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Outcomes research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325027/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#1
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324968/improving-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-cpr-outcomes-using-model-based-optimization
#2
Dieter Bender, Ali Jalali, C Nataraj
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) outcomes are far from optimal as practiced today, and prior work has documented that among probable reasons is the fact that the procedure remains to be fully understood. In an attempt to gain a broader understanding of the CPR physiology and the elemental principles underlying the CPR outcomes, this study proposes a novel approach. The analysis is carried out in three major steps. First, an appropriate cardiovascular system model was adopted and simulated using real CPR data as the input...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324929/hyperthermia-by-electromagnetic-fields-to-enhanced-clinical-results-in-oncology
#3
Gerard C van Rhoon, Maarten M Paulides, Jeannette M L van Holthe, Martine Franckena
Confining treatment to the tumor to improve therapeutic outcome and reduce toxicity, is a hot issue in cancer research. Hyperthermia is recognized as a strong sensitizer for radiotherapy and chemotherapy enhancing tumor control without increasing toxicity. Today's electromagnetic hyperthermia systems heat large tissue volumes with limited ability to selectively heat the tumor. Fortunately, tremendous improvements in 3-dimensional electromagnetic & temperature modelling provide an exciting opportunity to design advanced multi-element electromagnetic applicator systems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324904/quantifying-neonatal-sucking-performance-promise-of-new-methods
#4
Gilson J Capilouto, Tommy J Cunningham, David R Mullineaux, Eleonora Tamilia, Christos Papadelis, Peter J Giannone
Neonatal feeding has been traditionally understudied so guidelines and evidence-based support for common feeding practices are limited. A major contributing factor to the paucity of evidence-based practice in this area has been the lack of simple-to-use, low-cost tools for monitoring sucking performance. We describe new methods for quantifying neonatal sucking performance that hold significant clinical and research promise. We present early results from an ongoing study investigating neonatal sucking as a marker of risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324864/ventricular-wall-biomaterial-injection-therapy-after-myocardial-infarction-advances-in-material-design-mechanistic-insight-and-early-clinical-experiences
#5
REVIEW
Yang Zhu, Yasumoto Matsumura, William R Wagner
Intramyocardial biomaterial injection therapy for myocardial infarction has made significant progress since concept initiation more than 10 years ago. The interim successes and progress in the first 5 years have been extensively reviewed. During the last 5 years, two phase II clinical trials have reported their long term follow up results and many additional biomaterial candidates have reached preclinical and clinical testing. Also in recent years deeper investigations into the mechanisms behind the beneficial effects associated with biomaterial injection therapy have been pursued, and a variety of process and material parameters have been evaluated for their impact on therapeutic outcomes...
March 1, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324848/is-level-of-prematurity-a-risk-plasticity-factor-at-three-years-of-age
#6
Kristin Hadfield, Fearghal O'Brien, Aaron Gerow
Children born preterm have poorer outcomes than children born full-term, but the caregiving environment can ameliorate some of these differences. Recent research has proposed that preterm birth may be a plasticity factor, leading to better outcomes for preterm than full-term infants in higher quality environments. This analysis uses data from two waves of an Irish study of children (at 9 months and 3 years of age, n=11,134 children) and their caregivers (n=11,132 mothers, n=9998 fathers) to investigate differences in how caregiving affects social, cognitive, and motor skills between full-term, late preterm, and very preterm children...
March 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324808/midwives-perceptions-of-partner-presence-in-childbirth-pain-alleviation-in-nigeria-hospitals
#7
Abigail Uchenna Emelonye, Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Taina Pitkäaho, Alex Aregbesola
OBJECTIVE: partner presence in the labour room can influence childbirth pain outcomes and maternal well-being. We examined midwives' perception of the use of partner presence in the management of childbirth pain in Nigerian hospitals. DESIGN: a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study. SETTING: maternity units of four hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria, Jun.-Dec., 2014. PARTICIPANTS: 100 midwives selected through convenience sampling...
March 8, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324806/social-networking-site-sns-use-by-adolescent-mothers-can-social-support-and-social-capital-be-enhanced-by-online-social-networks-a-structured-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Samantha Nolan, Joyce Hendricks, Sally Ferguson, Amanda Towell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to critically appraise the available literature and summarise the evidence relating to adolescent mothers' use of social networking sites in terms of any social support and social capital they may provide and to identify areas for future exploration. BACKGROUND: social networking sites have been demonstrated to provide social support to marginalised individuals and provide psycho-social benefits to members of such groups. Adolescent mothers are at risk of; social marginalisation; anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms; and poorer health and educational outcomes for their children...
March 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324794/the-socio-political-context-of-migration-and-reproductive-health-disparities-the-case-of-early-sexual-initiation-among-mexican-origin-immigrant-young-women
#9
Kate Coleman-Minahan
Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324792/tolerance-of-uncertainty-conceptual-analysis-integrative-model-and-implications-for-healthcare
#10
REVIEW
Marij A Hillen, Caitlin M Gutheil, Tania D Strout, Ellen M A Smets, Paul K J Han
RATIONALE: Uncertainty tolerance (UT) is an important, well-studied phenomenon in health care and many other important domains of life, yet its conceptualization and measurement by researchers in various disciplines have varied substantially and its essential nature remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the meaning and logical coherence of UT as conceptualized by developers of UT measures, and 2) develop an integrative conceptual model to guide future empirical research regarding the nature, causes, and effects of UT...
March 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324751/the-rationale-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-inhibition-for-cancer-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Lieve Brochez, Ines Chevolet, Vibeke Kruse
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, also referred to as IDO1) has been demonstrated to be a normal endogenous mechanism of acquired peripheral immune tolerance in vivo. In the field of oncology, IDO expression and/or activity has been observed in several cancer types and has usually been associated with negative prognostic factors and worse outcome measures. This manuscript reviews current available data on the role of IDO in cancer and the current results obtained with IDO inhibition, both in animal models and in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials in humans...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324583/revisiting-cdk-inhibitors-for-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#12
REVIEW
Dorota Lubanska, Lisa Porter
Despite extensive efforts and continual progress in research and medicine, outcomes for patients with high-grade glioma remain exceptionally poor. Over the past decade, research has revealed a great deal about the complex biology behind glioma development, and has brought to light some of the major barriers preventing successful treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (stage 4 astrocytoma) is a highly dynamic tumour and one of the most extreme examples of intratumoural heterogeneity, making targeting with specific therapeutics an inefficient and highly unpredictable goal...
March 21, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324484/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor-comparing-trial-data-and-real-world-use
#13
Andrew McGovern, Michael Feher, Neil Munro, Simon de Lusignan
INTRODUCTION: The first cardiovascular safety trial in the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor drug class, the Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial, demonstrated significant cardiovascular risk reduction with empagliflozin. It is currently not clear what proportions of people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have the same high cardiovascular risk as those included in the trial, and will therefore be likely to experience the same cardiovascular benefit...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324317/anxiety-and-depression-symptoms-and-migraine-a-symptom-based-approach-research
#14
Mario Fernando Prieto Peres, Juliane P P Mercante, Patricia R Tobo, Helder Kamei, Marcelo Eduardo Bigal
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324301/neuroimaging-in-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
Erik H Middlebrooks, Lawrence Ver Hoef, Jerzy P Szaflarski
In recent years, the field of neuroimaging has undergone dramatic development. Specifically, of importance for clinicians and researchers managing patients with epilepsies, new methods of brain imaging in search of the seizure-producing abnormalities have been implemented, and older methods have undergone additional refinement. Methodology to predict seizure freedom and cognitive outcome has also rapidly progressed. In general, the image data processing methods are very different and more complicated than even a decade ago...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324265/cardiac-safety-efficacy-and-correlation-of-serial-serum-her2-extracellular-domain-shed-antigen-measurement-with-the-outcome-of-the-combined-trastuzumab-plus-cmf-in-women-with-her2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer-results-from-the-eortc-10995-phase-ii-study
#16
Konstantinos Tryfonidis, S Marreaud, H Khaled, B De Valk, J Vermorken, M Welnicka-Jaskiewicz, K Aalders, J M S Bartlett, L Biganzoli, J Bogaerts, David Cameron
PURPOSE: Cardiotoxicity is a side effect of trastuzumab. We assessed efficacy and cardiac safety of CMF with trastuzumab (CMF+T) in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients (MBC). METHODS: In this phase II study, centrally confirmed, previously treated HER2-positive MBC patients with measurable disease (per RECIST v 1.0) were enrolled. Initially, patients were randomized between 8 CMF cycles alone or combined with trastuzumab during chemotherapy, followed by 3-weekly trastuzumab maintenance till progression...
March 21, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324029/vital-directions-for-health-and-health-care-priorities-from-a-national-academy-of-medicine-initiative
#17
Victor J Dzau, Mark B McClellan, J Michael McGinnis, Sheila P Burke, Molly J Coye, Angela Diaz, Thomas A Daschle, William H Frist, Martha Gaines, Margaret A Hamburg, Jane E Henney, Shiriki Kumanyika, Michael O Leavitt, Ruth M Parker, Lewis G Sandy, Leonard D Schaeffer, Glenn D Steele, Pamela Thompson, Elias Zerhouni
Importance: Recent discussion has focused on questions related to the repeal and replacement of portions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). However, issues central to the future of health and health care in the United States transcend the ACA provisions receiving the greatest attention. Initiatives directed to certain strategic and infrastructure priorities are vital to achieve better health at lower cost. Objectives: To review the most salient health challenges and opportunities facing the United States, to identify practical and achievable priorities essential to health progress, and to present policy initiatives critical to the nation's health and fiscal integrity...
March 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323893/effect-of-supervised-exercise-training-during-pregnancy-on-neonatal-and-maternal-outcomes-among-overweight-and-obese-women-secondary-analyses-of-the-etip-trial-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Kirsti Krohn Garnæs, Siri Ann Nyrnes, Kjell Åsmund Salvesen, Øyvind Salvesen, Siv Mørkved, Trine Moholdt
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity associates with complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Our aim was to investigate if exercise during pregnancy in overweight/obese women could influence birth weight or other neonatal and maternal outcomes at delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial of exercise training in pregnancy for women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2. Ninety-one women (31.3 ± 4.3 years, BMI 34...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323880/randomized-controlled-trials-in-central-vascular-access-devices-a-scoping-review
#19
Mari Takashima, Gillian Ray-Barruel, Amanda Ullman, Samantha Keogh, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. METHOD: A scoping review (January 2006-December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323840/htc-vive-mevislab-integration-via-openvr-for-medical-applications
#20
Jan Egger, Markus Gall, Jürgen Wallner, Pedro Boechat, Alexander Hann, Xing Li, Xiaojun Chen, Dieter Schmalstieg
Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired...
2017: PloS One
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