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Oxygen Carrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525827/oxygen-vacancies-promoted-interfacial-charge-carrier-transfer-of-cds-zno-heterostructure-for-photocatalytic-hydrogen-generation
#1
Ying Peng Xie, Yongqiang Yang, Guosheng Wang, Gang Liu
The solid-state Z-scheme trinary/binary heterostructures show the advantage of utilizing the high-energy photogenerated charge carriers in photocatalysis. However, the key factors controlling such Z-scheme in the binary heterostructures are still unclear. In this paper, we showed that oxygen vacancies could act as an interface electron transfer mediator to promote the direct Z-scheme charge transfer process in binary semiconductor heterostructures of CdS/ZnS. Increasing the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies of ZnO crystal can greatly enhance photocatalytic hydrogen generation of CdS/ZnO heterostructure...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522801/the-resonant-interaction-between-anions-or-vacancies-in-znon-semiconductors-and-their-effects-on-thin-film-device-properties
#2
Jozeph Park, Hyun-Jun Jeong, Hyun-Mo Lee, Ho-Hyun Nahm, Jin-Seong Park
Zinc oxynitride (ZnON) semiconductors are suitable for high performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) with excellent device stability under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS). The present work provides a first approach on the optimization of electrical performance and stability of the TFTs via studying the resonant interaction between anions or vacancies in ZnON. It is found that the incorporation of nitrogen increases the concentration of nitrogen vacancies (VN(+)s), which generate larger concentrations of free electrons with increased mobility...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521553/glutaraldehyde-polymerized-hemoglobin-and-tempol-polyhb-tempol-has-superoxide-dismutase-activity-that-can-attenuate-oxidative-stress-on-endothelial-cells-induced-by-superoxide-anion
#3
Mengdi Wu, Kun Feng, Qiuhui Li, Huiya Ma, Hongli Zhu, Yudou Xie, Gaofei Yan, Chao Chen, Kunping Yan
A Tempol compound with an amine group (4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl, NH2-Tempol) was cross-linked to hemoglobin in a one-step polymerization reaction to produce a novel hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) designated PolyHb-Tempol. The reaction parameters, including the reaction time, pH, temperature, and ratio of reactants, were optimized, and the physiochemical properties of the resulting product were characterized. PolyHb-Tempol didn't show any toxicity towards endothelial cells. Furthermore, from observations of cell morphology and viability, PolyHb-Tempol showed a significant ability to inhibit or eliminate oxidative stress induced by superoxide free radicals...
May 18, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520579/the-use-of-an-acellular-oxygen-carrier-in-a-human-liver-model-of-normothermic-machine-perfusion
#4
Richard W Laing, Ricky H Bhogal, Lorraine Wallace, Yuri Boteon, Desley A H Neil, Amanda Smith, Barney T F Stephenson, Andrea Schlegel, Stefan G Hübscher, Darius F Mirza, Simon C Afford, Hynek Mergental
BACKGROUND: Normothermic machine perfusion of the liver (NMP-L) is a novel technique that preserves liver grafts under near-physiological conditions whilst maintaining their normal metabolic activity. This process requires an adequate oxygen supply, typically delivered by packed red blood cells (RBC). We present the first experience using an acellular hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) Hemopure in a human model of NMP-L. METHODS: Five discarded high-risk human livers were perfused with HBOC-based perfusion fluid and matched to 5 RBC-perfused livers...
May 18, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514064/brain-inspired-photonic-neuromorphic-devices-using-photodynamic-amorphous-oxide-semiconductors-and-their-persistent-photoconductivity
#5
Minkyung Lee, Woobin Lee, Seungbeom Choi, Jeong-Wan Jo, Jaekyun Kim, Sung Kyu Park, Yong-Hoon Kim
The combination of a neuromorphic architecture and photonic computing may open up a new era for computational systems owing to the possibility of attaining high bandwidths and the low-computation-power requirements. Here, the demonstration of photonic neuromorphic devices based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) that mimic major synaptic functions, such as short-term memory/long-term memory, spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and neural facilitation, is reported. The synaptic functions are successfully emulated using the inherent persistent photoconductivity (PPC) characteristic of AOSs...
May 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511875/visible-light-switched-cytosol-release-of-sirna-by-amphiphilic-fullerene-derivative-to-enhance-rnai-efficacy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Jing Wang, Lifei Xie, Tao Wang, Fengxin Wu, Jie Meng, Jian Liu, Haiyan Xu
Cationic macromolecules are attractive for use as small interfering RNA (siRNA) carriers due to their performance in non-immunological reactions, customization during synthesis, and low costs compared to viral carriers. However, their low transfection efficiency substantially hinders their application in both clinical practices and academic research, which is mostly attributable to the low capacity of siRNA/cationic macromolecule complexes to escape lysosomes. To address this challenge, we designed an amphiphilic fullerene derivative (C60-Dex-NH2) for efficient and controllable siRNA delivery...
May 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508057/low-energy-structural-dynamics-of-ferroelectric-domain-walls-in-hexagonal-rare-earth-manganites
#7
Xiaoyu Wu, Urko Petralanda, Lu Zheng, Yuan Ren, Rongwei Hu, Sang-Wook Cheong, Sergey Artyukhin, Keji Lai
Domain walls (DWs) in ferroic materials, across which the order parameter abruptly changes its orientation, can host emergent properties that are absent in the bulk domains. Using a broadband (10(6) to 10(10) Hz) scanning impedance microscope, we show that the electrical response of the interlocked antiphase boundaries and ferroelectric DWs in hexagonal rare-earth manganites (h-RMnO3) is dominated by the bound-charge oscillation rather than free-carrier conduction at the DWs. As a measure of the rate of energy dissipation, the effective conductivity of DWs on the (001) surfaces of h-RMnO3 at gigahertz frequencies is drastically higher than that at dc, whereas the effect is absent on surfaces with in-plane polarized domains...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504006/a-comparative-study-on-the-mn-tio2-m-m-sn%C3%A3-zr-or-al-ox-catalysts-for-nh3-scr-reaction-at-low-temperature
#8
Yaping Zhang, Tianjiao Huang, Rui Xiao, Haitao Xu, Kai Shen, Changcheng Zhou
A series of TiO2-M(M = Sn、Zr or Al) Ox were prepared and the manganese oxide (MnOx) was supported on the carrier by the traditional impregnation method for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia as reductant. The obtained catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, HRTEM, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD, XPS and in situ FT-IR and their catalytic activities for NOx reduction with NH3 in the presence of SO2 were investigated comparatively. The results showed that the highest NOx conversion of over 90% could be obtained on Mn /Ti-Sn catalyst at the wide range of temperature window of 150-270 (◦)C...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497819/disorder-induced-transition-from-grain-boundary-to-bulk-dominated-ionic-diffusion-in-pyrochlores
#9
Romain Perriot, Pratik P Dholabhai, Blas P Uberuaga
We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the role of grain boundaries (GBs) on ionic diffusion in pyrochlores, as a function of the GB type, chemistry of the compound, and level of cation disorder. We observe that the presence of GBs promotes oxygen transport in ordered and low-disordered systems, as the GBs are found to have a higher concentration of mobile carriers with higher mobilities than in the bulk. Thus, in ordered samples, the ionic diffusion is 2D, localized along the grain boundary. When cation disorder is introduced, bulk carriers begin to contribute to the overall diffusion, while the GB contribution is only slightly enhanced...
May 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497686/enhancing-the-durability-and-carrier-selectivity-of-perovskite-solar-cells-using-a-blend-interlayer
#10
Dong Hun Sin, Sae Byeok Jo, Seung Goo Lee, Hyomin Ko, Min Kim, Hansol Lee, Kilwon Cho
A mechanically and thermally stable and electron-selective ZnO/CH3NH3PbI3 interface is created via hybridization of a polar insulating polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), into ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). PEG successfully passivates the oxygen defects on ZnO and prevents direct contact between CH3NH3PbI3 and defects on ZnO. A uniform CH3NH3PbI3 film is formed on a soft ZnO:PEG layer after dispersion of the residual stress from the volume expansion during CH3NH3PbI3 conversion. PEG also increases the work of adhesion of the CH3NH3PbI3 film on the ZnO:PEG layer and holds the CH3NH3PbI3 film with hydrogen bonding...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497134/enhanced-planar-perovskite-solar-cells-with-efficiency-exceeding-16-via-reducing-the-oxygen-vacancy-defect-state-in-titanium-oxide-electrode
#11
Yangyang Du, Hongkun Cai, Yunhao Wu, Zhixue Xing, Zhenglong Li, Jian Xu, Like Huang, Jian Ni, Juan Li, Jianjun Zhang
In this work, the influence of oxygen vacancy defect (OVD) in compact titanium oxide (c-TiO2) on the performance of planar perovskite solar cells (p-PSCs) is investigated, and the possible mechanisms are also proposed. To meet our objective, anatase c-TiO2 thin films with various OVD concentrations are prepared by changing the oxygen flux during the DC magnetron sputtering process and are characterized by the intensity of defect signals in the X-ray photoelectron spectra. We conclude that abundant OVDs can trigger an obviously increased majority carrier accumulation zone at the metal oxide/perovskite interface and enhanced capacitance, thereby greatly deteriorating photogenerated carrier collection efficiency...
May 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495429/superoxide-hydrogen-peroxide-genetic-imbalance-modulates-differentially-the-oxidative-metabolism-on-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-exposed-to-seleno-l-methionine
#12
Karen Lilian Schott, Charles Elias Assmann, Fernanda Barbisan, Verônica Farina Azzolin, Beatriz Bonadiman, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Alencar Kolinski Machado, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz
Superoxide-hydrogen peroxide (S-HP) imbalance genetically caused by a gene polymorphism in the human manganese superoxide dismutase enzyme (Val16Ala-MnSOD) is associated with several dysfunctions and diseases. Into mitochondria, MnSOD catalyses superoxide radical producing hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Ala-MnSOD genotype presents a high MnSOD efficiency and generates the highest H2O2 concentrations that has been associated with the risk of several cancer types. Cellular selenoenzymes glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) as well as catalase (CAT) are essential to H2O2 removal produced in excess in cells...
May 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493671/cationic-polythiophenes-as-gene-delivery-enhancer
#13
Yajie Zhang, Xiao Li, Tiantian Wu, Jian Sun, Xuewei Wang, Leilei Cao, Fude Feng
There is urgent demand of easily available and highly effective method to improve transgene performance of polymeric gene carriers at low consumption of delivery materials. We developed biocompatible multicomponent nanocomposites in which small quantities of cationic polythiophenes were engineered into the outer shell of polypeptide/DNA polyplexes without covalent linkages. We revealed the introduction of polythiophenes in small quantities led to multiple outcomes including modulation of polyplex size and zeta potential, increase in polyplex stability, promotion of endolysosome membrane disruption, light-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and significant enhancement of gene delivery to tumor cells...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484845/a-one-dimensional-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor-model-for-nitrification-of-municipal-wastewaters
#14
Ugo Barry, Jean-Marc Choubert, Jean-Pierre Canler, Olivier Pétrimaux, Alain Héduit, Paul Lessard
This work presents a one-dimensional model of a moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) process designed for the removal of nitrogen from raw wastewaters. A comprehensive experimental strategy was deployed at a semi-industrial pilot-scale plant fed with a municipal wastewater operated at 10-12 °C, and surface loading rates of 1-2 g filtered COD/m(2) d and 0.4-0.55 g NH4-N/m(2) d. Data were collected on influent/effluent composition, and on measurement of key variables or parameters (biofilm mass and maximal thickness, thickness of the limit liquid layer, maximal nitrification rate, oxygen mass transfer coefficient)...
May 8, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480698/role-of-nonradiative-defects-and-environmental-oxygen-on-exciton-recombination-processes-in-cspbbr3-perovskite-nanocrystals
#15
Monica Lorenzon, Luca Sortino, Quinten Akkerman, Sara Accornero, Jacopo Pedrini, Mirko Prato, Valerio Pinchetti, Francesco Meinardi, Liberato Manna, Sergio Brovelli
Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are emerging as optically active materials for solution-processed optoelectronic devices. Despite the technological relevance of tracing rational guidelines for optimizing their performances and stability beyond their intrinsic resilience to structural imperfections, no in-depth study of the role of selective carrier trapping and environmental conditions on their exciton dynamics has been reported to date. Here we conduct spectro-electrochemical (SEC) experiments, side-by-side to oxygen sensing measurements on CsPbBr3 NCs for the first time...
May 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476777/disease-stage-dependent-changes-in-cardiac-contractile-performance-and-oxygen-utilization-underlie-reduced-myocardial-efficiency-in-human-inherited-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#16
Ahmet Güçlü, Paul Knaapen, Hendrik J Harms, Rahana Y Parbhudayal, Michelle Michels, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert C van Rossum, Tjeerd Germans, Jolanda van der Velden
BACKGROUND: Reduced myocardial efficiency represents a target for therapy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy although therapeutic benefit may depend on disease stage. Here, we determined disease stage-dependent changes in myocardial efficiency and effects of myectomy surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial external efficiency (MEE) was determined in 27 asymptomatic mutation carriers (genotype positive/phenotype negative), 10 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), 10 patients with aortic valve stenosis, and 14 healthy individuals using [(11)C]-acetate positron emission tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473695/fully-transparent-high-performance-thin-film-transistors-with-bilayer-ito-al-sn-zn-o-channel-structures-fabricated-on-glass-substrate
#17
Yingying Cong, Dedong Han, Junchen Dong, Shengdong Zhang, Xing Zhang, Yi Wang
In this work, fully transparent high performance double-channel indium-tin-oxide/Al-Sn-Zn-O thin-film transistors (ITO/ATZO TFTs) are successfully fabricated on glass by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The ITO layer acts as the bottom channel layer to increase the channel carrier concentration. The top ATZO channel layer, which is deposited via high oxygen partial pressure in the sputtering process, is useful to control the minimum off-state current. After annealing, the ITO/ATZO TFT demonstrates outstanding electrical performances, including a high ON/OFF current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 3...
May 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473326/reduced-carboxylesterase-1-is-associated-with-endothelial-injury-in-methamphetamine-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
Mark E Orcholski, Artyom Khurshudyan, Elya A Shamskhou, Ke Yuan, Ian Y Chen, Sean D Kodani, Christophe Morisseau, Bruce D Hammock, Ellen M Hong, Ludmila Alexandrova, Tero-Pekka Alastalo, Gerald Berry, Roham T Zamanian, Vinicio A de Jesus Perez
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a complication of methamphetamine use (METH-PAH) but the pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. Given that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) are involved in metabolism of METH and other amphetamine-like compounds, we postulated that loss of function variants could contribute to METH-PAH. While no difference in CYP2D6 expression was seen by lung immunofluorescence, CES1 expression was significantly reduced in endothelium of METH-PAH microvessels. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that healthy pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) have the capacity to both internalize and metabolize METH...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468871/a-disparity-between-locomotor-economy-and-territory-holding-ability-in-male-house-mice
#19
Jeremy S Morris, James S Ruff, Wayne K Potts, David R Carrier
Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance, and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467979/negative-effect-of-ellagic-acid-on-cytosolic-ph-regulation-and-glycolytic-flux-in-human-endometrial-cancer-cells
#20
Khalid N M Abdelazeem, Yogesh Singh, Florian Lang, Madhuri S Salker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1. The carrier is sensitive to oxidative stress. Growth of tumor cells could be suppressed by the polyphenol Ellagic acid, which is found in various fruits and vegetables. An effect of Ellagic acid on transport processes has, however, never been reported...
April 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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