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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346374/minimized-bolus-type-wireless-sensor-node-with-a-built-in-three-axis-acceleration-meter-for-monitoring-a-cow-s-rumen-conditions
#1
Hirofumi Nogami, Shozo Arai, Hironao Okada, Lan Zhan, Toshihiro Itoh
Monitoring rumen conditions in cows is important because a dysfunctional rumen system may cause death. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a typical disease in cows, and is characterized by repeated periods of low ruminal pH. SARA is regarded as a trigger for rumen atony, rumenitis, and abomasal displacement, which may cause death. In previous studies, rumen conditions were evaluated by wireless sensor nodes with pH measurement capability. The primary advantage of the pH sensor is its ability to continuously measure ruminal pH...
March 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343395/investigation-of-the-spectroscopic-information-of-functional-groups-related-to-carbohydrate-in-different-morphological-fractions-of-corn-stover-and-their-relationship-to-nutrient-supply-and-biodegradation-characteristics
#2
Hangshu Xin, Xue Ding, Liyang Zhang, Xiaofan Wang, Yonggen Zhang, Fang Sun
The objectives of this study were to investigate 1) nutritive values and biodegradation characteristics and 2) mid-IR spectroscopic features within the regions associated with carbohydrate functional groups (including cellulosic component (CELC); structural carbohydrate (STCHO) and total carbohydrate (CHO)) in different morphological fractions of corn stover. Furthermore, correlation and regression analyses were also applied to find out the relationship between nutritional values and spectroscopic parameters...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342612/can-by-products-replace-conventional-ingredients-in-concentrate-of-dairy-goat-diet
#3
M Romero-Huelva, M A Ramírez-Fenosa, R Planelles-González, P García-Casado, E Molina-Alcaide
Intensive dairy goat production in the Mediterranean basin is based on imported conventional ingredients to be included in concentrates. Fourteen Murciano-Granadina goats in the middle of the third lactation were allocated into 2 groups of 7 animals each fed, respectively, a control diet based on alfalfa hay and concentrate in a 40:60 ratio, and a diet in which the concentrate included tomato fruits, citrus pulp, brewer's grain and brewer's yeast (T100CBY) to study the effect of diet on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, purine derivatives excretion in urine, milk yield and composition, and methane emissions...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342598/effect-of-undigested-neutral-detergent-fiber-content-of-alfalfa-hay-on-lactating-dairy-cows-feeding-behavior-fiber-digestibility-and-lactation-performance
#4
M Fustini, A Palmonari, G Canestrari, E Bonfante, L Mammi, M T Pacchioli, G C J Sniffen, R J Grant, K W Cotanch, A Formigoni
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341835/investigation-and-manipulation-of-metabolically-active-methanogen-community-composition-during-rumen-development-in-black-goats
#5
Zuo Wang, Chijioke O Elekwachi, Jinzhen Jiao, Min Wang, Shaoxun Tang, Chuanshe Zhou, Zhiliang Tan, Robert J Forster
This study was performed to investigate the initial colonization of metabolically active methanogens and subsequent changes in four fractions: the rumen solid-phase (RS), liquid-phase (RL), protozoa-associated (RP), and epithelium-associated (RE) from 1 to 60 d after birth, and manipulate methanogen community by early weaning on 40 d and supplementing rhubarb from 40 to 60 d in black goats. The RNA-based real-time quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were employed to indicate the metabolically active methanogens...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341044/decreasing-the-ph-of-milk-replacer-containing-soy-flour-affects-nutrient-digestibility-digesta-ph-and-gastrointestinal-development-of-preweaned-calves
#6
R Zhang, Q-Y Diao, Y Zhou, Q Yun, K-D Deng, D Qi, Y Tu
We evaluated the effect of feeding soy flour-containing milk replacer (MR) with a lower than normal pH on growth, nutrient digestibility, digesta pH, and gastrointestinal development of preweaned calves. The study consisted of 48 neonatal calves, allocated to 8 treatments in a 2-factor 4×2 randomized design. The calves received 2 types of MR containing soy flour. The proportion of soy crude protein (CP) to total CP (SP/CP) in MR was 50% (MR50 treatment) or 80% (MR80 treatment), respectively. The pH of the reconstituted MR was decreased by 1 N HCl from to 6...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341043/sorghum-forage-in-precision-fed-dairy-heifer-diets
#7
F Pino, A J Heinrichs
Sorghum forage is an alternative crop that is more adapted to drier conditions and more resistant than corn to drought conditions. Thus, sorghum forage maximizes water utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate sorghum silage (SS), including digestibility and fermentation parameters, in precision-fed dairy heifers. Eight Holstein heifers (13.7±0.6mo of age and 364.8±17.64kg of body weight) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin Square design; treatments were 4 levels of forage to concentrate ratios (85:15, 75:25, 65:35, and 55:45)...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341042/effect-of-forage-to-concentrate-ratio-with-sorghum-silage-as-a-source-of-forage-on-rumen-fermentation-n-balance-and-purine-derivative-excretion-in-limit-fed-dairy-heifers
#8
K Kljak, F Pino, A J Heinrichs
Sorghum silage has been shown to be a good alternative to corn silage for dairy cows; however, studies regarding heifers are insufficiently explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of changing forage to concentrate ratio (FOR:CON) in diets based on sorghum silage on N digestibility, rumen fermentation, N balance, C excretion, and microbial N yield in limit-fed dairy heifers. A split-plot 4×4 Latin square design with 19-d periods (15 d of adaptation and 4 d of sampling) was conducted with 8 rumen cannulated dairy heifers (age 13...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337571/effects-of-feeding-ground-pods-of-enterolobium-cyclocarpum-jacq-griseb-on-dry-matter-intake-rumen-fermentation-and-enteric-methane-production-by-pelibuey-sheep-fed-tropical-grass
#9
S Albores-Moreno, J A Alayón-Gamboa, A J Ayala-Burgos, F J Solorio-Sánchez, C F Aguilar-Pérez, L Olivera-Castillo, J C Ku-Vera
An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum in a basal ration of Pennisetum purpureum grass on feed intake, rumen volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and protozoa and methane (CH4) production by hair sheep. Four male sheep (Pelibuey × Katahdin) with a mean live weight of 27.0 kg (SD ± 0.5) were supplemented with 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 kg of dry matter (DM) of E. cyclocarpum pods daily; equivalent to 0.00, 4.35, 8.70, and 13.05 g of crude saponins, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335092/effect-of-energy-density-and-virginiamycin-supplementation-in-diets-on-growth-performance-and-digestive-function-of-finishing-steers
#10
Juan Diego Navarrete, Martin F Montano, Constantino Raymundo, Jaime Salinas-Chavira, Noemi Torrentera, Richard Avery Zinn
Objective: In the study was determined the influence of virginiamycin supplementation on growth-performance and characteristics of digestion of cattle, decreasing dietary NEm from 2.22 to 2.10 Mcal/kg. Methods: Eighty crossbred beef steers (298.2 ± 6.3 kg) were used in a 152-d performance evaluation consisting of a 28-d adaptation period followed by a 124-d growing-finishing period. During the 124-d period steers were fed either a lesser energy dense (LED, 2.10 Mcal/kg NEm) or higher energy dense (HED, 2...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334205/tetrahymena-phagocytic-vesicles-as-ecological-micro-niches-of-phage-transfer
#11
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
The microbial communities in natural environments such as soil, pond water, or animal rumens are comprised of a diverse mixture of bacteria and protozoa including ciliates or flagellates. In such microbiomes, a major source of bacterial mortality is grazing by phagocytic protists. Many protists are omnivorous heterotrophs, feeding on a range of different bacterial species. Due to this indiscriminate feeding, different bacterial species can assemble together in the same phagocytic vesicles where can they potentially exchange genetic material...
March 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331053/acetate-dose-dependently-stimulates-milk-fat-synthesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#12
Natalie L Urrutia, Kevin J Harvatine
Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330160/characterization-of-cla-producing-butyrivibrio-spp-reveals-strain-specific-variations
#13
S K Asraf Hussain, Anima Srivastava, Ashish Tyagi, Umesh Kumar Shandilya, Ashwani Kumar, Sachin Kumar, Surbhi Panwar, Amrish Kumar Tyagi
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), a fatty acid with high nutraceutical value is produced in rumen by resident bacterial species, especially Butyrivibrio spp. The present study was undertaken to examine the diversity of indigenous Butyrivibrio spp. from rumen liquor of Indian ruminants. The isolates were screened for their CLA production capability at different level of linoleic acid (LA) (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 μg/ml) at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h). A total of more than 300 anaerobic cultures were isolated and 31 of them were identified as Butyrivibrio spp...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326079/differences-in-ureolytic-bacterial-composition-between-the-rumen-digesta-and-rumen-wall-based-on-urec-gene-classification
#14
Di Jin, Shengguo Zhao, Nan Zheng, Dengpan Bu, Yves Beckers, Stuart E Denman, Christopher S McSweeney, Jiaqi Wang
Ureolytic bacteria are key organisms in the rumen producing urease enzymes to catalyze the breakdown of urea to ammonia for the synthesis of microbial protein. However, little is known about the diversity and distribution of rumen ureolytic microorganisms. The urease gene (ureC) has been the target gene of choice for analysis of the urea-degrading microorganisms in various environments. In this study, we investigated the predominant ureC genes of the ureolytic bacteria in the rumen of dairy cows using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323135/effect-of-bioaugmentation-by-cellulolytic-bacteria-enriched-from-sheep-rumen-on-methane-production-from-wheat-straw
#15
E Gozde Ozbayram, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz, Bahar Ince, Orhan Ince
The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry...
March 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318590/supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-or-choline-during-the-transition-period-influences-whole-blood-immune-response-in-periparturient-dairy-cows
#16
M Vailati-Riboni, Z Zhou, C B Jacometo, A Minuti, E Trevisi, D N Luchini, J J Loor
Methionine, together with Lys, is the most limiting AA for milk production in dairy cows. Besides its crucial role in milk production, Met and its derivate metabolites (e.g., glutathione, taurine, polyamines) are well-known immunonutrients in nonruminants, helping support and boost immune function and activity. In the present study, the effects of Met or choline, as its precursor, were investigated using an ex vivo whole blood challenge. The study involved 33 multiparous Holstein cows (from a larger cohort with a factorial arrangement of treatments) assigned from d -21 to +30 relative to parturition to a basal control (CON) diet, CON plus rumen-protected Met (MET, Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) at a rate of 0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318577/effect-of-dietary-mineral-phosphorus-and-phytate-on-in-situ-ruminal-phytate-disappearance-from-different-concentrates-in-dairy-cows
#17
E Haese, J Möhring, H Steingass, M Schollenberger, M Rodehutscord
The first objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary composition on the in situ disappearance of phytate (InsP6) from wheat, corn, soybean meal, and rapeseed meal [solvent-extracted, without (RSM) or with (hRSM) heat treatment] in the rumen of dairy cows. The second objective was to assess the primary degradation products of InsP6 in the rumen. Three diets differing in phosphorus and InsP6 concentration (basal diet = 0.38% P in dry matter; high-P diet = 0.56% P; high-InsP6 diet = 0.39% P) were fed to 3 ruminally fistulated lactating Jersey cows in a 3 × 3 Latin square...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317285/changes-in-the-relative-population-size-of-selected-ruminal-bacteria-following-an-induced-episode-of-acidosis-in-beef-heifers-receiving-viable-and-non-viable-active-dried-yeast
#18
R Mohammed, D Vyas, W Z Yang, K A Beauchemin
AIMS: To characterize the changes in the relative population size (RPS) of select ruminal bacteria and rumen fermentation variables in beef heifers supplemented with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as viable active dried (ADY) or killed dried (KDY) yeast following an induced episode of ruminal acidosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six ruminally-cannulated beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 50% forage and 50% grain (dry matter basis) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 28 d periods...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315137/sheep-fed-with-banana-leaf-hay-reduce-ruminal-protozoa-population
#19
Cláudio Eduardo Silva Freitas, Eduardo Robson Duarte, Dorismar David Alves, Isabel Martinele, Marta D'Agosto, Franciane Cedrola, Angélica Alves de Moura Freitas, Franklin Delano Dos Santos Soares, Makenzi Beltran
A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay...
March 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301199/analyzing-data-from-single-case-alternating-treatments-designs
#20
Rumen Manolov, Patrick Onghena
Alternating treatments designs (ATDs) have received comparatively less attention than other single-case experimental designs in terms of data analysis, as most analytical proposals and illustrations have been made in the context of designs including phases with several consecutive measurements in the same condition. One of the specific features of ATDs is the rapid (and usually randomly determined) alternation of conditions, which requires adapting the analytical techniques. First, we review the methodologically desirable features of ATDs, as well as the characteristics of the published single-case research using an ATD, which are relevant for data analysis...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Methods
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