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N De Neve, B Vlaeminck, F Gadeyne, E Claeys, P Van der Meeren, V Fievez
Previously, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linseed oil were effectively protected (>80%) against biohydrogenation through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated protein crosslinking of an emulsion, prepared with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extract from potato tuber peelings. However, until now, emulsions of only 2 wt% oil have been successfully protected, which implies serious limitations both from a research perspective (e.g. in vivo trials) as well as for further upscaling toward practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the oil/PPO ratio...
March 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Anusorn Cherdthong, Benjamad Khonkhaeng, Anuthida Seankamsorn, Chanadol Supapong, Metha Wanapat, Nirawan Gunun, Pongsatron Gunun, Pin Chanjula, Sineenart Polyorach
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of feeding fresh cassava root (CR) along with a feed block containing high was to sulfur (FBS) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood thiocyanate concentration in Thai native beef cattle. Four Thai male native beef cattle, initial body weight (BW) of 130 + 20.0 kg, were used in this study. The experiments were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The main factors were supplemented fresh CR levels (1...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Barbara Birk, Alexander Stähle, Mathias Meier, Markus Palm, Dorothee Funk-Weyer, Gerhard Breves, Harald Seulberger
The approving agencies for plant protection agents request xenobiotic metabolism and residue studies in rats, farm animals and plants (e.g. EU regulation 1107/2009) according to OECD guidelines. The specific intestinal physiology of ruminants might lead to specific residues, which should be investigated very carefully. Specific aspects of xenobiotic metabolism in ruminants may arise, which are investigated by performing additional in vivo studies. The aim of the present work is to asses a modified rumen simulation system (RUSITEC) for such studies in vitro...
March 12, 2018: ALTEX
Helen M Golder, Jennifer M Thomson, Stuart E Denman, Chris S McSweeney, Ian J Lean
Dairy heifers were subjected to a non-life-threatening challenge designed to induce ruminal acidosis by feeding grain and sugar. Large among animal variation in clinical signs of acidosis, rumen metabolite concentrations, and the rumen microbiome occurred. This exploratory study investigates sources of the variation by examining associations between the genome, metabolome, and microbiome, albeit with a limited population. The broader objective is to provide a rationale for a larger field study to identify markers for susceptibility to ruminal acidosis...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kieran N Kilcawley, Hope Faulkner, Holly J Clarke, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Joseph P Kerry
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products...
March 13, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Zhongyan Lu, Hong Shen, Zanming Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In animals, the immune and cellular processes of tissue largely depend on the status of local metabolism. However, in the rumen epithelium, how the cellular metabolism affects epithelial immunity, and cellular processes, when the diet is switched from energy-rich to energy-excess status, with regard to animal production and health, have not as yet been reported. METHODS: RNA-seq was applied to compare the biological processes altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 10% to 35% with those altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 35% to 65% (dietary concentrate: the non-grass component in diet, including corn, soya bean meal and additive...
March 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Kanokwan Kongphitee, Kritapon Sommart, Thamrongsak Phonbumrung, Thidarat Gunha, Tomoyuki Suzuki
Objective: This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Methods: Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
S Debruyne, A Ruiz-González, E Artiles-Ortega, B Ampe, W Van Den Broeck, E De Keyser, L Vandaele, K Goossens, V Fievez
The aim of this study was to investigate the methane (CH4) reducing potential of a combination of pre- and/or postnatal treatment with coconut oil medium chain fatty acids (CO MCFA) in goat kids. The hypothesis is that influencing rumen function during early life has more chances for success than in the adult life, related to the resilience of the mature rumen microbiota. Forty-eight pregnant does were split into 2 experimental groups: treated does (D+) received 40 g/d of CO MCFA in a test compound feed, while control does (D-) received a control compound feed, during the last 3 wk of gestation...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
I J Salfer, C Staley, H E Johnson, M J Sadowsky, M D Stern
Dual-flow continuous-culture fermenters are commonly used to study rumen fermentation in vitro. Research using culture-based and oligonucleotide techniques have shown that certain microbial populations within fermenters may be maintained at abundances similar to those observed in vivo. In this study, the bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen of dairy cattle and in a dual-flow continuous culture fermentation system were compared using high-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Justin Shih, Ato Fanyin-Martin, Edris Taher, Kartik Chandran
Background.  In Ghana, faecal sludge (FS) from on-site sanitation facilities is often discharged untreated into the environment, leading to significant insults to environmental and human health. Anaerobic digestion offers an attractive pathway for FS treatment with the concomitant production of energy in the form of methane. Another innovative option includes separating digestion into acidogenesis (production of volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and methanogenesis (production of methane), which could ultimately facilitate the production of an array of biofuels and biochemicals from the VFA...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Thi Huyen Do, Ngoc Giang Le, Trong Khoa Dao, Thi Mai Phuong Nguyen, Tung Lam Le, Han Ly Luu, Khanh Hoang Viet Nguyen, Van Lam Nguyen, Lan Anh Le, Thu Nguyet Phung, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Nam Hai Truong
The scarcity of enzymes having an optimal activity in lignocellulose deconstruction is an obstacle for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. With the aim of mining novel lignocellulolytic enzymes, a ~9 Gb metagenome of bacteria in Vietnamese native goats' rumen was sequenced by Illumina platform. From the data, 821 ORFs encoding carbohydrate esterases (CEs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs) serving for lignocellulose pre-treatment, 816 ORFs encoding 11 glycoside hydrolase families (GHs) of cellulases, and 2252 ORFs encoding 22 GHs of hemicellulases, were mined...
March 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
M Miyaji, K Nonaka
We evaluated the effects of different methods of conserving the total mixed ration (TMR) and processing hulled rice (Oryza sativa L.) on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and nitrogen utilization in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (126 ± 19 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The experimental diets used fresh TMR and ensiled TMR containing either dry-rolled (DR) hulled rice or steam-flaked (SF) hulled rice...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Alice Cappucci, Susana P Alves, Rui J B Bessa, Arianna Buccioni, Federica Mannelli, Mariano Pauselli, Carlo Viti, Roberta Pastorelli, Valentina Roscini, Andrea Serra, Giuseppe Conte, Marcello Mele
Agro-industrial by-products contain several secondary plant metabolites, such as polyphenols, tannins, saponins, and essential oils. The effects of these compounds on animal metabolism may vary significantly according to the dose, the chemical nature of the molecules, and the overall composition of the diet. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil extraction is associated with 2 by-products: olive pomace and wastewater, both rich in polyphenols. In particular, wastewater may be further processed to obtain olive crude phenolic concentrate (OCPC)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
T Y Zhang, J T Huang, H B Tian, Y Ma, Z Chen, J J Wang, H P Shi, J Luo
The trans-10,cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) is a biohydrogenation intermediate in the rumen and has been shown to cause milk fat depression in dairy goats. However, few studies have focused on the in vitro molecular mechanisms involved in the response of the goat mammary gland to t10c12-CLA. In the present study, RNA sequencing technology was used to investigate the effects of t10c12-CLA on goat mammary epithelial cells. From the data, 25,153 annotated transcripts were obtained, and differentially expressed genes were selected based on a false discovery rate <0...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
P Górka, Z M Kowalski, R Zabielski, P Guilloteau
Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Ayman A Swelum, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
Microbial degradation in the rumen and dietary availability of methionine amino acid have been reported as limiting in dairy ruminants. The aim of the present study was to examine the post-ruminal effects of feeding ruminants different concentrations of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) in low crude protein diets using the long-term rumen simulation method (Rusitec) followed by in vitro abomasum and ileum digestibility technique. The experiment contained four treatment groups: (1) high protein, without RPM supplementation (HP); (2) low protein, without RPM supplementation (LP); (3) low protein supplementation with low RPM (LPLM); and (4) low protein supplementation with high RPM (LPHM) mixed per 20 ± 0...
March 9, 2018: AMB Express
S A Tahas, U Hetzel, B Altenbrunner-Martinek, O Martin Jurado, S Hammer, A Arif, J-M Hatt, M Clauss
Subacute ruminal acidosis is a common disease in captive non-domesticated ruminants and is mainly diagnosed by rumen fluid pH and rumen histology. Furthermore, differences in ruminant gastrointestinal histology have been hypothesized to correlate with the browser-grazer continuum. Twelve surplus addax antelope (Addax nasomaculatus) were divided into two groups, fed either their usual diet, consisting of a concentrate feed with a limited amount of hay, or a diet of unlimited hay only, for 3 months. After culling, descriptive and morphometric histology and pH measurements were compared between groups...
March 8, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Larissa Minicucci, Michelle Carstensen, John Crouse, Jon M Arnemo, Alina Evans
Recent uses for rumen boluses, such as mortality implant transmitters (MITs), in wildlife have made it necessary to adapt deployment techniques developed for livestock. In 29 and 30 attempts to place MITs in Minnesota free-ranging moose ( Alces alces) in 2013 and 2014, respectively, success was achieved 83% and 63% of the time. In 2014, new methods for MIT deployment were evaluated in captive moose in Alaska. Mandible measurements provided guidance for selection of an appropriate-sized bolus applicator. A Schulze mouth gag was used to aid insertion of the applicator, and canola oil was used to lubricate the bolus to facilitate swallowing...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Jie Sun, Jinhao Xu, Yizhao Shen, Hongrong Wang, Mengzhi Wang, Lihuai Yu
Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine an optimal balance between the amount of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) to metabolizable glucose (MG) on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and growth performance of 8 to 10-month-old heifers. Methods: A total of 15 healthy Holstein heifers weighing an average of 256 kg (8 month of age) were randomly assigned to three groups of five. Treatment diets consisted of the following three peNDF8...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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