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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036093/simulating-real-world-scenes-viewed-through-ophthalmic-lenses
#1
Sergio Barbero, Javier Portilla
We present a comprehensive procedure to simulate real-world scenes viewed through ophthalmic lenses. Such a method enables us to anticipate the effects on image formation of the following combined undesired optical defects typically found in ophthalmic lenses: blur, distortion, and chromatic aberration. Additionally, it helps in comparing the expected scenes seen with different lens designs. The procedure is based on the following steps: (1) to calculate the distortion and local dioptric matrix associated with a set of different gaze directions; (2) to estimate point spread functions (PSF) associated with these matrices; (3) to compute the joint action of distortion, chromatic aberration, and PSF field on the scenes...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035238/neuroadaptive-control-of-strict-feedback-systems-with-full-state-constraints-and-unknown-actuation-characteristics-an-inexpensive-solution
#2
Yongduan Song, Ziyun Shen, Liu He, Xiucai Huang
In this paper, we present a neuroadaptive control for a class of uncertain nonlinear strict-feedback systems with full-state constraints and unknown actuation characteristics where the break points of the dead-zone model are considered as time-variant. In order to deal with the modeling uncertainties and the impact of the nonsmooth actuation characteristics, neural networks are utilized at each step of the backstepping design. By using barrier Lyapunov function, together with the concept of virtual parameter, we develop a neuroadaptive control scheme ensuring tracking stability and at the same time maintaining full-state constraints...
October 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034770/association-with-polymorphic-marmoset-cytochrome-p450-2c19-of-in-vivo-hepatic-clearances-of-chirally-separated-r-omeprazole-and-s-warfarin-using-individual-marmoset-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-models
#3
Takashi Kusama, Akiko Toda, Makiko Shimizu, Shotaro Uehara, Takashi Inoue, Yasuhiro Uno, Masahiro Utoh, Erika Sasaki, Hiroshi Yamazaki
1. Simulated clearances of R-warfarin and efavirenz were recently reported for individual cynomolgus monkeys genotyped for cytochrome P450 2C19 and 2C9, respectively. To expand and verify this modeling procedure, simulations of R/S-omeprazole and R/S-warfarin clearances after oral administrations in individual marmosets were performed using individual simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling consisting of gut, liver, and central compartments. 2. Pharmacokinetics of R/S-omeprazole were chirally determined using the previously reported plasma microsamples in this study...
October 16, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032887/virtual-simulation-in-enhancing-procedural-training-for-fluoroscopy-guided-lumbar-puncture-a-pilot-study
#4
Saad Ali, Monther Qandeel, Rishi Ramakrishna, Carina W Yang
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Fluoroscopy-guided lumbar puncture (FGLP) is a basic procedural component of radiology residency and neuroradiology fellowship training. Performance of the procedure with limited experience is associated with increased patient discomfort as well as increased radiation dose, puncture attempts, and complication rate. Simulation in health care is a developing field that has potential for enhancing procedural training. We demonstrate the design and utility of a virtual reality simulator for performing FGLP...
October 9, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032800/haemodynamic-effects-of-incomplete-stent-apposition-in-curved-coronary-arteries
#5
Winson X Chen, Eric K W Poon, Vikas Thondapu, Nicholas Hutchins, Peter Barlis, Andrew Ooi
Incomplete stent apposition (ISA, also known as malapposition) is a complication that affects day-to-day coronary stenting procedures. ISA is more prominent in complex arterial geometries, such as curvature, asa result of the limited conformability of coronary stents. These malapposed struts disturb the otherwise near-wall laminar blood flow and form a micro-recirculation environment. The micro-recirculation environment is often associated with low wall shear stress (WSS) and upsets the delicate balance of vascular biology, providing possible nidus for thrombosis and restenosis...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031529/enhanced-surgical-outcomes-in-patients-with-skeletal-class-iii-facial-asymmetry-by-3-dimensional-surgical-simulation
#6
Ellen Wen-Ching Ko, Cheng-Hui Lin, Ying-An Chen, Yu-Ray Chen
PURPOSE: With the advance of image fusion techniques, the creation of 3-dimensional (3D) virtual head and 3D surgical simulations has provided previews of surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes in patients receiving orthognathic surgery (OGS) with the guidance of 3D computer-assisted surgical simulation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 34 consecutive patients (15 men and 19 women; age, 18.1 to 33.0 yr) with skeletal Class III facial asymmetry who underwent bimaxillary OGS...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030753/successful-implementation-of-virtual-environment-for-radiotherapy-training-vert-in-medical-physics-education-the-university-of-sydney-s-initial-experience-and-recommendations
#7
Yobelli A Jimenez, Christian Rønn Hansen, Prabhjot Juneja, David I Thwaites
This report outlines the University of Sydney's initial experience with the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system in the Master of Medical Physics program. VERT is a commercially available system, simulating linear accelerators, patient computed tomography (CT) sets, plans and treatment delivery. It was purpose built for radiation therapy (RT) education and offers learners the opportunity to gain knowledge and skills within an interactive, risk-free environment. The integration of VERT into the RT physics module of the Master of Medical Physics program was intended to enhance student knowledge and skills relevant to the curriculum's learning objectives, and to alleviate some of the burden associated with student access to clinical equipment...
October 13, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029597/identification-of-novel-natural-inhibitors-of-opisthorchis-felineus-cytochrome-p450-using-structure-based-screening-and-molecular-dynamic-simulation
#8
Rohit Shukla, Purna B Chetri, Amit Sonkar, Maria Y Pakharukova, Viatcheslav A Mordvinov, Timir Tripathi
Opisthorchis felineusis the etiological agent of opisthorchiasis in humans. O. felineus cytochrome P450(OfCYP450) is an important enzyme in the parasite xenobioticmetabolism. To identify the potential anti-opisthorchid compound, we conducted a structure-based virtual screening of natural compounds from the ZINC database (n= 1,65,869) against the OfCYP450. The ligandswere screenedagainst OfCYP450 in four sequential docking modes that resulted in 361 ligands having better docking score. These compounds were evaluated for Lipinski and ADMET prediction, and 10 compounds were found to fit well with re-docking studies...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028212/a-novel-error-compensation-control-for-a-class-of-high-order-nonlinear-systems-with-input-delay
#9
Chao Shi, Zongcheng Liu, Xinmin Dong, Yong Chen
A novel tracking error-compensation-based adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for a class of high-order nonlinear systems with completely unknown nonlinearities and input delay. In the tracking errors of existing papers, there exist the following difficulties: first, output curve always lags behind the desired trajectory, second, some big peak errors cause a decrease in tracking precision, and third, a big initial value of the modified tracking error can make the closed-loop system unstable. To tackle them, three corresponding error-compensation terms are constructed, including a prediction and compensation term, an auxiliary signal produced by the constructed auxiliary system, and a damping term...
October 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027808/measuring-the-attitudes-of-novice-drivers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-as-an-indication-of-apprehensive-driving-going-beyond-basic-abilities
#10
Veerle Ross, Daniel J Cox, Ron Reeve, Timothy Brown, Matthew Moncrief, Rose Schmitt, Gary Gaffney
For some individuals with autism spectrum disorder, driving apprehension may interfere with the acquisition and application of driving privileges. The Driving Attitude Scale Parent-Report provides an indication of novice drivers' positive and negative attitudes toward driving. Responses were compared for parents of 66 autism spectrum disorder and 166 neuro-typical novice drivers. After the autism spectrum disorder drivers completed 3 months of driver training, 60 parents repeated the Driving Attitude Scale Parent-Report...
October 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027586/computational-simulation-study-on-ilio-sacral-screw-fixations-for-pelvic-ring-injuries-and-implications-in-asian-sacrum
#11
Chang-Soo Chon, Jin-Hoon Jeong, Bokku Kang, Han Sung Kim, Gu-Hee Jung
OBJECTIVES: Despite a high possibility of technique-related complications, ilio-sacral (IS) screw fixation is the mainstay of operative management in posterior pelvic ring injuries. We aimed to make IS screw trajectory with fully intraosseous path that was optimal and consistent, and confirm the possibility of transiliac-transsacral (TITS) screw fixation in Asian sacrum. METHODS: Eighty-two cadaveric sacra (42 males and 40 females) were enrolled and underwent continuous 1...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023614/virtual-simulation-of-periodontal-surgery-including-presurgical-cad-cam-fabrication-of-tooth-colored-removable-splints-on-the-basis-of-cbct-data-a-case-report
#12
Jan-Frederik Güth, Ana Elisa Colle Kauling, Josef Schweiger, Jan Kühnisch, Michael Stimmelmayr
Innovative digital diagnostic, design, and manufacturing technologies combined with high-performance polymers offer new possibilities to facilitate complex interdisciplinary treatment procedures. This article reports on the interaction of different digital technologies, from presurgical digital simulation of periodontal surgery to final prosthodontic rehabilitation, in a case of amelogenesis imperfecta in a 17-year-old girl. The aim was to digitally determine the treatment outcome by three-dimensional simulation of the soft tissue removal and to create computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture tooth-colored splints before the clinical treatment...
November 2017: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023268/surgical-simulation-training-reduces-intraoperative-cataract-surgery-complications-among-residents
#13
Patrick C Staropoli, Ninel Z Gregori, Anna K Junk, Anat Galor, Raquel Goldhardt, Brian E Goldhagen, Wei Shi, William Feuer
INTRODUCTION: This retrospective consecutive case series examined whether training on a surgical simulator reduces intraoperative complication rates among novice ophthalmology residents learning cataract surgery. METHODS: Beginning July 2014, training on the Eyesi simulator became mandatory for novice postgraduate year 3 ophthalmology residents before live cataract surgery at our institution. Complication rates of the 11 simulator-trained residents (study group) were compared with their immediate 11 simulator-naive predecessors (comparison group)...
October 11, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021716/continuous-curvilinear-capsulorhexis-training-and-non-rhexis-related-vitreous-loss-the-specificity-of-virtual-reality-simulator-surgical-training-an-american-ophthalmological-society-thesis
#14
Colin A McCannel
PURPOSE: To assess the specificity of simulation-based virtual reality ophthalmic cataract surgery training on the Eyesi ophthalmic virtual reality surgical simulator, and test the hypothesis that microsurgical motor learning is highly specific. METHODS: Retrospective educational interventional case series. The rates of vitreous loss and retained lens material, and vitreous loss and retained lens material associated with an errant continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) were assessed among 1037 consecutive cataract surgeries performed during four consecutive academic years at a teaching hospital...
August 2017: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018791/a-novel-multiplayer-screen-based-simulation-experience-for-african-learners-improved-confidence-in-management-of-postpartum-hemorrhage
#15
Jeffrey M Taekman, Megan F Foureman, Fred Bulamba, Michael Steele, Emily Comstock, Andrew Kintu, Amy Mauritz, Adeyemi Olufolabi
INTRODUCTION: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains a global challenge, affecting thirteen million women each year. In addition, PPH is a leading cause of maternal mortality in Asia and Africa. In the U.S.A., care of critically ill patients is often practiced using mannequin-based simulation. Mannequin-based simulation presents challenges in global health, particularly in low- or middle-income countries. We developed a novel multiplayer screen-based simulation in a virtual world enabling the practice of team coordination with PPH...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018456/virtual-plants-need-water-too-functional-structural-root-system-models-in-the-context-of-drought-tolerance-breeding
#16
REVIEW
Adama Ndour, Vincent Vadez, Christophe Pradal, Mikaël Lucas
Developing a sustainable agricultural model is one of the great challenges of the coming years. The agricultural practices inherited from the Green Revolution of the 1960s show their limits today, and new paradigms need to be explored to counter rising issues such as the multiplication of climate-change related drought episodes. Two such new paradigms are the use of functional-structural plant models to complement and rationalize breeding approaches and a renewed focus on root systems as untapped sources of plant amelioration...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018320/virtual-balancing-for-studying-and-training-postural-control
#17
Daniela Buettner, Daniela Dalin, Isabella K Wiesmeier, Christoph Maurer
Postural control during free stance has been frequently interpreted in terms of balancing an inverted pendulum. This even holds, if subjects do not balance their own, but an external body weight. We introduce here a virtual balancing apparatus, which produces torque in the ankle joint as a function of ankle angle resembling the gravity and inertial effects of free standing. As a first aim of this study, we systematically modified gravity, damping, and inertia to examine its effect on postural control beyond the physical constraints given in the real world...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994720/augmented-reality-as-a-telemedicine-platform-for-remote-procedural-training
#18
Shiyao Wang, Michael Parsons, Jordan Stone-McLean, Peter Rogers, Sarah Boyd, Kristopher Hoover, Oscar Meruvia-Pastor, Minglun Gong, Andrew Smith
Traditionally, rural areas in many countries are limited by a lack of access to health care due to the inherent challenges associated with recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals. Telemedicine, which uses communication technology to deliver medical services over distance, is an economical and potentially effective way to address this problem. In this research, we develop a new telepresence application using an Augmented Reality (AR) system. We explore the use of the Microsoft HoloLens to facilitate and enhance remote medical training...
October 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994515/role-of-pelvic-ultrasound-simulation
#19
Sushila Arya, Zuber D Mulla, Sanja Kupesic Plavsic
BACKGROUND: Pelvic ultrasound is a critical diagnostic imaging tool in obstetrics and gynaecology. Training opportunities in transvaginal ultrasound have not kept pace with the demand among learners because of the increased complexity of modern ultrasound technology and duty-hour restrictions. Ultrasound simulation training has the potential to overcome this gap. Training opportunities in transvaginal ultrasound have not kept pace with the demand OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to determine the usefulness, applicability and attitudes toward pelvic ultrasound simulation training among residents, sonographers and practising doctors...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993301/using-a-uk-virtual-supermarket-to-examine-purchasing-behavior-across-different-income-groups-in-the-united-kingdom-development-and-feasibility-study
#20
Anja Mizdrak, Wilma Elzeline Waterlander, Mike Rayner, Peter Scarborough
BACKGROUND: The majority of food in the United Kingdom is purchased in supermarkets, and therefore, supermarket interventions provide an opportunity to improve diets. Randomized controlled trials are costly, time-consuming, and difficult to conduct in real stores. Alternative approaches of assessing the impact of supermarket interventions on food purchases are needed, especially with respect to assessing differential impacts on population subgroups. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the United Kingdom Virtual Supermarket (UKVS), a three-dimensional (3D) computer simulation of a supermarket, to measure food purchasing behavior across income groups...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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