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Oxygen Carrier

Manuel Held, Fabian Medved, Wiebke Petersen, Dascha Sophie Tolzmann, Afshin Rahmanian-Schwarz, Hans-Eberhard Schaller, Jens Rothenberger
OBJECTIVE: Innovative skin substitutes and temporary wound dressings are frequently used in the treatment of superficial and partial-thickness wounds. The aim of this study was to compare 2 commonly used temporary skin dressings with a newly developed collagen matrix to determine changes in microcirculation as measured by blood flow, hemoglobin oxygenation, and relative hemoglobin values during healing of partial-thickness skin defects. METHODS: This animal study involved 28 adult male Lewis rats...
November 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Ninni Persson, Catarina Lavebratt, Natalie C Ebner, Håkan Fischer
Dopaminergic pathways play a crucial role in reward processing, and advanced age can modulate its efficiency. DARPP-32 controls dopaminergic function and is a chemical nexus of reward processing. In 61 younger (20-30 years) and older adults (54% ♀) (65-74 years), we examined how blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation to emotional faces, vary over genotypes at three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), coding for DARPP-32 (rs879606; rs907094; 3764352). We also assessed age-magnification of DARPP-32 effects on BOLD activation...
October 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Mingyue Zhu, Qian Liu, Wei Chen, Yuanyuan Yin, Lan Ge, Henan Li, Kun Wang
The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in photoactive materials is highly desired, allowing their transfer to specific sites for undergoing redox reaction in various application. The construction of ternary heterojunctions is a practical strategy to enhance the migration of photogenerated electron that realizes the synergistic effect of multi-components rather than the simple overlay of single component. Here, we demonstrate an available way to fabricate new BiOCl/BiVO4/nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) ternary heterojunctions that exhibit higher efficiency in charge separation than any binary heterojunctions or pure materials under visible light irradiation...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Liangtao Li, Diane M Ward
All eukaryotes require the transition metal, iron, a redox active element that is an essential cofactor in many metabolic pathways, as well as an oxygen carrier. Iron can also react to generate oxygen radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anions, which are highly toxic to cells. Therefore, organisms have developed intricate mechanisms to acquire iron as well as to protect themselves from the toxic effects of excess iron. In fungi and plants, iron is stored in the vacuole as a protective mechanism against iron toxicity...
October 17, 2017: Current Genetics
Shashank Agrawal, Kanchan Jaswal, Anthony L Shiver, Himanshi Balecha, Tapas Patra, Rachna Chaba
Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are used as a rich source of metabolic energy by several bacteria including important pathogens. Since LCFAs also induce oxidative stress, which may be detrimental to bacterial growth, it is imperative to understand the strategies employed by bacteria to counteract such stresses. Here, we performed a genetic screen in Escherichia coli on the LCFA, oleate, and compared our results with published genome-wide screens of multiple non-fermentable carbon sources. This large-scale analysis revealed that amongst components of the aerobic electron transport chain (ETC), only genes involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone, an electron carrier in the ETC, are highly required for growth in LCFAs when compared to other carbon sources...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Taufiq Ahmad, Jinkyu Lee, Young Min Shin, Hyeok Jun Shin, Sajeesh Kumar Madhurakat Perikamana, Sun Hwa Park, Sung Won Kim, Heungsoo Shin
Extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment is critical for the viability, stemness, and differentiation of stem cells. In this study, we developed hybrid-spheroids of human turbinate mesenchymal stem cells (hTMSCs) by using extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking fragmented fibers (FFs) for improvement of the viability and functions of hTMSCs. We prepared FFs with average size of 68.26 µm by partial aminolysis of poly L-lactide (PLLA) fibrous sheet (FS), which was coated with polydopamine for improved cell adhesion...
October 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Johannes Ermert
The increasing importance of the positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical diagnosis led to the development of a multitude of radiotracers labelled with positron emitting radionuclides of group 15 (pnicogens) and 16 (chalcogens) of the periodic table of elements. The positron emitters of the endogenous occurring elements nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulphur are characterized by very short half-lives compared to the most commonly used PET-radionuclides carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Therefore, the potential of their synthesis and possible applications in PET is challenging and limited...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Weerawate Utto, Rittirong Preutikul, Patcharee Malila, Athapol Noomhorm, John E Bronlund
This research was conducted to investigate effects of ethanol vapour released in active packaging and storage temperatures on the quality of freshly peeled shallots. The package tested was a solid polypropylene tray incorporating an ethanol vapour-controlled release sachet. The sachet was made of an aluminium foil film on one side and either low-density polyethylene or nylon/polyethylene on the other. Individual sachets contained silica gel adsorbent as the carrier pre-loaded with ethanol. One sachet was placed in each tray containing the peeled shallots and the tray was heat sealed with the low-density polyethylene film lid...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Yu Qin, Joanna Zajda, Elizabeth J Brisbois, Hang Ren, John Toomasian, Terry Major, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Benjamin Carr, Thomas Johnson, Jonathan Haft, Robert H Bartlett, Andrew Hunt, Nicolai Lehnert, Mark E Meyerhoff
A new portable gas phase nitric oxide (NO) generator is described for potential applications in inhaled NO (INO) therapy and during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. In this system, NO is produced at the surface of a large area mesh working electrode by electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions in the presence of a soluble copper(II)-ligand electron transfer mediator complex. The NO generated is then transported into gas phase by either direct purging with nitrogen or via circulating the electrolyte/nitrite solution through a gas extraction silicone fiber-based membrane-dialyzer assembly...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jiang Pi, Jinhuan Jiang, Huaihong Cai, Fen Yang, Hua Jin, Peihui Yang, Jiye Cai, Zheng W Chen
Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) have attracted increasing interest in recent decades because of their anticancer, immunoregulation, and drug carrier functions. In this study, GE11 peptide-conjugated Se NPs (GE11-Se NPs), a nanosystem targeting EGFR over-expressed cancer cells, were synthesized for oridonin delivery to achieve enhanced anticancer efficacy. Oridonin loaded and GE11 peptide conjugated Se NPs (GE11-Ori-Se NPs) were found to show enhanced cellular uptake in cancer cells, which resulted in enhanced cancer inhibition against cancer cells and reduced toxicity against normal cells...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
Zonglian She, Lan Wu, Qun Wang, Mengchun Gao, Chunji Jin, Yangguo Zhao, Linting Zhao, Liang Guo
The effect of increasing salinity on nitrogen removal via simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, microbial activities and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were investigated in a hybrid sequencing batch biofilm reactor filled with soft combination carriers. In the influent salinity range from 1.0 to 2.0%, average COD, NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiencies were higher than 97.1, 97.8 and 86.4% at the steady state. When salinity was increased to 2.5 and 3.0%, ammonium oxidation was obviously inhibited in the reactor...
October 9, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Mithu Storoni, Matthieu P Robert, Gordon T Plant
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited, bilateral, sequential optic neuropathy that usually affects young males. LHON arises from a defect in complex I of the oxidative phosphorylation chain that generates increased reactive oxygen species and causes a decline in cellular ATP production. There exists no cure at present for LHON. Asymptomatic LHON mutation carriers show signs of increased mitochondrial biogenesis that may compensate for the compromise in complex I activity. Partial recovery in LHON is associated with a wider optic disc diameter and a younger age at disease onset, which may allow for greater mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity...
October 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
Federico Battisti, Chiara Napoletano, Hassan Rahimi Koshkaki, Francesca Belleudi, Ilaria Grazia Zizzari, Ilary Ruscito, Sara Palchetti, Filippo Bellati, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici, Maria Rosaria Torrisi, Giulio Caracciolo, Fabio Altieri, Marianna Nuti, Aurelia Rughetti
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the only antigen-presenting cells able to prime naïve T cells and cross-prime antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Their functionality is a requirement for the induction and maintenance of long-lasting cancer immunity. Albeit intensively investigated, the in vivo mechanisms underlying efficient antigen cross-processing and presentation are not fully understood. Several pieces of evidence indicate that antigen transfer to DCs mediated by microvesicles (MVs) enhances antigen immunogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Natasha Hodgkinson, Cherie A Kruger, Heidi Abrahamse
Colorectal cancer is commonly treated by tumour resection, as chemotherapy and radiation have proven to be less effective, especially if the tumour has metastasized. Resistance to therapies occurs in almost all patients with colorectal cancer, especially in those with metastatic tumours. Cancer stem cells have the ability to self-renew, and their slow rate of cycling enhances resistance to treatment and increases the likelihood of tumour recurrence. Most metastatic tumours are unable to be surgically removed, thus creating a need for treatment modalities that target cancers directly and destroy cancer stem cells...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Vlad Al Toma, Anca D Farcas, Ioana Roman, Bogdan Sevastre, Denisa Hathazi, Florina Scurtu, Grigore Damian, Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu
We have previously proposed the annelid-derived protein, hemerythrin, as a viable replacement for hemoglobin in the synthesis of semi-synthetic oxygen carriers ("blood substitutes"). Here, we report the first in vivo tests for potential hemerythrin-based oxygen carriers (HrBOC), using a battery of experiments involving Wistar rats and previously tested on a series of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier candidates (HBOC). At the concentrations tested, hemerythrin appears to behave similarly to hemoglobin - including, importantly, immunological effects...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jiaxin Qu, Xiaomeng Guo, Wei Li, Wanqing Hou, Hanbo Zhang, Lihua Luo, Chunqi Zhu, Jie Yang, Xiaoyi Yin, Yuan Tao, Yongzhong Du, Yan Lou, Dawei Chen, Jian You
Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers were developed as an alternative for blood transfusion. However, the research progress for their further clinic applications was slow in recent several years. Hypoxia is found in most solid tumors, which is responsible for the tumor formation, increased metastasis, drug resistance during therapeutic process as well as poor patient survival. In this work, novel hemoglobin (Hb) loaded nanoliposomes, as artificial red cells for oxygen delivery, were optimized by screening various types of phospholipids and analyzing different mole ratio of phospholipid to cholesterol...
September 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jingjing Qiu, Hamed Hajibabaei, Michael R Nellist, Forrest A L Laskowski, Thomas W Hamann, Shannon W Boettcher
Electrocatalysts improve the efficiency of light-absorbing semiconductor photoanodes driving the oxygen evolution reaction, but the precise function(s) of the electrocatalysts remains unclear. We directly measure, for the first time, the interface carrier transport properties of a prototypical visible-light-absorbing semiconductor, α-Fe2O3, in contact with one of the fastest known water oxidation catalysts, Ni0.8Fe0.2O x , by directly measuring/controlling the current and/or voltage at the Ni0.8Fe0.2O x catalyst layer using a second working electrode...
September 27, 2017: ACS Central Science
Adriano M de Assis, Jonas Alex Morales Saute, Aline Longoni, Clarissa Branco Haas, Vitor Rocco Torrez, Andressa Wigner Brochier, Gabriele Nunes Souza, Gabriel Vasata Furtado, Tailise Conte Gheno, Aline Russo, Thais Lampert Monte, Raphael Machado Castilhos, Artur Schumacher-Schuh, Rui D'Avila, Karina Carvalho Donis, Carlos Roberto de Mello Rieder, Diogo Onofre Souza, Suzi Camey, Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti, Laura Bannach Jardim, Luis Valmor Portela
OBJECTIVES: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) is a polyglutamine disorder with no current disease-modifying treatment. Conformational changes in mutant ataxin-3 trigger different pathogenic cascades, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; however, the clinical relevance of oxidative stress elements as peripheral biomarkers of SCA3/MJD remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate ROS production and antioxidant defense capacity in symptomatic and presymptomatic SCA3/MJD individuals and correlate these markers with clinical and molecular data with the goal of assessing their properties as disease biomarkers...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Enric Saiz, Albert Calbet, Kaiene Griffell
Planktonic copepods are a very successful group in marine pelagic environments, with a key role in biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the genus Oithona is one of the more abundant and ubiquitous. We report here on the effects of caloric (food) restriction on the ageing patterns of the copepod Oithona davisae. The response of O. davisae to caloric restriction was sex dependent: under food limitation, females have lower age-specific mortality rates and longer lifespans and reproductive periods; male mortality rates and life expectancy were not affected...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Haibing Yu, Hongyu Zhang, Zhigang Chu, Qiongfang Ruan, Xueru Chen, Danli Kong, Xiaodong Huang, Huawen Li, Huanwen Tang, Hongjin Wu, Yifei Wang, Weiguo Xie, Yuanling Ding, Paul Yao
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has widely infected more than 90% of human populations. Currently, there is no efficient way to remove the virus because the EBV carriers are usually in a latent stage that allows them to escape the immune system and common antiviral drugs. In the effort to develop an efficient strategy for the removal of the EBV virus, we have shown that betulinic acid (BA) slightly suppresses EBV replication through SOD2 suppression with subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in EBV-transformed LCL (lymphoblastoid cell line) cells...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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