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Glutamate spectroscopy functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561792/a-spectroscopic-approach-toward-depression-diagnosis-local-metabolism-meets-functional-connectivity
#1
Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Lejla Colic, Meng Li, Adam Safron, B Biswal, Coraline Danielle Metzger, Shijia Li, Martin Walter
Abnormal anterior insula (AI) response and functional connectivity (FC) is associated with depression. In addition to clinical features, such as severity, AI FC and its metabolism further predicted therapeutic response. Abnormal FC between anterior cingulate and AI covaried with reduced glutamate level within cingulate cortex. Recently, deficient glial glutamate conversion was found in AI in major depression disorder (MDD). We therefore postulate a local glutamatergic mechanism in insula cortex of depressive patients, which is correlated with symptoms severity and itself influences AI's network connectivity in MDD...
August 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27182810/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-hippocampus-along-the-anterior-posterior-axis-and-its-association-with-glutamatergic-metabolism
#2
Gerd Wagner, Alexander Gussew, Stefanie Köhler, Feliberto de la Cruz, Stefan Smesny, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Animal and human studies suggest differing anatomical and functional connectivity patterns of the anterior and posterior hippocampus. The biochemical underpinnings of the hippocampal resting state connectivity along this anterior-posterior axis remain unclear. We investigated twenty-five healthy male subjects in a multimodal study. We aimed to examine the relationship between resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the left and right hippocampus separated along the anterior-posterior axis and the corresponding glutamatergic function assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the glutamate-glutamine (Glx) complex...
August 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26657968/neuroimaging-markers-of-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-systems-in-drug-addiction-relationships-to-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#3
REVIEW
Scott J Moeller, Edythe D London, Georg Northoff
Drug addiction is characterized by widespread abnormalities in brain function and neurochemistry, including drug-associated effects on concentrations of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively. In healthy individuals, these neurotransmitters drive the resting state, a default condition of brain function also disrupted in addiction. Here, our primary goal was to review in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography studies that examined markers of glutamate and GABA abnormalities in human drug addiction...
February 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26456676/functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-altered-brain-chemistry-in-women-with-endometriosis-associated-chronic-pelvic-pain
#4
Sawsan As-Sanie, Jieun Kim, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Pia C Sundgren, Daniel J Clauw, Vitaly Napadow, Richard E Harris
UNLABELLED: In contrast to women with relatively asymptomatic endometriosis, women with endometriosis-associated chronic pelvic pain (CPP) exhibit nonpelvic hyperalgesia and decreased gray matter volume in key neural pain processing regions. Although these findings suggest central pain amplification in endometriosis-associated CPP, the underlying changes in brain chemistry and function associated with central pain amplification remain unknown. We performed proton spectroscopy and seed-based resting functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether women with endometriosis display differences in insula excitatory neurotransmitter concentrations or intrinsic brain connectivity to other pain-related brain regions...
January 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287448/negative-childhood-experiences-alter-a-prefrontal-insular-motor-cortical-network-in-healthy-adults-a-preliminary-multimodal-rsfmri-fmri-mrs-dmri-study
#5
Niall W Duncan, Dave J Hayes, Christine Wiebking, Brice Tiret, Karin Pietruska, David Q Chen, Pierre Rainville, Małgorzata Marjańska, Omar Ayad, Julien Doyon, Mojgan Hodaie, Georg Northoff
Research in humans and animals has shown that negative childhood experiences (NCE) can have long-term effects on the structure and function of the brain. Alterations have been noted in grey and white matter, in the brain's resting state, on the glutamatergic system, and on neural and behavioural responses to aversive stimuli. These effects can be linked to psychiatric disorder such as depression and anxiety disorders that are influenced by excessive exposure to early life stressors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of NCEs on these systems...
November 2015: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25986964/brain-and-cognition-abnormalities-in-long-term-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#6
Marc J Kaufman, Amy C Janes, James I Hudson, Brian P Brennan, Gen Kanayama, Andrew R Kerrigan, J Eric Jensen, Harrison G Pope
BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with psychiatric symptoms including increased aggression as well as with cognitive dysfunction. The brain effects of long-term AAS use have not been assessed in humans. METHODS: This multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain compared 10 male weightlifters reporting long-term AAS use with 10 age-matched weightlifters reporting no AAS exposure. Participants were administered visuospatial memory tests and underwent neuroimaging...
July 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25690698/rigidity-of-poly-l-glutamic-acid-scaffolds-influence-of-secondary-and-supramolecular-structure
#7
Jonathan D Nickels, Stefania Perticaroli, Georg Ehlers, Mikhail Feygenson, Alexei P Sokolov
Poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA) is a widely used biomaterial, with applications ranging from drug delivery and biological glues to food products and as a tissue engineering scaffold. A biodegradable material with flexible conjugation functional groups, tunable secondary structure, and mechanical properties, PGA has potential as a tunable matrix material in mechanobiology. Recent studies in proteins connecting dynamics, nanometer length scale rigidity, and secondary structure suggest a new point of view from which to analyze and develop this promising material...
September 2015: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25687595/frontal-p3-event-related-potential-is-related-to-brain-glutamine-glutamate-ratio-measured-in-vivo
#8
Mei-Hua Hall, J Eric Jensen, Fei Du, Jordan W Smoller, Lauren O'Connor, Kevin M Spencer, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: The auditory P3 event-related potential (ERP) is thought to index cognitive processing relevant to attention and working memory processes. Drug challenge studies suggest that glutamate neurotransmission plays an important role in modulating P3 ERP. However, while direct links between glutamate activity and P3 ERP response in humans are suspected, mechanistic details remain largely unknown. We investigated here the relationships between P3 ERP and indices of glutamatergic processing measured in vivo with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS)...
May 1, 2015: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25653499/altered-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-neurotransmission-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-critical-review-of-the-supporting-evidence-and-the-influence-of-serotonergic-antidepressants
#9
REVIEW
Alan L Pehrson, Connie Sanchez
Evidence suggesting that central nervous system γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been present since at least 1980, and this idea has recently gained support from more recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. These observations have led to the assumption that MDD's underlying etiology is tied to an overall reduction in GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. In this paper, we review the mechanisms that govern GABA and glutamate concentrations in the brain, and provide a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the clinical data supporting reduced GABA neurotransmission in MDD...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25312829/baseline-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-and-large-scale-network-connectivity
#10
Michael A Hunter, Brian A Coffman, Charles Gasparovic, Vince D Calhoun, Michael C Trumbo, Vincent P Clark
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission and can be utilized as a novel treatment intervention for a multitude of populations. However, the exact mechanism by which tDCS modulates the brain׳s neural architecture, from the micro to macro scales, have yet to be investigated. Using a within-subjects design, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) were performed immediately before and after the administration of anodal tDCS over right parietal cortex...
January 12, 2015: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25184505/gaba-concentration-in-posterior-cingulate-cortex-predicts-putamen-response-during-resting-state-fmri
#11
Jorge Arrubla, Desmond H Y Tse, Christin Amkreutz, Irene Neuner, N Jon Shah
The role of neurotransmitters in the activity of resting state networks has been gaining attention and has become a field of research with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) being one of the key techniques. MRS permits the measurement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate levels, the central biochemical constituents of the excitation-inhibition balance in vivo. The inhibitory effects of GABA in the brain have been largely investigated in relation to the activity of resting state networks in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25123366/-neurobiology-of-schizophrenia-new-findings-from-the-structure-to-the-molecules
#12
REVIEW
A Schmitt, B Malchow, D Keeser, P Falkai, A Hasan
During recent years improved methods in neuroimaging, molecular biology and genetics contributed to new insights into the neurobiology of schizophrenia. This review summarizes and discusses current findings and their impact on the pathophysiology of the disease. New magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based methods allow investigation of small subregions of the hippocampus and structural and functional connectivity analyses using multimodal imaging approaches. Volume deficits are correlated with MRI spectroscopy based data of the glutamatergic and GABAergic systems and confirm the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia...
March 2015: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25071576/open-label-smoking-cessation-with-varenicline-is-associated-with-decreased-glutamate-levels-and-functional-changes-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-preliminary-findings
#13
Muriah D Wheelock, Meredith A Reid, Harrison To, David M White, Karen L Cropsey, Adrienne C Lahti
RATIONALE: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of 12-week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and functional changes within the cognitive control network...
2014: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25045047/hippocampal-parietal-dysconnectivity-and-glutamate-abnormalities-in-unmedicated-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, David Matthew White, Jennifer Hadley, Meredith Amanda Reid, Adrienne Carol Lahti
Abnormalities in resting state connectivity in schizophrenia (SZ) are now well established, but the biological substrates of these functional alterations remain to be elucidated. We performed a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in 22 unmedicated patients with SZ and 22 matched healthy controls (HCs) to evaluate resting state functional connectivity of the hippocampus and Glx/Cr (a combined glutamate + glutamine peak normalized to creatine) in the hippocampus and investigate functional and neurometabolic abnormalities and examine the relationship between these...
December 2014: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24970028/gaba-resting-state-connectivity-and-the-developing-brain
#15
Soo Hyun Kwon, Dustin Scheinost, Cheryl Lacadie, Jennifer Benjamin, Eliza H Myers, Maolin Qiu, Karen C Schneider, Douglas L Rothman, R Todd Constable, Laura R Ment
BACKGROUND: Preclinical data demonstrate that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons initiate connectivity in the developing brain. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to compare GABA concentration and its relationship to functional connectivity in the brains of term and preterm infants at term-equivalent age. METHODS: Infants received both magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans at term-equivalent age...
2014: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24923983/persistent-modification-of-forebrain-networks-and-metabolism-in-rats-following-adolescent-exposure-to-a-5-ht7-receptor-agonist
#16
Rossella Canese, Francesca Zoratto, Luisa Altabella, Paola Porcari, Laura Mercurio, Francesco de Pasquale, Erica Butti, Gianvito Martino, Enza Lacivita, Marcello Leopoldo, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
RATIONALE: The serotonin 7 receptor (5-HT7-R) is part of a neuro-transmission system with a proposed role in neural plasticity and in mood, cognitive or sleep regulation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated long-term consequences of sub-chronic treatment, during adolescence (43-45 to 47-49 days old) in rats, with a novel 5-HT7-R agonist (LP-211, 0 or 0.250 mg/kg/day). METHODS: We evaluated behavioural changes as well as forebrain structural/functional modifications by in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) in a 4...
January 2015: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24888973/early-metabolic-development-of-posteromedial-cortex-and-thalamus-in-humans-analyzed-via-in-vivo-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#17
Andrew J Degnan, Rafael Ceschin, Vince Lee, Vincent J Schmithorst, Stefan Blüml, Ashok Panigrahy
The posteromedial cortex (PMC) including the posterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex, and medial parietal cortex/precuneus is an epicenter of cortical interactions in a wide spectrum of neural activity. Anatomic connections between PMC and thalamic components have been established in animal studies, but similar studies do not exist for the fetal and neonatal period. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows for noninvasive measurement of metabolites in early development. Using single-voxel 3-T MRS, healthy term neonates (n = 31, mean postconception age 41...
November 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24764063/examination-of-vlc-pufa-deficient-photoreceptor-terminals
#18
Lea D Bennett, Blake R Hopiavuori, Richard S Brush, Michael Chan, Matthew J Van Hook, Wallace B Thoreson, Robert E Anderson
PURPOSE: Juvenile-onset autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) is caused by mutations in ELOVL4 (elongation of very long fatty acids-4), an elongase necessary for the biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids (VLC-FAs ≥ C26). Photoreceptors are enriched with VLC polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs), which are necessary for long-term survival of rod photoreceptors. The purpose of these studies was to determine the effect of deletion of VLC-PUFAs on rod synaptic function in retinas of mice conditionally depleted (KO) of Elovl4...
July 2014: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24483727/biologically-inspired-stealth-peptide-capped-gold-nanoparticles
#19
Ann K Nowinski, Andrew D White, Andrew J Keefe, Shaoyi Jiang
Introduction into the human body makes most nanoparticle systems susceptible to aggregation via nonspecific protein binding. Here, we developed a peptide-capped gold nanoparticle platform that withstands aggregation in undiluted human serum at 37 °C for 24 h. This biocompatible and natural system is based on mimicking human proteins which are enriched in negatively charged glutamic acid and positively charged lysine residues on their surface. The multifunctional EKEKEKE-PPPPC-Am peptide sequence consists of a stealth glutamic acid/lysine portion combined with a surface anchoring linker containing four prolines and a cysteine...
February 25, 2014: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24343290/pregabalin-rectifies-aberrant-brain-chemistry-connectivity-and-functional-response-in-chronic-pain-patients
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Richard E Harris, Vitaly Napadow, John P Huggins, Lynne Pauer, Jieun Kim, Johnson Hampson, Pia C Sundgren, Bradley Foerster, Myria Petrou, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Daniel J Clauw
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain remains a significant challenge for modern health care as its pathologic mechanisms are largely unknown and preclinical animal models suffer from limitations in assessing this complex subjective experience. However, human brain neuroimaging techniques enable the assessment of functional and neurochemical alterations in patients experiencing chronic pain and how these factors may dynamically change with pharmacologic treatment. METHODS: To identify the clinical action of pregabalin, a proven analgesic, the authors performed three complementary brain neuroimaging procedures: (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging) in 17 chronic pain patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia...
December 2013: Anesthesiology
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