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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651048/nutritional-and-metabolic-characteristics-of-brassica-carinata-coproducts-from-biofuel-processing-in-dairy-cows
#1
Yajing Ban, Nazir Ahmad Khan, Peiqiang Yu
The increased utilization of Brassica carinata in the biofuel industry in Canada has resulted in the large scale production of coproducts that can be potentially exploited as alternative protein ingredient in dairy ration. The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritive value of carinata presscake and meal for dairy cows in terms of (1) nutrient and anti-nutrient composition; (2) rumen degradation kinetics of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber; (3) hourly effective degradation ratio and potential N to energy synchronization; (4) intestinal digestion of rumen undegraded protein (RUP); and (5) total metabolizable protein (MP) supply to the small intestine...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642721/simulation-theory-applied-to-direct-systematic-observation
#2
Rumen Manolov, José L Losada
Observational studies entail making several decisions before data collection, such as the observational design to use, the sampling of sessions within the observational period, the need for time sampling within the observation sessions, as well as the observation recording procedures to use. The focus of the present article is on observational recording procedures different from continuous recording (i.e., momentary time sampling, partial and whole interval recording). The main aim is to develop an online software application, constructed using R and the Shiny package, on the basis of simulations using the alternating renewal process (a model implemented in the ARPobservation package)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638072/diet-induced-reconstruction-of-mucosal-microbiota-associated-with-alterations-of-epithelium-lectin-expression-and-regulation-in-the-maintenance-of-rumen-homeostasis
#3
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Zanming Shen
It is unknown whether lectins of the rumen epithelium contribute to the recognition of mucosal microbes and activation of tolerogenic cytokines in ruminant animals. We applied an integrated method of RNA-seq and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate alterations of epithelial lectin expression and regulation with a diet-induced reconstruction of the mucosal microbiota in the goat rumen. Our results showed that the diversity and richness of the rumen mucosal microbiota were promoted by the dietary concentrate...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637516/feeding-heat-oxidized-oil-to-dairy-cows-affects-milk-fat-nutritional-quality
#4
M Kaleem, F Enjalbert, Y Farizon, A Meynadier
Heating oil and oilseeds results in oxidation products that affect ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, altering milk fatty acids profile, and could be transferred to milk. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oil heating on rumen and milk fatty acids profile and the transfer of oxidation products to milk. Sunflower oil was heated at 150°C for 15 h and given to lactating dairy cows in a 2×2 arrangement: two groups of two cows, equipped with a ruminal cannula and receiving two diets (containing either heated or unheated oil) during two experimental periods...
June 22, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634433/the-draft-genome-of-the-non-host-associated-methanobrevibacter-arboriphilus-strain-dh1-encodes-a-large-repertoire-of-adhesin-like-proteins
#5
Anja Poehlein, Rolf Daniel, Henning Seedorf
Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus strain DH1 is an autotrophic methanogen that was isolated from the wetwood of methane-emitting trees. This species has been of considerable interest for its unusual oxygen tolerance and has been studied as a model organism for more than four decades. Strain DH1 is closely related to other host-associated Methanobrevibacter species from intestinal tracts of animals and the rumen, making this strain an interesting candidate for comparative analysis to identify factors important for colonizing intestinal environments...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625206/organic-food-consumption-during-pregnancy-and-its-association-with-health-related-characteristics-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#6
Ana Paula Simões-Wüst, Carolina Moltó-Puigmartí, Eugene Hjm Jansen, Martien Cjm van Dongen, Pieter C Dagnelie, Carel Thijs
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of organic food consumption with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, hypertension and diabetes in pregnancy, and several blood biomarkers of pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Pregnant women were recruited at midwives' practices and through channels related to consumption of food from organic origin. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women who filled in FFQ and donated a blood sample (n 1339)...
June 19, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613409/molecular-cloning-and-characterizations-of-xylanase-inhibitor-protein-from-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#7
Xinyu Liu, Yakun Zhang, Zhaohui Wei, Hongge Chen, Xincheng Jia
Xylanase inhibitor proteins (XIPs) were regarded to inhibit the activity of xylanases during baking and gluten-starch separation processes. To avoid the inhibition to xylanases, it is necessary to define the conditions under which the inhibition takes place. In this study, we cloned the XIP gene from 2 different variety of Triticum aestivum, that is, Zhengmai 9023 and Zhengmai 366, and investigated the properties of XIP protein expressed by Pichia pastoris. The results showed that the 2 XIP genes (xip-9023 and xip-366) were highly homologous with only 3 nucleotide differences...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611501/influence-of-diet-composition-on-cattle-rumen-methanogenesis-a-comparative-metagenomic-analysis-in-indian-and-exotic-cattle
#8
Nidhi R Parmar, Prabhakar D Pandit, Hemant J Purohit, J I Nirmal Kumar, Chaitanya G Joshi
Comparative metagenomics approach has been used in this study to discriminate colonization of methanogenic population in different breeds of cattle. We compared two Indian cattle breeds (Gir and Kankrej) and two exotic cattle (Holstein and Jersey) breeds. Using a defined dietary plan for selected Indian varieties, the diet dependent shifts in microbial community and abundance of the enzymes associated with methanogenesis were studied. This data has been compared with the available rumen metagenome data from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609901/description-of-diploplastron-dehorityi-sp-nov-entodiniomorphida-ophryoscolecidae-a-new-rumen-ciliate-from-brazilian-sheep-ovis-aries
#9
Franciane Cedrola, Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias, Isabel Martinele, Marta D'Agosto
To date the genus Diploplastron comprised only one species of ophryoscolecid ciliate, Diploplastron affine, which is characterized by having two retractable ciliary zones in the anterior end of the body, two slender and juxtaposed skeletal plates on the right side, a rod shape macronucleus, and two contractile vacuoles. During study on the characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in Brazilian domestic sheep, we observed ciliates with atypical morphology but with diagnostic features of genus Diploplastron...
May 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608583/effects-of-dissolved-carbon-dioxide-on-the-integrity-of-the-rumen-epithelium-an-agent-in-the-development-of-ruminal-acidosis
#10
R Rackwitz, G Gäbel
The carbon dioxide released and dissolved in rumen fluid may easily permeate across the epithelial cell membrane. Thus, we hypothesized that CO2 may act as proton carrier and induce epithelial damage under acidotic conditions. Ovine ruminal epithelia were mounted in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions. The serosal buffer solution had a constant pH of 7.4 and was gassed either with 100% oxygen or with carbogen (95% O2 /5% CO2 ). The mucosal solution was gassed with either 100% oxygen or 100% carbon dioxide...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608536/feeding-value-of-whole-raw-soya-beans-as-a-protein-supplement-for-beef-cattle-consuming-low-quality-forages
#11
H M Arelovich, S Lagrange, R Torre, M F Martinez, H E Laborde
Experiments (Exp) I and II were conducted to compare raw whole soya beans (WSB), roasted (rWSB) or other protein sources as supplements of low-quality forages fed ad libitum to beef cattle, upon DM intake (DMI), ruminal and blood parameters, and animal performance. Exp I: treatments for wheat straw fed to four ruminally cannulated steers were (i) Control-WS: no supplement; (ii) WSB-WS: whole soya beans; (iii) rWSB-WS: roasted WSB; and (iv) SBM-WS: soybean meal-wheat midds mixture; all fed at 1.4 kg DM/day...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608533/effect-of-cereal-straw-and-alfalfa-hay-diet-on-amino-acid-profile-of-gastrointestinal-digesta-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#12
B Wang, Y Tu, L S Jiang, J X Liu
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with rice straw (RS) or corn stover (CS) on amino acid (AA) profiles of gastrointestinal digesta in lactating cows. Eighteen lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 6) and fed identical concentrate and corn silage with different forages on dry matter basis: (i) 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH); (ii) 30% CS; and (iii) 30% RS. After the 14-week feeding, a total of 18 cows were slaughtered to collect digesta from four representative organs, including rumen, omasum, duodenum and jejunum...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608306/replacement-of-alfalfa-hay-medicago-sativa-l-with-subabul-leucaena-leucocephala-leaf-meal-in-diets-of-najdi-goats-effect-on-digestion-activity-of-rumen-microorganisms
#13
Tahereh Mohammadabadi, Alireza Jolazadeh
This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level)...
June 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603910/production-of-n2-and-n2-o-from-nitrate-ingested-by-sheep
#14
V de Raphélis-Soissan, J V Nolan, I R Godwin, J R Newbold, B D Eyre, D V Erler, R S Hegarty
Supplementing ruminants with nitrate (NO3-) reduces their enteric methane (CH4 ) emissions; however, the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation achieved can be partially offset by small emissions of nitrous oxide (N2 O), a more potent GHG. Sheep were dosed intraruminally with (15) NO3- to investigate whether dietary NO3- is a precursor of N2 O and/or di-nitrogen gas (N2 ), and to quantify the amounts of NO3- recovered as N2 O and N2 in gas emissions from sheep adapted or not adapted to dietary NO3-. Ruminally cannulated sheep were adapted to a hay diet supplemented with NO3- (n = 3; 10 g NO3-/kg DM) or urea (n = 3; 5...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602995/integrated-metagenomic-analyses-of-the-rumen-microbiome-of-cattles-reveals-key-biological-mechanisms-associated-with-methane-traits
#15
Haiying Wang, Huiru Zheng, Fiona Browne, Rainer Roehe, Richard J Dewhurst, Felix Engel, Matthias Hemmje, Xiangwu Lu, Paul Walsh
Methane is one of major contributors to global warming. The rumen microbiota is directly involved in methane production in cattle. The link between variations in rumen microbial communities and host genetics has important applications and implications in bioscience. Having the potential to reveal the full extent of microbial gene diversity and complex microbial interactions, integrated metagenomics and network analysis holds great promises in this endeavour. This study investigates the rumen microbial community in cattle through the integration of metagenomic and network-based approaches...
June 8, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601459/in-vitro-response-to-epa-dpa-and-dha-comparison-of-effects-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-biohydrogenation-of-18-carbon-fatty-acids-in-cows-and-ewes
#16
P G Toral, G Hervás, D Carreño, H Leskinen, A Belenguer, K J Shingfield, P Frutos
The modulation of milk fat nutritional quality through fish oil supplementation seems to be largely explained by the action of n-3 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of C18 fatty acids (FA). However, relationships among this action, disappearance of those PUFA in the rumen, and potential detrimental consequences on ruminal fermentation remain uncertain. This study compared the effect of 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA), 22:5n-3 (docosapentaenoic acid; DPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA) on rumen fermentation and BH of C18 FA and was conducted simultaneously in cows and sheep to provide novel insights into interspecies differences...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601449/fatty-acid-profile-of-goat-milk-in-diets-supplemented-with-chia-seed-salvia-hispanica-l
#17
B Schettino, S Vega, R Gutiérrez, A Escobar, J Romero, E Domínguez, M González-Ronquillo
Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) is the greatest known plant source of n-3 α-linolenic acid. The present study evaluated the effects of 3 inclusion levels of chia seed [zero (control); low, 2.7% (CLow); and high, 5.5% (CHigh)] in diets of dairy goats on milk yield and fatty acid profile. Nine Saanen dairy goats in the last third of lactation period, live weight 38 ± 8.7 kg, housed in metabolic cages, were fed iso-proteic and iso-energetic (160 g of crude protein/d and 11 MJ of metabolizable energy/d) diets...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601445/production-and-nitrogen-utilization-in-lactating-dairy-cows-fed-ground-field-peas-with-or-without-ruminally-protected-lysine-and-methionine
#18
A B D Pereira, N L Whitehouse, K M Aragona, C S Schwab, S F Reis, A F Brito
Previous research has shown that cows fed ≥24% of the diet dry matter (DM) as field peas decreased milk yield as well as concentration and yield of milk protein, possibly due to reduced DM intake and limited supply of Lys and Met. Twelve multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diets contained (DM basis) 34.8% corn silage, 15.2% grass-legume silage, 5.9% roasted soybean, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, 2.0% alfalfa pellets, and either (1) 36% ground corn, 2...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601444/nitrogen-efficiency-of-eastern-canadian-dairy-herds-effect-on-production-performance-and-farm-profitability
#19
L Fadul-Pacheco, D Pellerin, P Y Chouinard, M A Wattiaux, M Duplessis, É Charbonneau
Nitrogen efficiency (milk N/dietary N; NE) can be used as a tool for the nutritional, economic, and environmental management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of herds with varying NE and assess the effect on farm profitability. One hundred dairy herds located in Québec, Canada, comprising on average 42 ± 18 cows in lactation were visited from October 2014 to June 2015. Feed intake was measured over 24 h. Samples of each feedstuff were taken and sent to a commercial laboratory for analysis of chemical composition...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596764/the-structural-and-functional-capacity-of-ruminal-and-cecal-microbiota-in-growing-cattle-was-unaffected-by-dietary-supplementation-of-linseed-oil-and-nitrate
#20
Milka Popova, Emily McGovern, Matthew S McCabe, Cécile Martin, Michel Doreau, Marie Arbre, Sarah J Meale, Diego P Morgavi, Sinéad M Waters
Microorganisms in the digestive tract of ruminants differ in their functionality and ability to use feed constituents. While cecal microbiota play an important role in post-rumen fermentation of residual substrates undigested in the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding its structure and function. In this trial we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions and on the structure of ruminal and cecal microbiota of growing bulls. Animals were allocated to either a CTL (control) or LINNIT (CTL supplemented with 1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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