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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933547/investigating-molecular-structures-of-brassica-carinata-and-canola-seeds-as-predictors-to-estimate-protein-bioavailability-for-ruminants-by-advanced-non-destructive-vibrational-molecular-spectroscopy
#1
Yajing Ban, Luciana Louzada Prates, Peiqiang Yu
This study was conducted to (1) determine protein and carbohydrate molecular structure profiles, (2) quantify the relationship between structural features and protein bioavailability of newly developed carinata and canola seeds for dairy cows by using Fourier transform infrared molecular spectroscopy. Results showed similarity in protein structural make-up within the entire protein structural region between carinata and canola seeds. The highest area ratios related to structural CHO, total CHO and cellulosic compounds were obtained for carinata seeds...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929038/drainage-after-modified-radical-mastectomy-a-methodological-mini-review
#2
REVIEW
George S Stoyanov, Dragostina Tsocheva, Katerina Marinova, Emil Dobrev, Rumen Nenkov
Breast cancer is a socially relevant group of malignant conditions of the mammary gland, affecting both males and females. Most commonly the surgical approach of choice is a modified radical mastectomy (MRM), due to it allowing for both the removal of the main tumor mass and adjacent glandular tissue, which are suspected of infiltration and multifocality of the process, and a sentinel axillary lymph node removal. Most common post-surgical complications following MRM are the formation of a hematoma, the infection of the surgical wound and the formation of a seroma...
July 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928752/climate-clever-clovers-new-paradigm-to-reduce-the-environmental-footprint-of-ruminants-by-breeding-low-methanogenic-forages-utilizing-haplotype-variation
#3
Parwinder Kaur, Rudi Appels, Philipp E Bayer, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnere, Jiankang Wang, Hideki Hirakawa, Kenta Shirasawa, Philip Vercoe, Katia Stefanova, Zoey Durmic, Phillip Nichols, Clinton Revell, Sachiko N Isobe, David Edwards, William Erskine
Mitigating methane production by ruminants is a significant challenge to global livestock production. This research offers a new paradigm to reduce methane emissions from ruminants by breeding climate-clever clovers. We demonstrate wide genetic diversity for the trait methanogenic potential in Australia's key pasture legume, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). In a bi-parental population the broadsense heritability in methanogenic potential was moderate (H(2) = 0.4) and allelic variation in a region of Chr 8 accounted for 7...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927478/molecular-hydrogen-generated-by-elemental-magnesium-supplementation-alters-rumen-fermentation-and-microbiota-in-goats
#4
Min Wang, Rong Wang, XiuMin Zhang, Emilio M Ungerfeld, Donglei Long, HongXiang Mao, JinZhen Jiao, Karen A Beauchemin, Zhiliang Tan
We tested the hypotheses that supplementation of a diet with elemental Mg increases ruminal dissolved H2 (dH2) in rumen fluid, which in turn alters rumen fermentation and microbial community in goats. In a randomised block design, twenty growing goats were allocated to two treatments fed the same basal diet with 1·45 % Mg(OH)2 or 0·6 % elemental Mg. After 28 d of adaptation, we collected total faeces to measure total tract digestibility, rumen contents to analyse fermentation end products and microbial groups, and measured methane (CH4) emission using respiration chambers...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927467/associations-among-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrate-ruminal-microbiota-and-epithelium-g-protein-coupled-receptor-and-histone-deacetylase-regulations-in-goats
#5
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Zhan Chen, Zanming Shen
BACKGROUND: Diet-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the rumen have broad effects on the health and growth of ruminants. The microbe-G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) and microbe-histone deacetylase (HDAC) axes might be the major pathway mediating these effects. Here, an integrated approach of transcriptome sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the synergetic responses of rumen epithelium and rumen microbiota to the increased intake of dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) from 15 to 30% in the goat model...
September 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925282/corrigendum-bacterial-community-composition-and-fermentation-in-the-rumen-of-xinjiang-brown-cattle-bos-taurus-tarim-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-yarkandensis-and-karakul-sheep-ovis-aries
#6
Wenxi Qian, ZhiPeng Li, Weiping Ao, Guangyong Zhao, JianPing Wu, Guangyu Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923658/corrigendum-to-between-cow-variation-in-digestion-and-rumen-fermentation-variables-associated-with-methane-production-j-dairy-sci-100-4409-4424
#7
E H Cabezas-Garcia, S J Krizsan, K J Shingfield, P Huhtanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922800/changes-in-fibre-adherent-and-fluid-associated-microbial-communities-and-fermentation-profiles-in-the-rumen-of-cattle-fed-diets-differing-in-hay-quality-and-concentrate-amount
#8
Fenja Klevenhusen, Renee M Petri, Maria-Theresia Kleefisch, Ratchaneewan Khiaosa-Ard, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Qendrim Zebeli
The rumen microbiota enable important metabolic functions to the host cattle. Feeding of starch-rich concentrate feedstuffs to cattle has been demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic disorders and to significantly alter the rumen microbiome. Thus, alternative feeding strategies like the use of high-quality hay, rich in sugars, as an alternative energy source need to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in rumen microbial abundances in the liquid and solid-associated fraction of cattle fed two hay qualities differing in sugar content with graded amounts of starchy concentrate feeds using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920785/detomidine-and-butorphanol-for-standing-sedation-in-a-range-of-zoo-kept-ungulate-species
#9
Tim Bouts, Joanne Dodds, Karla Berry, Abdi Arif, Polly Taylor, Andrew Routh, Frank Gasthuys
General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920414/metagenomic-analysis-of-bacterial-community-structure-and-diversity-of-lignocellulolytic-bacteria-in-vietnamese-native-goat-rumen
#10
Huyen Thi Do, Khoa Trong Dao, Viet Khanh Hoang Nguyen, Giang Ngoc Le, Phuong Thi Mai Nguyen, Lam Tung Le, Nguyet Thu Phung, Nico van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Hai Nam Truong
Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. Methods: The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (NR) sequence database...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920412/molecular-cloning-purification-expression-and-characterization-of-%C3%AE-1-4-endoglucanase-gene-cel5a-from-eubacterium-cellulosolvens-sp-isolated-from-holstein-steer-s-rumen
#11
Tansol Park, Seongwon Seo, Teaksoon Shin, Byung-Wook Cho, Seongkeun Cho, Byeongwoo Kim, Jong K Ha, Jakyeom Seo
Objective: This study was conducted to isolate the cellulolytic microorganism from a rumen of Holstein steer and characterize endoglucanase gene (Cel5A) from the isolated microorganism. Methods: To isolate anaerobic microbes having endoglucanase, the rumen fluid was obtained from Holstein steers fed roughage diet. The isolated anaerobic bacteria had 99% similarity with Eubacterium cellulosolvens Ce2 (Accession number: AY178842.1). The Cel5A from isolated E. cellulosolvens sp...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918576/effect-of-heat-stress-on-rumen-temperature-of-three-breeds-of-cattle
#12
A M Lees, J C Lees, A T Lisle, M L Sullivan, J B Gaughan
Thirty-six steers (12 of each Angus, Charolais, and Brahman) with an initial BW of 318.5 ± 6.7 kg were used in a 130-day study. Two treatments were imposed: un-shaded and shaded (3 m(2)/animal; 90% solar block shade cloth). On day 1, steers were administered with rumen temperature boluses. Rumen temperatures (T RUM) were obtained at 10 min intervals over the duration of the study to determine differences in T RUM between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. Six feedlot pens (162 m(2)) were used with six steers (2/breed) per pen with three pens/treatment...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918153/linseed-oil-and-dgat1-k232a-polymorphism-effects-on-methane-emission-energy-and-nitrogen-metabolism-lactation-performance-ruminal-fermentation-and-rumen-microbial-composition-of-holstein-friesian-cows
#13
S van Gastelen, M H P W Visker, J E Edwards, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, S J J Alferink, W H Hendriks, H Bovenhuis, H Smidt, J Dijkstra
Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH4 and H2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (i.e., 12 with DGAT1 KK genotype and 12 with DGAT1 AA genotype) were fed 2 diets in a crossover design: a control diet and a linseed oil diet (LSO) with a difference of 22 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in fat content between the 2 diets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918150/short-communication-effects-of-lysolecithin-on-milk-fat-synthesis-and-milk-fatty-acid-profile-of-cows-fed-diets-differing-in-fiber-and-unsaturated-fatty-acid-concentration
#14
D E Rico, Y Ying, K J Harvatine
Thirteen multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design that tested the effect of lysolecithin in diets differing in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and unsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentrations. Experimental periods were 20 d in length and included two 10-d phases. A standard fiber and lower fat diet was fed the first 10 d (30.5% NDF, no added oil, lower-risk phase) and a lower NDF and higher oil diet was fed during the second 10 d (29.0% NDF and 2% oil from whole soybeans and soybean oil, high-risk phase)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918137/reticulo-rumen-mass-epithelium-gene-expression-and-systemic-biomarkers-of-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-holstein-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-energy-diet
#15
J M Arroyo, A Hosseini, Z Zhou, A Alharthi, E Trevisi, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Feeding a higher-energy diet by increasing cereal grains at the expense of forage during the last 3 to 4 wk prepartum is a traditional approach to help the rumen "adapt" to the traditional diets fed at the onset of lactation. Increasing grain/concentrate in the diet changes ruminal fermentation and in sheep and goats elicits marked changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ruminal epithelium. Whether such changes at the epithelial and systemic levels occur in dairy cows when the dietary energy content increases at a fixed level of concentrate is unknown...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914059/physiochemical-characteristics-and-molecular-structures-for-digestible-carbohydrates-of-silages
#16
Basim Refat, Luciana Louzada Prates, Yaogeng Lei, David Christensen, John J McKinnon, Peiqiang Yu
The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro NDFD digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD , Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) as regards to their physiochemical features (energy), carbohydrate nutrient fractions and rumen digestive contents in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R), and (2) to identify the pattern of interactive association between the molecular structure of carbohydrates and digestible carbohydrates content...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912768/linseed-oil-supplementation-of-lambs-diet-in-early-life-leads-to-persistent-changes-in-rumen-microbiome-structure
#17
Tamsin Lyons, Tommy Boland, Sean Storey, Evelyn Doyle
Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912767/shifts-in-host-mucosal-innate-immune-function-are-associated-with-ruminal-microbial-succession-in-supplemental-feeding-and-grazing-goats-at-different-ages
#18
Jinzhen Jiao, Chuanshe Zhou, L L Guan, C S McSweeney, Shaoxun Tang, Min Wang, Zhiliang Tan
Gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in regulating host mucosal innate immune function. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age (non-rumination, transition and rumination) and feeding type [Supplemental feeding (S) vs. Grazing (G)] could alter ruminal microbial diversity and maturation of host mucosal innate immune system in goat kids. MiSeq sequencing was applied to investigate ruminal microbial composition and diversity, and RT-PCR was used to test expression of immune-related genes in ruminal mucosa...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906067/ruminal-phytate-degradation-of-maize-grain-and-rapeseed-meal-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-as-affected-by-phytate-content-in-donor-animal-diets-and-inorganic-phosphorus-in-the-buffer
#19
E Haese, M Lengowski, E Gräter, A Föll, J Möhring, H Steingass, M Schollenberger, M Rodehutscord
The ruminal disappearance of phytate phosphorus (InsP6 -P) from maize grain and rapeseed meal (RSM) was determined in two in vitro studies. In experiment 1, two diets differing in phosphorus (P) and InsP6 -P concentration were fed to the donor animals of rumen fluid (diet HP: 0.49% P in dry matter, diet LP: 0.29% P). Maize grain and RSM were incubated in a rumen fluid/saliva mixture for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. In experiment 2, a diet similar to diet HP was fed, and the rumen fluid was mixed with artificial saliva containing 120 mg inorganic P/l (Pi) or no inorganic P (P0)...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905183/effects-of-quebracho-tannin-extract-on-intake-digestibility-rumen-fermentation-and-methane-production-in-crossbred-heifers-fed-low-quality-tropical-grass
#20
A T Piñeiro-Vázquez, G Jiménez-Ferrer, J A Alayon-Gamboa, A J Chay-Canul, A J Ayala-Burgos, C F Aguilar-Pérez, J C Ku-Vera
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of quebracho tannins extract (QTE) on feed intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and methane (CH4) emissions in cattle fed low-quality Pennisetum purpureum grass. Five heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with an average live weight (LW) of 295 ± 19 kg were allotted to five treatments (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% QTE/kg DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Intake, digestibility, and total methane emissions (L/day) were recorded for periods of 23 h when cattle were housed in open-circuit respiration chambers...
September 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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