-focus region and a sharp image in the focused region...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905167/preoperative-surgical-simulation-and-validation-of-the-line-of-resection-in-anterolateral-craniofacial-resection-of-advanced-sinonasal-sinus-carcinoma
#18
Naoki Nishio, Masazumi Fujii, Yuichiro Hayashi, Mariko Hiramatsu, Takashi Maruo, Kenichiro Iwami, Yuzuru Kamei, Shunjiro Yagi, Keisuke Takanari, Yasushi Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness and accuracy of preoperative 3D virtual simulation of anterolateral craniofacial resection in cases of advanced sinonasal sinus carcinoma. METHODS: Seven patients with advanced (T4 classification) sinonasal sinus carcinoma who underwent anterolateral craniofacial resection in our hospital between 2011 and 2013 were included in this study. Postsimulation CT images were fused with postoperative CT images and differences between the planned and actual osteotomy were measured in 3 regions of the skull base...
December 1, 2016: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904980/a-resolved-two-way-coupled-cfd-6-dof-approach-for-predicting-embolus-transport-and-the-embolus-trapping-efficiency-of-ivc-filters
#19
Kenneth I Aycock, Robert L Campbell, Keefe B Manning, Brent A Craven
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are medical devices designed to provide a mechanical barrier to the passage of emboli from the deep veins of the legs to the heart and lungs. Despite decades of development and clinical use, IVC filters still fail to prevent the passage of all hazardous emboli. The objective of this study is to (1) develop a resolved two-way computational model of embolus transport, (2) provide verification and validation evidence for the model, and (3) demonstrate the ability of the model to predict the embolus-trapping efficiency of an IVC filter...
November 30, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898369/training-the-elderly-in-pedestrian-safety-transfer-effect-between-two-virtual-reality-simulation-devices
#20
Pauline Maillot, Aurélie Dommes, Nguyen-Thong Dang, Fabrice Vienne
OBJECTIVES: A virtual-reality training program has been developed to help older pedestrians make safer street-crossing decisions in two-way traffic situations. The aim was to develop a small-scale affordable and transportable simulation device that allowed transferring effects to a full-scale device involving actual walking. METHODS: 20 younger adults and 40 older participants first participated in a pre-test phase to assess their street crossings using both full-scale and small-scale simulation devices...
November 26, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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