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Simulation AND Virtual

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223196/application-of-psychological-theories-in-agent-based-modeling-the-case-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#1
Andrea Scalco, Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori
It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222916/transplanting-hcv-positive-livers-into-hcv-negative-patients-with-preemptive-antiviral-treatment-a-modeling-study
#2
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Sumeyye Samur, Emily D Bethea, Turgay Ayer, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Mark S Roberts, Norah Terrault, Raymond T Chung
Under current guidelines hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive livers are not transplanted into HCV-negative recipients because of adverse post-transplant outcomes associated with allograft HCV infection. However, HCV can now be cured post liver transplant (LT) using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with >90% success; therefore, HCV-negative patients on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list may benefit from accepting HCV-positive organs with preemptive treatment. Our objective was to evaluate if and in which HCV-negative patients the potential benefit of accepting an HCV-positive (i...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222631/an-advanced-simulator-for-orthopedic-surgical-training
#3
J Cecil, Avinash Gupta, Miguel Pirela-Cruz
PURPOSE: The purpose of creating the virtual reality (VR) simulator is to facilitate and supplement the training opportunities provided to orthopedic residents. The use of VR simulators has increased rapidly in the field of medical surgery for training purposes. This paper discusses the creation of the virtual surgical environment (VSE) for training residents in an orthopedic surgical process called less invasive stabilization system (LISS) surgery which is used to address fractures of the femur...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222519/virtual-screening-for-inhibitors-of-the-human-tslp-tslpr-interaction
#4
Dries Van Rompaey, Kenneth Verstraete, Frank Peelman, Savvas N Savvides, Koen Augustyns, Pieter Van Der Veken, Hans De Winter
The pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of various allergy disorders that are mediated by type 2 helper T cell (Th2) responses, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. TSLP forms a ternary complex with the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) and the interleukin-7-receptor subunit alpha (IL-7Rα), thereby activating a signaling cascade that culminates in the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. In this study, we conducted an in silico characterization of the TSLP:TSLPR complex to investigate the drugability of this complex...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221901/role-of-heel-lifting-in-standing-balance-recovery-a-simulation-study
#5
Kuangyou B Cheng, Hiroko Tanabe, Wen-Chien Chen, Hung-Ta Chiu
Although lifting the heels has frequently been observed during balance recovery, the function of this movement has generally been overlooked. The present study aimed to investigate the functional role of heel lifting during regaining balance from a perturbed state. Computer simulation was employed to objectively examine the effect of allowing/constraining heel lifting on balance performance. The human model consisted of 3 rigid body segments connected by frictionless joints. Movements were driven by joint torques depending on current joint angle, angular velocity, and activation level...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219372/flow-of-deformable-droplets-discontinuous-shear-thinning-and-velocity-oscillations
#6
M Foglino, A N Morozov, O Henrich, D Marenduzzo
We study the rheology of a suspension of soft deformable droplets subjected to a pressure-driven flow. Through computer simulations, we measure the apparent viscosity as a function of droplet concentration and pressure gradient, and provide evidence of a discontinuous shear thinning behavior, which occurs at a concentration-dependent value of the forcing. We further show that this response is associated with a nonequilibrium transition between a "hard" (or less deformable) phase, which is nearly jammed and flows very slowly, and a "soft" (or more deformable) phase, which flows much more easily...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218500/an-initial-investigation-of-individual-rate-of-play-preferences-and-associations-with-egm-gambling-behavior
#7
Patrick D Worhunsky, Robert D Rogers
Electronic gambling machines (EGMs) show a strong association with gambling problems. The high speed of gaming offered by modern EGMs allows playing numerous games in a short span of time, which is thought to contribute to attentional distraction, increased spending and prolonged play. However, the relationship between EGM speeds and potentially risk-related gambling behavior remains unclear. We introduce a novel approach to investigating the role of gaming speed in EGM gambling behavior by examining 'individual rate-of-play' (I-ROP) during simulated EGM gambling...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218355/the-next-generation-vanadium-flow-batteries-with-high-power-density-a-perspective
#8
Wenjing Lu, Xianfeng Li, Huamin Zhang
Vanadium flow batteries (VFBs) have received increasing attention due to their attractive features for large-scale energy storage applications. However, the relatively high cost and severe polarization of VFB energy storage systems at high current densities restrict their utilization in practical industrial applications. Optimization of the performance of key VFB materials, including electrodes, electrolytes and membranes, can realize simultaneous minimization of polarization and capacity decay. The power density and energy density of VFBs are thus simultaneously enhanced...
December 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211782/generative-mathematical-modelling-to-demonstrate-virtual-simulations-of-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#9
David Hoyle, Tariq Mehmood Aslam
PURPOSE: To develop a generative mathematical model of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and model the impact of injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor to virtual patients with the condition. METHODS: We isolated key pathophysiological components of macular degeneration in terms of macular edema development and response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. We developed mathematical models for each of these components using constants determined from published biological experimentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211504/usefulness-of-the-mobile-virtual-reality-self-training-for-overcoming-a-fear-of-heights
#10
Yeon-Ju Hong, Hesun Erin Kim, Young Hoon Jung, Sunghyon Kyeong, Jae-Jin Kim
A mobile virtual reality system, equipped with built-in variables such as heart rate (HR), gaze-down data, and subjective fear rating, can allow individuals with a fear of heights to overcome it by self-training. This study aimed to verify the efficacy and safety of the training program. Forty-eight volunteers completed the four-session self-training program over 2 weeks. They were allocated into either low- or high-fear group by the Acrophobia Questionnaire (AQ)-anxiety scores, and then the changes of the built-in variables and AQ-anxiety scores were analyzed between the groups...
December 6, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210686/a-modelling-study-of-the-event-based-retention-performance-of-green-roof-under-the-hot-humid-tropical-climate-in-kuching
#11
C T Chai, F J Putuhena, O S Selaman
The influences of climate on the retention capability of green roof have been widely discussed in existing literature. However, knowledge on how the retention capability of green roof is affected by the tropical climate is limited. This paper highlights the retention performance of the green roof situated in Kuching under hot-humid tropical climatic conditions. Using the green roof water balance modelling approach, this study simulated the hourly runoff generated from a virtual green roof from November 2012 to October 2013 based on past meteorological data...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210502/three-dimensional-static-articulation-accuracy-of-virtual-models-part-ii-effect-of-model-scanner-cad-systems-and-articulation-method
#12
Sophia Hui Xin Yee, Roxanna Jean Esguerra, Amelia Anya Qin'An Chew, Keng Mun Wong, Keson Beng Choon Tan
PURPOSE: Accurate maxillomandibular relationship transfer is important for CAD/CAM prostheses. This study compared the 3D-accuracy of virtual model static articulation in three laboratory scanner-CAD systems (Ceramill Map400 [AG], inEos X5 [SIR], Scanner S600 Arti [ZKN]) using two virtual articulation methods: mounted models (MO), interocclusal record (IR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The master model simulated a single crown opposing a 3-unit fixed partial denture. Reference values were obtained by measuring interarch and interocclusal reference features with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208222/using-virtual-reality-to-study-visual-performances-of-honeybees
#13
REVIEW
Patrick Schultheiss, Alexis Buatois, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Martin Giurfa
Virtual reality (VR) offers an appealing experimental framework for studying visual performances of insects under highly controlled conditions. In the case of the honeybee Apis mellifera, this possibility may fill the gap between behavioural analyses in free-flight and cellular analyses in the laboratory. Using automated, computer-controlled systems, it is possible to generate virtual stimuli or even entire environments that can be modified to test hypotheses on bee visual behaviour. The bee itself can remain tethered in place, making it possible to record neural activity while the bees is performing behavioural tasks...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206624/use-of-highways-in-the-sky-and-a-virtual-pad-for-landing-head-up-display-symbology-to-enable-improved-helicopter-pilots-situation-awareness-and-workload-in-degraded-visual-conditions
#14
Neville A Stanton, Katherine L Plant, Aaron P Roberts, Craig K Allison
Flight within degraded visual conditions is a great challenge to pilots of rotary-wing craft. Environmental cues typically used to guide interpretation of speed, location and approach can become obscured, forcing the pilots to rely on data available from in-cockpit instrumentation. To ease the task of flight during degraded visual conditions, pilots require easy access to flight critical information. The current study examined the effect of "Highways in the Sky" symbology and a conformal virtual pad for landing presented using a Head Up Display (HUD) on pilots' workload and situation awareness for both clear and degraded conditions across a series of simulated rotary-wing approach and landings...
December 5, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205739/the-use-of-psychiatry-focused-simulation-in-undergraduate-nursing-education-a-systematic-search-and-review
#15
REVIEW
Amanda D Vandyk, Michelle Lalonde, Sabrina Merali, Erica Wright, Irmajean Bajnok, Barbara Davies
Evidence on the use of simulation to teach psychiatry and mental health (including addiction) content is emerging, yet no summary of the implementation processes or associated outcomes exists. The aim of this study was to systematically search and review empirical literature on the use of psychiatry-focused simulation in undergraduate nursing education. Objectives were to (i) assess the methodological quality of existing evidence on the use of simulation to teach mental health content to undergraduate nursing students, (ii) describe the operationalization of the simulations, and (iii) summarize the associated quantitative and qualitative outcomes...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204263/the-oscillating-potential-model-of-visually-induced-vection
#16
Takeharu Seno, Ken-Ichi Sawai, Hidetoshi Kanaya, Toshihiro Wakebe, Masaki Ogawa, Yoshitaka Fujii, Stephen Palmisano
Visually induced illusions of self-motion are often referred to as vection. This article developed and tested a model of responding to visually induced vection. We first constructed a mathematical model based on well-documented characteristics of vection and human behavioral responses to this illusion. We then conducted 10,000 virtual trial simulations using this Oscillating Potential Vection Model (OPVM). OPVM was used to generate simulated vection onset, duration, and magnitude responses for each of these trials...
November 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203283/understanding-the-structural-and-energetic-basis-of-pd-1-and-monoclonal-antibodies-bound-to-pd-l1-a-molecular-modeling-perspective
#17
Danfeng Shi, Shuangyan Zhou, Xuewei Liu, Chenxi Zhao, Huanxiang Liu, Xiaojun Yao
BACKGROUND: The inhibitors blocking the interaction between programmed cell death protein 1(PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1(PD-L1) can activate the immune response of T cell and eliminate cancer cells. The crystallographic studies have provided structural insights of the interactive interfaces between PD-L1 and its protein ligands. However, the hotspot residues on PD-L1 as well as structural and energetic basis for different protein ligands still need to be further investigated. METHODS: Molecular modeling methods including molecular dynamics simulation, per-residue free energy decomposition, virtual alanine scanning mutagenesis and residue-residue contact analysis were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the interactions between PD-L1 and different protein ligands...
December 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202410/discovery-optimization-and-biological-evaluation-for-novel-c-met-kinase-inhibitors
#18
Haoliang Yuan, Qiufeng Liu, Li Zhang, Shihe Hu, Tiantian Chen, Huifang Li, Yadong Chen, Yechun Xu, Tao Lu
The c-Met kinase has emerged as an attractive target for developing antitumor agents because of its close relationship with the development of many human cancers, poor clinical outcomes and even drug resistance. A series of novel c-Met kinase inhibitors have been identified with multiple workflow in this work, including virtual screening, X-ray crystallography, biological evaluation and structural optimization. The experimentally determined crystal structure of the best hit compound HL-11 in c-Met kinase domain was highly consistent with the computational prediction...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202167/introduction-of-virtual-patient-software-to-enhance-physician-assistant-student-knowledge-in-palliative-medicine
#19
Kristine A Prazak
PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to infuse palliative medicine and end-of-life care creatively into physician assistant (PA) education. METHODS: Nine second-year PA students volunteered to participate in this quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest pilot study. Students initially completed an anonymous survey evaluating seven domains of knowledge in palliative medicine coupled with a self-assessment in competence. Virtual patient software was then used to simulate clinical encounters that addressed major palliative care domains...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200477/evolutionary-algorithm-optimization-of-biological-learning-parameters-in-a-biomimetic-neuroprosthesis
#20
S Dura-Bernal, S A Neymotin, C C Kerr, S Sivagnanam, A Majumdar, J T Francis, W W Lytton
Biomimetic simulation permits neuroscientists to better understand the complex neuronal dynamics of the brain. Embedding a biomimetic simulation in a closed-loop neuroprosthesis, which can read and write signals from the brain, will permit applications for amelioration of motor, psychiatric, and memory-related brain disorders. Biomimetic neuroprostheses require real-time adaptation to changes in the external environment, thus constituting an example of a dynamic data-driven application system. As model fidelity increases, so does the number of parameters and the complexity of finding appropriate parameter configurations...
March 2017: IBM Journal of Research and Development
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