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Simulation AND Virtual

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777394/biomechanical-impact-of-wrong-positioning-of-a-dedicated-stent-for-coronary-bifurcations-a-virtual-bench-testing-study
#1
Claudio Chiastra, Maik J Grundeken, Carlos Collet, Wei Wu, Joanna J Wykrzykowska, Giancarlo Pennati, Gabriele Dubini, Francesco Migliavacca
The treatment of coronary bifurcations is challenging for interventional cardiologists. The Tryton stent (Tryton Medical, Inc., USA) is one of the few devices specifically designed for coronary bifurcations that underwent large clinical trials. Although the manufacturer provides specific recommendations to position the stent in the bifurcation side branch (SB) according to four radio-opaque markers under angiographic guidance, wrong device positioning may accidentally occur. In this study, the virtual bench testing approach was used to investigate the impact of wrong positioning of the Tryton stent in coronary bifurcations in terms of geometrical and biomechanical criteria...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775968/in-silico-structure-prediction-and-inhibition-mechanism-studies-of-athda14-as-revealed-by-homology-modeling-docking-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#2
Ming-Lang Zhao, Wang Wang, Hu Nie, Sha-Sha Cao, Lin-Fang Du
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a significant role in the epigenetic mechanism by catalyzing deacetylation of lysine on histone in both animals and plants. HDACs involved in growth, development and response to stresses in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylase 14 (AtHDA14) is found to localize in the mitochondria and chloroplasts, and it involved in photosynthesis and melatonin biosynthesis. However, its mechanism of action was still unknowns so far. Therefore, in this study, we constructed AtHDA14 protein model using homology modeling method, validated using PROCHECK and presented using Ramachandran plots...
May 6, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774001/cognitive-motor-interference-in-an-ecologically-valid-street-crossing-scenario
#3
Christin Janouch, Uwe Drescher, Konstantin Wechsler, Mathias Haeger, Otmar Bock, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Laboratory-based research revealed that gait involves higher cognitive processes, leading to performance impairments when executed with a concurrent loading task. Deficits are especially pronounced in older adults. Theoretical approaches like the multiple resource model highlight the role of task similarity and associated attention distribution problems. It has been shown that in cases where these distribution problems are perceived relevant to participant's risk of falls, older adults prioritize gait and posture over the concurrent loading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771522/hydronium-ions-accompanying-buried-acidic-residues-lead-to-high-apparent-dielectric-constants-in-the-interior-of-proteins
#4
Xiongwu Wu, Bernard R Brooks
Internal ionizable groups are known to play important roles in protein functions. A mystery that has attracted decades of extensive experimental and theoretical studies is the apparent dielectric constants experienced by buried ionizable groups, which are much higher than values expected for protein interiors. Many interpretations have been proposed, such as water penetration, conformational relaxation, local unfolding, protein intrinsic backbone fluctuations, etc. However, these interpretations conflict with many experimental observations...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771238/on-the-direct-acquisition-of-beam-s-eye-view-images-in-mri-for-integration-with-external-beam-radiotherapy
#5
Keith Wachowicz, Brad Murray, B Gino Fallone
The recent interest in the integration of external beam radiotherapy with a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit offers the potential for real-time adaptive tumour tracking during radiation treatment. The tracking of large tumours which follow a rapid trajectory may best be served by the generation of a projection image from the perspective of the beam source, or "beam's eye view" (BEV). This type of image projection represents the path of the radiation beam, thus enabling rapid compensations for target translations, rotations and deformations, as well time-dependent critical structure avoidance...
May 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769436/viral-nanomechanics-with-a-virtual-atomic-force-microscope
#6
Maria Aznar, Sergi Roca-Bonet, David Reguera
One of the most important components of a virus is the protein shell or capsid 
 that encloses its genetic material. The main role of the capsid is to protect 
 the viral genome against external aggressions, facilitating its safe and 
 efficient encapsulation and delivery. As a consequence, viral capsids have 
 developed astonishing mechanical properties that are crucial for viral function. 
 These remarkable properties have started to be unveiled in single-virus 
 nanoindentation experiments, and are opening the door to the use of 
 viral-derived artificial nanocages for promising bio- and nano-technological 
 applications...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769434/virtual-reality-based-adaptive-dose-assessment-method-for-arbitrary-geometries-in-nuclear-facility-decommissioning
#7
Yong-Kuo Liu, Nan Chao, Hong Xia, Min-Jun Peng, Abiodun Ayodeji
This paper presents an improved and efficient virtual reality-based adaptive dose assessment method (VRBAM) applicable to the cutting and dismantling tasks in nuclear facility decommissioning. The method combines the modeling strength of virtual reality with the flexibility of adaptive technology. The initial geometry is designed with the three-dimensional computer-aided design tools, and a hybrid model composed of cuboids and a point-cloud is generated automatically according to the virtual model of the object...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769198/mathematical-modeling-predicts-response-to-chemotherapy-and-drug-combinations-in-ovarian-cancer
#8
Emilia Kozłowska, Anniina Färkkilä, Tuulia Vallius, Olli Carpén, Jukka Kemppainen, Seija Grénman, Rainer Lehtonen, Johanna Hynninen, Sakari Hietanen, Sampsa Hautaniemi
Platinum-based chemotherapy constitutes the backbone of clinical care in advanced solid cancers such as high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and has prolonged survival of millions of cancer patients. Most of these patients, however, become resistant to chemotherapy, which generally leads to a fatal refractory disease. We present a comprehensive stochastic mathematical model and simulator approach to describe platinum resistance and standard-of-care (SOC) therapy in HGSOC. We used pre- and post-treatment clinical data, including 18F-FDG-PET/CT images, to reliably estimate the model parameters and simulate "virtual HGSOC patients...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769058/efficacy-of-standardized-training-on-a-virtual-reality-simulator-to-advance-knee-and-shoulder-arthroscopic-motor-skills
#9
Stefan Rahm, Karl Wieser, David E Bauer, Felix Wa Waibel, Dominik C Meyer, Christian Gerber, Sandro F Fucentese
BACKGROUND: Most studies demonstrated, that training on a virtual reality based arthroscopy simulator leads to an improvement of technical skills in orthopaedic surgery. However, how long and what kind of training is optimal for young residents is unknown. In this study we tested the efficacy of a standardized, competency based training protocol on a validated virtual reality based knee- and shoulder arthroscopy simulator. METHODS: Twenty residents and five experts in arthroscopy were included...
May 16, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767453/optimizing-antimicrobial-peptide-dendrimers-in-chemical-space
#10
Thissa Siriwardena, Alice Capecchi, Bee-Ha Gan, Xian Jin, Runze He, Dengwen Wei, Lan Ma, Thilo Köhler, Christian van Delden, Sacha Javor, Jean-Louis Reymond
Here we used nearest neighbor searches in chemical space to improve the activity of antimicrobial peptide dendrimer (AMPD) G3KL and identified dendrimer T7 with an expanded activity range against Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Klebsiellae pneumoniae, increased serum stability and promising activity in an in vivo infection model against a multidrug resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii. Imaging, spectroscopic studies and a structural model from molecular dynamics simulations suggest that T7 acts by membrane disruption...
May 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764028/-application-of-3d-virtual-reality-technology-with-multi-modality-fusion-in-resection-of-glioma-located-in-central-sulcus-region
#11
T N Chen, X T Yin, X G Li, J Zhao, L Wang, N Mu, K Ma, K Huo, D Liu, B Y Gao, H Feng, F Li
Objective: To explore the clinical and teaching application value of virtual reality technology in preoperative planning and intraoperative guide of glioma located in central sulcus region. Method: Ten patients with glioma in the central sulcus region were proposed to surgical treatment. The neuro-imaging data, including CT, CTA, DSA, MRI, fMRI were input to 3dgo sczhry workstation for image fusion and 3D reconstruction. Spatial relationships between the lesions and the surrounding structures on the virtual reality image were obtained...
May 8, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763497/additively-manufactured-titanium-and-cobalt-chromium-implant-frameworks-fit-and-effect-of-ceramic-veneering
#12
Per Svanborg, Alf Eliasson, Victoria Stenport
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fit of additively manufactured cobalt-chromium and titanium and CNC-milled titanium frameworks before and after ceramic veneering. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten stone casts simulating an edentulous maxilla provided with six abutment analogs were produced. For each stone cast, one additively manufactured cobalt-chromium framework (AM CoCr) and one titanium framework (AM Ti) were fabricated. The fit was analyzed with a coordinate measuring machine in three dimensions (x, y, and z axes) using best-fit virtual matching of center point coordinates, before and after ceramic veneering...
May 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763464/directional-virtual-backbone-based-data-aggregation-scheme-for-wireless-visual-sensor-networks
#13
Jing Zhang, Shi-Jian Liu, Pei-Wei Tsai, Fu-Min Zou, Xiao-Rong Ji
Data gathering is a fundamental task in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). Features of directional antennas and the visual data make WVSNs more complex than the conventional Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The virtual backbone is a technique, which is capable of constructing clusters. The version associating with the aggregation operation is also referred to as the virtual backbone tree. In most of the existing literature, the main focus is on the efficiency brought by the construction of clusters that the existing methods neglect local-balance problems in general...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761826/computational-discovery-of-potent-drugs-to-improve-the-treatment-of-pyrazinamide-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mutants
#14
Manaswini Jagadeb, Surya N Rath, Avinash Sonawane
Emergence of multi-drug resistance tuberculosis has become a serious health problem globally. Accumulation of mutations in the drug target led to the development of multi-drug resistant mycobacterial strains that have made most of the conventional drugs ineffective. Hence, there is desperate need for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we focused on the analysis of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) PncA (pyrazinamidase) that is responsible for resistance against first-line anti-tuberculosis pyrazinamide (PZA) drug...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761352/examining-validity-evidence-for-a-simulation-based-assessment-tool-for-basic-robotic-surgical-skills
#15
Maria Cecilie Havemann, Torur Dalsgaard, Jette Led Sørensen, Kristin Røssaak, Steffen Brisling, Berit Jul Mosgaard, Claus Høgdall, Flemming Bjerrum
Increasing focus on patient safety makes it important to ensure surgical competency among surgeons before operating on patients. The objective was to gather validity evidence for a virtual-reality simulator test for robotic surgical skills and evaluate its potential as a training tool. Surgeons with varying experience in robotic surgery were recruited: novices (zero procedures), intermediates (1-50), experienced (> 50). Five experienced surgeons rated five exercises on the da Vinci Skills Simulator. Participants were tested using the five exercises...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761001/multiscale-nonlinear-microscopy-and-widefield-white-light-imaging-enables-rapid-histological-imaging-of-surgical-specimen-margins
#16
Michael G Giacomelli, Tadayuki Yoshitake, Lucas C Cahill, Hilde Vardeh, Liza M Quintana, Beverly E Faulkner-Jones, Jeff Brooker, James L Connolly, James G Fujimoto
The ability to histologically assess surgical specimens in real-time is a long-standing challenge in cancer surgery, including applications such as breast conserving therapy (BCT). Up to 40% of women treated with BCT for breast cancer require a repeat surgery due to postoperative histological findings of close or positive surgical margins using conventional formalin fixed paraffin embedded histology. Imaging technologies such as nonlinear microscopy (NLM), combined with exogenous fluorophores can rapidly provide virtual H&E imaging of surgical specimens without requiring microtome sectioning, facilitating intraoperative assessment of margin status...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759328/a-novel-applicator-design-for-intracavitary-brachytherapy-of-the-nasopharynx-simulated-reconstruction-image-guided-adaptive-brachytherapy-planning-and-dosimetry
#17
Warren R Bacorro, Ryan Anthony F Agas, Stellar Marie R Cabrera, Maureen R Bojador, Paolo G Sogono, Michael Benedict A Mejia, Teresa T Sy Ortin
PURPOSE: In nasopharyngeal cancer, brachytherapy is given as boost in primary treatment or as salvage for recurrent or persistent disease. The Rotterdam nasopharyngeal applicator (RNA) allows for suboptimal reduction of soft palate radiation dose, based on image-guided brachytherapy plans. Building on the RNA, we propose a novel design, the Benavides nasopharyngeal applicator (BNA). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The virtual BNA was reconstructed on two cases (one T1, one T2) previously treated with intracavitary brachytherapy using the RNA...
May 11, 2018: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758909/water-resources-conservation-and-nitrogen-pollution-reduction-under-global-food-trade-and-agricultural-intensification
#18
Wenfeng Liu, Hong Yang, Yu Liu, Matti Kummu, Arjen Y Hoekstra, Junguo Liu, Rainer Schulin
Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We simulated baseline conditions for the year 2000 and explored the impacts of an agricultural intensification scenario, in which low-input countries increase N and irrigation inputs to a greater extent than high-input countries...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758652/alternative-model-of-space-charge-limited-thermionic-current-flow-through-a-plasma
#19
M D Campanell
It is widely assumed that thermionic current flow through a plasma is limited by a "space-charge-limited" (SCL) cathode sheath that consumes the hot cathode's negative bias and accelerates upstream ions into the cathode. Here, we formulate a fundamentally different current-limited mode. In the "inverse" mode, the potentials of both electrodes are above the plasma potential, so that the plasma ions are confined. The bias is consumed by the anode sheath. There is no potential gradient in the neutral plasma region from resistivity or presheath...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758016/a-novel-dft-based-doa-estimation-by-a-virtual-array-extension-using-simple-multiplications-for-fmcw-radar
#20
Bongseok Kim, Sangdong Kim, Jonghun Lee
We propose a novel discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation by a virtual array extension using simple multiplications for frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar. DFT-based DOA estimation is usually employed in radar systems because it provides the advantage of low complexity for real-time signal processing. In order to enhance the resolution of DOA estimation or to decrease the missing detection probability, it is essential to have a considerable number of channel signals...
May 14, 2018: Sensors
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