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Outcomes research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793149/educational-and-emotional-health-outcomes-in-adolescence-following-maltreatment-in-early-childhood-a-population-based-study-of-protective-factors
#1
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793140/effectiveness-of-a-voluntary-family-befriending-service-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-using-the-donabedian-model
#2
S V Gentry, E F J Powers, N Azim, M Maidrag
OBJECTIVES: Voluntary befriending schemes operate in many countries, promoting public health by supporting vulnerable individuals and families. Use of third sector and voluntary services to complement health and social care provision is increasingly important globally in the context of economic and demographic challenges, but the evidence base around such collaborations is limited. This article reports the results of operational evaluation research seeking to use robust routine work to generate transferable findings for use by those commissioning and providing services...
May 21, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793060/a-computational-framework-for-the-detection-of-subcortical-brain-dysmaturation-in-neonatal-mri-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#3
Rafael Ceschin, Alexandria Zahner, William Reynolds, Jenna Gaesser, Giulio Zuccoli, Cecilia W Lo, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Ashok Panigrahy
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in both supervised learning for classification tasks and unsupervised learning to derive complex patterns from the input data. However, the successful implementation of deep neural networks using neuroimaging datasets requires adequate sample size for training and well-defined signal intensity based structural differentiation. There is a lack of effective automated diagnostic tools for the reliable detection of brain dysmaturation in the neonatal period, related to small sample size and complex undifferentiated brain structures, despite both translational research and clinical importance...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792992/frailty-status-as-a-predictor-of-three-month-cognitive-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-surgery-a-prospective-pilot-study
#4
Robert J Rothrock, Jeremy M Steinberger, Henry Badgery, Andrew C Hecht, Samuel K Cho, John M Caridi, Stacie Deiner
Background Context As increasing numbers of elderly Americans undergo spinal surgery, it is important to identify which patients are at highest risk for poor cognitive and functional recovery. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which has been closely linked to poor outcomes, and short form screening may be a helpful tool for preoperative identification of at risk patients. Purpose To conduct a pilot study on the usefulness of a short-form screening tool to identify elderly patients at increased risk for prolonged cognitive and functional recovery following elective spine surgery...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792940/a-randomized-control-trial-to-determine-the-effectiveness-and-physiological-effects-of-spinal-manipulation-and-spinal-mobilization-compared-to-each-other-and-a-sham-condition-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-study-protocol-for-the-relief-study
#5
Brian C Clark, David W Russ, Masato Nakazawa, Christopher R France, Stevan Walkowski, Timothy D Law, Megan Applegate, Niladri Mahato, Samuel Lietkam, James Odenthal, Daniel Corcos, Simeon Hain, Betty Sindelar, Robert J Ploutz-Snyder, James S Thomas
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common reasons for seeking medical care. Manipulative therapies are a common treatment for LBP. Few studies have compared the effectiveness of different types of manipulative therapies. Moreover, the physiologic mechanisms underlying these treatments are not fully understood. Herein, we present the study protocol for The Researching the Effectiveness of Lumbar Interventions for Enhancing Function Study (The RELIEF Study). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The RELIEF Study is a Phase II RCT with a nested mechanistic design...
May 21, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792778/does-iron-supplementation-improve-performance-in-iron-deficient-nonanemic-athletes
#6
Amity Rubeor, Carmen Goojha, Jeffrey Manning, Jordan White
CONTEXT: Supplementing iron-deficient nonanemic (IDNA) athletes with iron to improve performance is a trend in endurance sports. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the benefits of iron on performance, identify a ferritin level cutoff in IDNA athletes, and determine which iron supplementation regimens are most effective. DATA SOURCES: A search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, and Cochrane databases was performed in 2014 including all articles. Citations of pertinent review articles were also searched...
May 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792769/the-evidence-of-early-specialist-palliative-care-on-patient-and-caregiver-outcomes
#7
Claude Chidiac
Although there are many differences regarding what palliative care is and to whom it should be delivered, its delivery and integration earlier in the disease trajectory have been advocated since 1990. More recently, there has been a heightened interest in early access to specialist palliative care through its provision earlier in the disease trajectory to improve patient and caregiver outcomes. This article explores the challenges in understanding and defining 'early' specialist palliative care. It also examines the available evidence on early specialist palliative care interventions and their association with patient and caregiver outcomes...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792719/-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-induced-by-monocrotaline-in-a-large-animal-experiment-a-pilot-study
#8
R Pálek, V Liška, V Třeška, J Rosendorf, M Emingr, V Tégl, A Králíčková, K Bajcurová, M Jiřík, Z Tonar
INTRODUCTION: Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a disease which is caused by toxic injury to hepatic sinusoids. This syndrome is most frequently caused by myeloablative radiochemotherapy in patients before hematopoietic stem cells transplantation and also by oxaliplatin mainly in patients with colorectal liver metastases. The aim of this study was to establish a large animal model of SOS, which would enable further study of this disease and facilitate translation of experimental outcomes into human medicine...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792569/the-relationship-between-suicidal-responses-and-traumatic-brain-injury-and-severe-insomnia-in-active-duty-veteran-and-civilian-populations
#9
Kelly A Soberay, Jetta E Hanson, Megan Dwyer, E Ashby Plant, Peter M Gutierrez
OBJECTIVE: This study examined how a positive traumatic brain injury (TBI) screening and insomnia severity relates to suicidal outcomes across active duty, veteran, and civilian samples. METHODS: Data were used from 3,993 participants from 19 studies. We conducted a series of analyses by group to identify which significantly differed on the variables of interest. RESULTS: TBI and insomnia each had independent relationships with outcomes over and above the impact of the other factor...
May 24, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792564/cognitive-and-behavioral-resilience-among-young-gay-and-bisexual-men-living-with-hiv
#10
Sophia A Hussen, Gary W Harper, Caryn R R Rodgers, Jacob J van den Berg, Nadia Dowshen, Lisa B Hightow-Weidman
PURPOSE: HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (Y-GBMSM). Resilience remains understudied among Y-GBMSM living with HIV, but represents a potentially important framework for improving HIV-related outcomes in this population. We sought to explore cognitive and behavioral dimensions of resilience and their correlates among Y-GBMSM to gain insights to inform future interventions. METHODS: Our study sample consisted of 200 Y-GBMSM living with HIV enrolled in a multisite study of the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN)...
August 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792557/improving-vaccine-related-pain-distress-or-fear-in-healthy-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-search-of-patient-focused-interventions
#11
Vivian Y Lee, Corinne Caillaud, Jacqueline Fong, Kate M Edwards
OBJECTIVE: The WHO recently highlighted the need for research into potential interventions that can be used to mitigate pain during mass vaccinations, in addition to interventions specific for adolescents. The current review examines the literature on potential interventions that can be used during mass vaccination settings in healthy individuals between the ages of 4 and 15 years old. METHODS: Criteria for inclusion were: 1)participants between the ages of 4-15 years, 2)interventions that were patient-focused, 3)vaccinations in healthy individuals, 4)outcome measures to include self-reported pain, fear or distress...
May 24, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792533/efficacy-of-the-resilience-and-adjustment-intervention-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Jeffrey S Kreutzer, Jennifer H Marwitz, Adam P Sima, Ana Mills, Nancy H Hsu, Herman R Lukow
OBJECTIVE: Examine a psychoeducational and skill-building intervention's effectiveness for individuals after traumatic brain injury (TBI), using a two-arm, parallel, randomized, controlled trial with wait-listed control. METHODS: The Resilience and Adjustment Intervention (RAI) targets adjustment challenges and emphasizes education, skill-building and psychological support. Overall, 160 outpatients were randomly assigned to a treatment or wait-list control (WLC) group...
May 24, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792501/optimizing-the-length-width-and-balance-of-a-personality-scale-how-do-internal-characteristics-affect-external-validity
#13
Christopher J Soto, Oliver P John
How well can scores on a personality scale predict criteria such as behaviors and life outcomes? This question concerns external validity, which is a core aspect of personality assessment. The present research was conducted to examine how external validity is influenced by a trait scale's internal characteristics, such as its length (number of items), width (breadth of content), and balance (between positively and negatively keyed items). Participants completed the Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2), and were also assessed on a set of self-reported and peer-reported validity criteria...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792492/evaluation-of-second-step-on-early-elementary-students-academic-outcomes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Clayton R Cook, Sabina Low, Joanne Buntain-Ricklefs, Kelly Whitaker, Michael D Pullmann, Jaclyn Lally
Research has consistently linked social-emotional learning to important educational and life outcomes. Early elementary represents an opportune developmental period to proactively support children to acquire social-emotional skills that enable academic success. Using data from a large scale randomized controlled trial, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the 4th edition of Second Step on early elementary students' academic-related outcomes. Participants were Kindergarten to 2nd grade students in 61 schools (310 teachers; 7,419 students) across six school districts in Washington State and Arizona...
May 24, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792487/ethnic-racial-typicality-and-its-relation-to-ethnic-identity-and-psychological-functioning
#15
Lauren L Mitchell, Ummul-Kiram Kathawalla, Alex A Ajayi, Jillian Fish, Sarah C Nelson, Lovey H M Peissig, Moin Syed
OBJECTIVES: Ethnic identity development is considered a central task of adolescence and emerging adulthood for ethnic minority individuals. Although the process of developing a coherent ethnic identity has received attention from researchers, there has been little work done to elucidate the content of ethnic identity. This study uses an inductive mixed-methods approach to address 1 aspect of ethnic identity content: typicality, or the degree of perceived similarity individuals feel to their ethnic-racial group...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792484/-a-threat-on-the-ground-the-consequences-of-witnessing-stereotype-confirming-ingroup-members-in-interracial-interactions
#16
Valerie Jones Taylor, Randi L Garcia, J Nicole Shelton, Caitlyn Yantis
OBJECTIVES: Three studies explored interpersonal consequences of engaging in interracial interactions after witnessing racial ingroup members' stereotypical behavior. METHOD: Study 1 used experience-sampling methodology to assess ethnic minority students' (n = 119) intergroup anxiety, metastereotypes, and anticipatory behaviors following one of three types of interpersonal interactions: (a) a White person and a racial ingroup member who had behaved stereotypically, (b) a White person and a nonstereotypical ingroup member, or (c) neither...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792475/the-alliance-in-adult-psychotherapy-a-meta-analytic-synthesis
#17
Christoph Flückiger, A C Del Re, Bruce E Wampold, Adam O Horvath
The alliance continues to be one of the most investigated variables related to success in psychotherapy irrespective of theoretical orientation. We define and illustrate the alliance (also conceptualized as therapeutic alliance, helping alliance, or working alliance) and then present a meta-analysis of 295 independent studies that covered more than 30,000 patients (published between 1978 and 2017) for face-to-face and Internet-based psychotherapy. The relation of the alliance and treatment outcome was investigated using a three-level meta-analysis with random-effects restricted maximum-likelihood estimators...
May 24, 2018: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792470/the-science-of-teamwork-progress-reflections-and-the-road-ahead
#18
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792469/unpacking-team-process-dynamics-and-emergent-phenomena-challenges-conceptual-advances-and-innovative-methods
#19
Steve W J Kozlowski, Georgia T Chao
Psychologists have studied small-group and team effectiveness for decades, and although there has been considerable progress, there remain significant challenges. Meta-analyses and systematic research have provided solid evidence for core team cognitive, motivational, affective, and behavioral processes that contribute to team effectiveness and empirical support for interventions that enhance team processes (e.g., team design, composition, training, and leadership); there has been substantial evidence for a science of team effectiveness...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792465/team-development-interventions-evidence-based-approaches-for-improving-teamwork
#20
Christina N Lacerenza, Shannon L Marlow, Scott I Tannenbaum, Eduardo Salas
The rate of teamwork and collaboration within the workforce has burgeoned over the years, and the use of teams is projected to continue increasing. With the rise of teamwork comes the need for interventions designed to enhance teamwork effectiveness. Successful teams produce desired outcomes; however, it is critical that team members demonstrate effective processes to achieve these outcomes. Team development interventions (TDIs) increase effective team competencies and processes, thereby leading to improvements in proximal and distal outcomes...
May 2018: American Psychologist
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