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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214351/evidence-based-and-precision-medicine-two-of-a-kind
#1
W J Fokkens
In the last two decades, an enormous expansion of evidence has been produced in upper airway research. When writing the first EPOS document in 2005 only 5 RCT per year were performed in the area of CRS, in 2007 this changed to 25 per year and it became even higher in the recent years. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are the "gold standard" for evaluating treatment outcomes providing information on treatments "efficacy". To make life easier for clinicians, systematic reviews and meta-analysis further condense the available evidence...
February 18, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214290/evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-anti-epileptic-medications-for-partial-seizures-of-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis
#2
Teng Zhao, Xuemin Feng, Jingyao Liu, Jiguo Gao, Chunkui Zhou
Epilepsy is a brain and neurological disorder with high prevalence. It was reported that more than 70% of epileptic seizures were controlled by anti-epileptic medications, whereas the lack of evidence with respect to head-to-head comparisons motivated researchers to seek alternative approaches that are able to provide deep insights into the profile of anti-epileptic medications. In this study, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-epileptic medications for partial seizures of epilepsy...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214229/-iso%C3%A2-9001%C3%A2-certification-of-innovation-and-clinical-research-departments-extending-the-scope-of-health-assessment
#3
C Sambou, S Guillemaut, M Morelle, A Achache, A-G Le Corroller, D Perol, L Perrier
BACKGROUND: The International organization for standardization (ISO) is the world leader in providing industrial and commercial standards and certifications. Beyond medical devices, four French clinical research and innovation departments have received an ISO 9001 certification (the standard for quality management). Simultaneously, medico-economic studies have become increasingly important in the public decision process. Using the clinical research and innovation department from the Léon-Bérard Cancer Center as an example, the purpose of this article is to show how the scope of the ISO 9001 certification has been extended to cover medico-economic studies...
February 14, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214091/multidonor-intensive-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-active-ulcerative-colitis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Sudarshan Paramsothy, Michael A Kamm, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Alissa J Walsh, Johan van den Bogaerde, Douglas Samuel, Rupert W L Leong, Susan Connor, Watson Ng, Ramesh Paramsothy, Wei Xuan, Enmoore Lin, Hazel M Mitchell, Thomas J Borody
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal microbiota transplantation is a novel form of therapeutic microbial manipulation, but its efficacy in ulcerative colitis is uncertain. We aimed to establish the efficacy of intensive-dosing, multidonor, faecal microbiota transplantation in active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at three hospitals in Australia...
February 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213925/rotator-cuff-disease-opinion-regarding-surgical-criteria-and-likely-outcome
#5
Alison Thorpe, Mark Hurworth, Peter O'Sullivan, Tim Mitchell, Anne Smith
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines for the management of rotator cuff disease are not clear. Surgeon surveys in the USA and UK lack agreement regarding surgical indications. Physical examination tests aid surgical decision-making but also lack robust evidence. Study aims were to evaluate: Western Australian orthopaedic surgeons' perceptions about surgical indications; utility of physical examination tests; findings at surgery predictive of outcome and surgeon opinion of a successful surgical outcome...
February 17, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213923/diagnostic-accuracy-of-charcot-s-triad-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Steva Rumsey, Joel Winders, Andrew D MacCormick
BACKGROUND: Charcot's triad is a well-established diagnostic tool for acute cholangitis (AC). It has been recognized as an inaccurate test in clinical practice; however, its exact sensitivity and specificity remain unclear. This knowledge is key to informing the value of its continued clinical application. The objectives of this study are to calculate an estimate of the sensitivity and specificity of Charcot's triad based on published research and consider its applicability to clinical practice and medical education...
February 17, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213889/social-emotional-competence-an-essential-factor-for-promoting-positive-adjustment-and-reducing-risk-in-school-children
#7
Celene E Domitrovich, Joseph A Durlak, Katharine C Staley, Roger P Weissberg
Social-emotional competence is a critical factor to target with universal preventive interventions that are conducted in schools because the construct (a) associates with social, behavioral, and academic outcomes that are important for healthy development; (b) predicts important life outcomes in adulthood; (c) can be improved with feasible and cost-effective interventions; and (d) plays a critical role in the behavior change process. This article reviews this research and what is known about effective intervention approaches...
February 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213820/daily-marijuana-use-is-associated-with-missed-clinic-appointments-among-hiv-infected-persons-engaged-in-hiv-care
#8
Aaron M Kipp, Peter F Rebeiro, Bryan E Shepherd, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Megan Turner, Sally Bebawy, Timothy R Sterling, Todd Hulgan
We assessed the association between marijuana use and retention in HIV care through a retrospective cohort study of patients engaged in care at a large HIV clinic in 2011 and 2012. Two different retention outcomes were assessed: not meeting the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) retention definition (≥2 provider visits ≥90 days apart in a calendar year) and no-show visits. Any marijuana use and frequency of marijuana use were obtained from a substance use screening questionnaire administered at each clinic visit...
February 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213767/mountaintop-removal-coal-mining-and-emergent-cases-of-psychological-disorder-in-kentucky
#9
Will H Canu, John Paul Jameson, Ellen H Steele, Michael Denslow
Although mountaintop removal (MTR) coal extraction techniques have been employed in Appalachia for decades, relatively little research has examined its potential psychological impact on people living in close proximity to MTR activity. The current study taps the State Emergency Department Database (Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Kentucky State Emergency Department Database, 2008) to examine the relative risk for diagnoses of depressive, substance use, and anxiety disorders originating in areas with and without MTR activity...
February 17, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213724/mobile-phone-use-and-risk-of-brain-tumours-a-systematic-review-of-association-between-study-quality-source-of-funding-and-research-outcomes
#10
Manya Prasad, Prachi Kathuria, Pallavi Nair, Amit Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad
Mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiations that are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Evidence for increased risk for brain tumours accumulated in parallel by epidemiologic investigations remains controversial. This paper aims to investigate whether methodological quality of studies and source of funding can explain the variation in results. PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL searches were conducted from 1966 to December 2016, which was supplemented with relevant articles identified in the references...
February 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213610/prebiotic-inulin-type-fructans-induce-specific-changes-in-the-human-gut-microbiota
#11
Doris Vandeputte, Gwen Falony, Sara Vieira-Silva, Jun Wang, Manuela Sailer, Stephan Theis, Kristin Verbeke, Jeroen Raes
OBJECTIVE: Contrary to the long-standing prerequisite of inducing selective (ie, bifidogenic) effects, recent findings suggest that prebiotic interventions lead to ecosystem-wide microbiota shifts. Yet, a comprehensive characterisation of this process is still lacking. Here, we apply 16S rDNA microbiota profiling and matching (gas chromatography mass spectrometry) metabolomics to assess the consequences of inulin fermentation both on the composition of the colon bacterial ecosystem and faecal metabolites profiles...
February 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213598/informing-efficient-randomised-controlled-trials-exploration-of-challenges-in-developing-progression-criteria-for-internal-pilot-studies
#12
Kerry N L Avery, Paula R Williamson, Carrol Gamble, Elaine O'Connell Francischetto, Chris Metcalfe, Peter Davidson, Hywel Williams, Jane M Blazeby
OBJECTIVES: Designing studies with an internal pilot phase may optimise the use of pilot work to inform more efficient randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Careful selection of preagreed decision or 'progression' criteria at the juncture between the internal pilot and main trial phases provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the likely success of the main trial and optimise its design or, if necessary, to make the decision not to proceed with the main trial. Guidance on the appropriate selection and application of progression criteria is, however, lacking...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213585/fidelity-of-implementation-an-overlooked-yet-critical-construct-to-establish-effectiveness-of-evidence-based-instructional-practices
#13
Marilyne Stains, Trisha Vickrey
The discipline-based education research (DBER) community has been invested in the research and development of evidence-based instructional practices (EBIPs) for decades. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of EBIPs on student outcomes typically do not characterize instructors' adherence to an EBIP, often assuming that implementation was as intended by developers. The validity of such findings is compromised, since positive or negative outcomes can be incorrectly attributed to an EBIP when other factors impacting implementation are often present...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213583/why-work-with-undergraduate-researchers-differences-in-research-advisors-motivations-and-outcomes-by-career-stage
#14
Charles N Hayward, Sandra L Laursen, Heather Thiry
Undergraduate research is often hailed as a solution to increasing the number and quality of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics graduates needed to fill the high-tech jobs of the future. Student benefits of research are well documented but the emerging literature on advisors' perspectives is incomplete: only a few studies have included the graduate students and postdocs who often serve as research advisors, and not much is known about why research advisors choose to work with undergraduate researchers...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213581/a-program-aimed-toward-inclusive-excellence-for-underrepresented-undergraduate-women-in-the-sciences
#15
Laura A Katz, Kathryn M Aloisio, Nicholas J Horton, Minh Ly, Sara Pruss, Kate Queeney, Cate Rowen, Patricia Marten DiBartolo
Created to foster inclusive excellence, Smith College's Achieving Excellence in Mathematics, Engineering, and Science (AEMES) Scholars program provides early faculty-mentored research opportunities and other programming as a way to foster success in academic outcomes for underrepresented women in science. Using academic record data, we compared Scholars' outcomes over time with those of underrepresented students before program launch and to relevant peer comparison groups. Since its launch, AEMES Scholars have achieved significantly higher gateway life sciences course grade point averages (GPAs), rates of persistence in life and natural sciences, and participation in natural sciences advanced research relative to baseline...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213563/development-and-validation-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-instrument-for-skin-involvement-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#16
Ada Man, Jeannette K Correa, Jessica Ziemek, Robert W Simms, David T Felson, Robert Lafyatis
OBJECTIVES: We developed a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument to assess the skin-related quality of life in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Participants with SSc provided input on skin-related health effects through focus groups. We developed items for scleroderma skin PRO (SSPRO) to encompass these effects. Further consideration from cognitive interviews and an expert panel led to reduction and modification of items. A 22-item SSPRO was field tested...
February 17, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213479/impact-of-searching-clinical-trial-registries-in-systematic-reviews-of-pharmaceutical-treatments-methodological-systematic-review-and-reanalysis-of-meta-analyses
#17
Marie Baudard, Amélie Yavchitz, Philippe Ravaud, Elodie Perrodeau, Isabelle Boutron
Objective To evaluate the impact of searching clinical trial registries in systematic reviews.Design Methodological systematic review and reanalyses of meta-analyses.Data sources Medline was searched to identify systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing pharmaceutical treatments published between June 2014 and January 2015. For all systematic reviews that did not report a trial registry search but reported the information to perform it, the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP search portal) was searched for completed or terminated RCTs not originally included in the systematic review...
February 17, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213396/fear-by-association-perceptions-of-anti-immigrant-policy-and-health-outcomes
#18
Edward D Vargas, Gabriel R Sanchez, Melina Juárez
The United States is experiencing a renewed period of immigration and immigrant policy activity as well as heightened enforcement of such policies. This intensified activity can affect various aspects of immigrant health, including mental health. We use the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2015 Latino National Health and Immigration Survey (n = 1,493) to examine the relationship between immigration and immigrant policy and Latino health and well-being. We estimate a series of categorical regression models and find that there are negative health consequences associated with Latinos' perceptions of living in states with unfavorable anti-immigration laws, including reporting poor health and problems with mental health...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213339/classifying-empirically-valid-and-clinically-meaningful-change-in-eating-disorders-using-the-eating-disorders-inventory-version-2-edi-2
#19
David Clinton, Andreas Birgegård
The study examined the ability of the EDI-2 to classify empirically valid and clinically meaningful change using clinical significance and the Reliable Change Index (CS/RCI), and compared CS/RCI to classification based on diagnostic change. Eating disorder (ED) patients (N=363) were assessed at intake and after 36months on measures of ED and psychiatric symptoms, self-image, interpersonal relationships, treatment satisfaction and general outcome. Patients were categorized using a four-way classification scheme as "Deteriorated", "Unchanged", "Improved" or "No ED"; and using a two-way classification scheme as either in remission or not in remission...
February 9, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213316/opportunities-for-epilepsy-outcomes-of-the-milken-institute-state-of-the-science-retreat
#20
Sonya B Dumanis, Ekemini A U Riley, LaTese Briggs, YooRi Kim, Erik Lontok, Danielle Salka, Melissa Stevens
The Milken Institute Center for Strategic Philanthropy has launched a Giving Smarter Program in Epilepsy to inform philanthropists on the state of the science for the epilepsy field, key challenges, and solutions to address them. As part of the program, the Milken Institute Center for Strategic Philanthropy hosted a retreat to identify strategic investments that would accelerate epilepsy research to ultimately improve care. The top three prioritized opportunities from the retreat were to 1) invest in data standards and analytical tool development, 2) support young investigators, and 3) promote cross-sector collaborations especially between basic scientists, preclinical researchers, clinicians, and patients...
February 14, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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