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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813529/natural-and-artificial-feeding-management-before-weaning-promote-different-rumen-microbial-colonization-but-not-differences-in-gene-expression-levels-at-the-rumen-epithelium-of-newborn-goats
#1
Leticia Abecia, Elisabeth Jiménez, Gonzalo Martínez-Fernandez, A Ignacio Martín-García, Eva Ramos-Morales, Eric Pinloche, Stuart E Denman, C Jamie Newbold, David R Yáñez-Ruiz
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811339/heritable-bovine-rumen-bacteria-are-phylogenetically-related-and-correlated-with-the-cow-s-capacity-to-harvest-energy-from-its-feed
#2
Goor Sasson, Sheerli Kruger Ben-Shabat, Eyal Seroussi, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Naama Shterzer, Shamay Yaacoby, Margret E Berg Miller, Bryan A White, Eran Halperin, Itzhak Mizrahi
Ruminants sustain a long-lasting obligatory relationship with their rumen microbiome dating back 50 million years. In this unique host-microbiome relationship, the host's ability to digest its feed is completely dependent on its coevolved microbiome. This extraordinary alliance raises questions regarding the dependent relationship between ruminants' genetics and physiology and the rumen microbiome structure, composition, and metabolism. To elucidate this relationship, we examined the association of host genetics with the phylogenetic and functional composition of the rumen microbiome...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807475/temporary-rumenostomy-for-the-treatment-of-forestomach-diseases-and-enteral-nutrition
#3
REVIEW
Robert J Callan, Tanya J Applegate
Temporary rumenostomy is a useful procedure for the treatment, management, and support of patients with forestomach disease of various types. The rumenostomy provides a mechanism for relief of chronic rumen tympany or distention, removal of rumen contents and lavage of the rumen, removal of some rumen foreign bodies, administration of rumen fluid transfaunation, and administration of enteral nutrition or other medications. When the rumenostomy is no longer necessary, it can be allowed to close by second intention or by surgical resection...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807474/rumen-function-and-development
#4
REVIEW
Ransom L Baldwin, Erin E Connor
The ruminal epithelium is a complex tissue that serves as an important protective barrier as well as a metabolically important tissue for whole-animal energy metabolism. Up to 70% of the energetic needs of mature animals are absorbed as short-chain fatty acids through the stratified squamous epithelium, and it serves as the primary producer of ketones in fed animals. Both physical and metabolic development are incomplete at birth and are triggered by short-chain fatty acids. Regulatory control of the proliferation and differentiation necessary for normal development is a useful model for the scientific investigation of nutrient-gene interactions...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807308/presence-and-species-identity-of-rumen-flukes-in-cattle-and-sheep-in-the-netherlands
#5
H W Ploeger, L Ankum, L Moll, D C K van Doorn, G Mitchell, P J Skuce, R N Zadoks, M Holzhauer
The purpose of the study was to gain knowledge about the prevalence and identity of rumen flukes (RF) in cattle and sheep in the Netherlands. Routine faecal examinations of diagnostic submissions between May 2009 and September 2014 showed a mean annual herd or flock RF prevalence of 15.8% for cattle and 8.0% for sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher after 2012 than before, which may reflect a change in detection method as well as an increase in true prevalence. During November and December 2014, an abattoir survey was conducted to allow for scoring of rumen fluke burden and to obtain specimens for molecular species characterization...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807084/linseed-plus-nitrate-in-the-diet-for-fattening-bulls-effects-on-methane-emission-animal-health-and-residues-in-offal
#6
M Doreau, M Arbre, M Popova, Y Rochette, C Martin
The combination of linseed and nitrate is known to decrease enteric methane emission in dairy cows but few studies have been carried out in fattening cattle for animal liveweight gain, enteric methane emission, animal health and presence of residues in beef products. To address this gap, 16 young bulls received a control (C) diet between weaning at 9 months and 14 months, then were split into two groups of eight balanced on feed intake, BW gain and methane emission to receive either the C diet or a diet moderately supplemented with extruded linseed and calcium nitrate (LN) for 2 months before being slaughtered...
August 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805916/the-reduction-of-starch-in-finishing-diets-supplemented-with-oil-does-not-prevent-the-accumulation-of-trans-10-18-1-in-lamb-meat
#7
M Costa, S P Alves, A Francisco, J Almeida, C M Alfaia, S V Martins, J A M Prates, J Santos-Silva, O Doran, R J B Bessa
The experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the replacement of cereal with low-starch feed ingredients in lambs' finishing diets supplemented with oils could prevent the accumulation of -10-18:1 in meat. Forty lambs were fed 1 of 4 diets supplemented with soybean oil (5.9%) and fish oil (1%) for 6 wk before slaughter. The control (CON) diet contained 43% barley, and in the other diets, barley was completely replaced by dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP), dehydrated sugar beet pulp (DBP), or soybean hulls (SH)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805913/feeding-distillers-grains-soybean-hulls-or-a-mixture-of-both-to-cows-as-a-forage-replacement-effects-on-intake-digestibility-and-ruminal-fermentation-characteristics
#8
W B Smith, K P Coffey, R T Rhein, E B Kegley, D Philipp, J G Powell, J D Caldwell, A N Young
Coproduct feedstuffs offer a unique and potentially profitable avenue for cattle feeding strategies. However, research is lacking in the evaluation of varying coproducts on ruminal fermentation and digestive characteristics when included as the major component of the diet of cows. Our objective was to determine the effect of coproduct feedstuffs as a forage replacement on digestive and fermentative characteristics of cows. Eight ruminally fistulated cows (672 ± 32.0 kg initial BW and approximately 9 yr of age) were stratified by BW and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 diets (2 cows∙diet∙period) in a 2-period study: soybean hulls (SH), distillers' dried grains with solubles (DG), an isoenergetic mixture of soybean hulls and distillers' dried grains with solubles (MX), or ad libitum hay plus 0...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804001/production-of-trans-and-conjugated-fatty-acids-in-dairy-ruminants-and-their-putative-effects-on-human-health-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Anne Ferlay, Laurence Bernard, Annabelle Meynadier, Corinne Malpuech-Brugère
Consumption of milk and dairy products is important in Western industrialised countries. Fat content is an important constituent contributing to the nutritional quality of milk and dairy products. In order to improve the health of consumers, there is high interest in improving their fatty acid (FA) composition, which depends principally on rumen and mammary metabolism. This paper reviews the lipid metabolism in ruminants, with a particular focus on the production of trans and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) in the rumen...
August 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803021/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-heat-treated-canola-meal-on-ruminal-nutrient-metabolism-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#10
S J Krizsan, H Gidlund, F Fatehi, P Huhtanen
An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of incremental levels of heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) fed to dairy cows on the relationship between ruminal nutrient digestion and milk production. Experimental diets were fed to 4 multiparous rumen-cannulated Nordic Red cows, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 681 ± 54.8 kg of body weight, 111 ± 16 d in milk, and 29.1 ± 9.1 kg of milk/d at the start of the study, in a Latin square design with four 21-d periods. The 4 experimental dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet of grass silage and crimped barley, and 3 diets in which the crimped barley was replaced with TCM, giving 3 incremental levels of protein supplementation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803011/new-insights-on-the-metabolism-of-ricinoleic-acid-in-ruminants
#11
Susana P Alves, Cintia M Araujo, Rita C Queiroga, Marta S Madruga, Michelle O M Parente, Ariosvaldo N Medeiros, Rui J B Bessa
Dairy goats were fed a total mixed ration with or without the inclusion of castor oil (40 g/kg of DM) to study the metabolism of ricinoleic acid (12-OH,cis-9-18:1). Ten goats, at 39.7 ± 4.0 d in milk, were individually penned and allocated at random to the 2 experimental diets. Goats were manually milked twice a day. Milk fatty acids (FA) were analyzed as methyl esters and hydroxyl groups were derivatized in trimethylsilyl ethers. Apart from ricinoleic acid, 6 FA were only detected in the milk of the castor oil group...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803010/short-communication-apparent-ruminal-synthesis-of-b-vitamins-in-lactating-dairy-cows-fed-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-product
#12
D S Castagnino, Y Ying, M S Allen, R Gervais, P Y Chouinard, C L Girard
Apparent ruminal synthesis and duodenal flow of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were evaluated in an experiment using 15 ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows fed a basal diet, according to a crossover design, supplemented or not with 56 g/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product. Duration of the treatment period was 28 d. The basal ration had 28% neutral detergent fber, 30% starch and 16.5% crude protein; forages were corn silage (67% of forage dry matter) and alfalfa silage (33% of forage dry matter)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801990/degradation-of-euptox-a-by-tannase-producing-rumen-bacteria-from-migratory-goats
#13
D Sharma, G Mal, A Kannan, R Bhar, R Sharma, B Singh
AIMS: The gut microbiota capable of degrading plant biomass and anti-nutritional phytometabolites are of immense importance. This study reports isolation and characterization of tannase-producing rumen bacteria that could also degrade euptox A (9-oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone) present in Eupatorium adenophorum (Spreng). METHODS AND RESULTS: Migratory Gaddi goats were selected as source of inoculums for isolating rumen bacteria with ability to produce tannase which catalyzes degradation of hydrolysable tannins (HTs)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798330/metabolic-networks-for-nitrogen-utilization-in-prevotella-ruminicola-23
#14
Jong Nam Kim, Celia Méndez-García, Renae R Geier, Michael Iakiviak, Jongsoo Chang, Isaac Cann, Roderick I Mackie
Nitrogen metabolism in gut systems remains poorly studied in spite of its importance for microbial growth and its implications for the metabolism of the host. Prevotella spp. are the most predominant bacteria detected in the rumen, but their presence has also been related to health and disease states in the human gut and oral cavity. To explore the metabolic networks for nitrogen assimilation in this bacterium, changes in gene expression profiles in response to variations in the available nitrogen source and to different concentrations of ammonium were analyzed by microarray and reverse transcription quantitative PCR, and linked with function by further proteomic analysis...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796986/evaluation-of-stomatognathic-problems-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-osteogenesis-imperfecta-oi-preliminary-study
#15
Danuta Smoląg, Małgorzata Kulesa-Mrowiecka, Jerzy Sułko
According to epidemiological data, muscular dysfunctions of the masticatory system occur in 15-23% of the population. Preventive examinations of functional disorders of the stomatognathic system are, therefore, of particular importance. A distinct group of patients exposed to dysfunctions in the area of the masticatory organ locomotor apparatus comprises those with genetic diseases characterised by disorders in collagen formation. One of such diseases is osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and dentinogenesis imperfecta that usually goes together with the former...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792377/leucobacter-ruminantium-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-bovine-rumen
#16
Byung Hee Chun, Hyo Jung Lee, Sang Eun Jeong, Peter Schumann, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-stain-positive, lemon yellow-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain A2T, was isolated from the rumen of cow. Cells were catalase-positive and weakly oxidase-positive. Growth of strain A2T was observed at 25-45 °C (optimum, 37-40 °C), at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 0-3.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1 %). Strain A2T contained iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids. Menaquinone-11 was detected as the sole respiratory quinone...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791005/corrigendum-inhibition-of-the-rumen-ciliate-entodinium-caudatum-by-antibiotics
#17
Tansol Park, Tea Meulia, Jeffrey L Firkins, Zhongtang Yu
[This corrects the article on p. 1189 in vol. 8, PMID: 28702015.].
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790450/seasonal-changes-in-energy-expenditure-body-temperature-and-activity-patterns-in-llamas-lama-glama
#18
Alexander Riek, Lea Brinkmann, Matthias Gauly, Jurcevic Perica, Thomas Ruf, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, John R Speakman, Martina Gerken
Mammals typically keep their body temperature (Tb) within a narrow limit with changing environmental conditions. There are indications that some wild ungulates can exhibit certain forms of energy saving mechanisms when ambient temperatures are low and/or food is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine if the llama, one of the most extensively kept domestic livestock species, exhibits seasonal adjustment mechanisms in terms of energy expenditure, Tb and locomotion. For that purpose llamas (N = 7) were kept in a temperate habitat on pasture...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789673/gene-and-transcript-abundances-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-from-the-rumen-microbiome-are-correlated-with-methane-yield-in-sheep
#19
Janine Kamke, Priya Soni, Yang Li, Siva Ganesh, William J Kelly, Sinead C Leahy, Weibing Shi, Jeff Froula, Edward M Rubin, Graeme T Attwood
BACKGROUND: Ruminants are important contributors to global methane emissions via microbial fermentation in their reticulo-rumens. This study is part of a larger program, characterising the rumen microbiomes of sheep which vary naturally in methane yield (g CH4/kg DM/day) and aims to define differences in microbial communities, and in gene and transcript abundances that can explain the animal methane phenotype. METHODS: Rumen microbiome metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were analysed by Gene Set Enrichment, sparse partial least squares regression and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test to estimate correlations between specific KEGG bacterial pathways/genes and high methane yield in sheep...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789519/absorption-kinetics-of-the-main-cla-isomers-in-commercial-rich-oil-after-oral-administration-in-rats
#20
Luis M Rodríguez-Alcalá, Irma Ares, Javier Fontecha, María-Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Arturo Anadon, María-Aránzazu Martínez
This study aimed to assess oral absorption and plasma kinetics of two main isomers contained in commercial CLA-rich oil (Tonalin TG-80), rumenic acid (RA) and C18:2 trans 10, cis 12. Isomer plasma disposition after single oral dose of 3000 mg Tonalin TG-80/kg, containing 1200 mg/kg of each isomer, was studied in rats. Isomer plasma concentrations were determined by GC-FID. Plasma kinetics showed rapid oral absorption of RA and C18:2 trans 10, cis 12 (t½a 0.34 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.01 h) and slow elimination (t½β 25...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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