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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156325/differential-partitioning-of-rumen-protected-n-3-and-n-6-fatty-acids-into-muscles-with-different-metabolism
#1
C Wolf, S E Ulbrich, M Kreuzer, J Berard, K Giller
Bioavailability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminants is enhanced by their protection from ruminal biohydrogenation. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFA fulfil important physiological functions. We investigated potentially different incorporation patterns of these functional PUFA into three beef muscles with different activity characteristics. We supplemented 33 Angus heifers with rumen-protected oils characterized either by mainly C18:2 n-6 (linoleic acid (LA) in sunflower oil) or by C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), both prevalent n-3 PUFA in fish oil...
November 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155202/bioactive-polysaccharides-and-oligosaccharides-as-possible-feed-additives-to-manipulate-rumen-fermentation-in-rusitec-fermenters
#2
Zongjun Li, Hanxun Bai, Lixin Zheng, Huai Jiang, Huiying Cui, Yangchun Cao, Junhu Yao
Bioactive polysaccharides and oligosaccharides (POSs) have been used as safe non-antibiotic alternatives in animal diets; however, only limited data are available on their effects in rumen manipulation. This study was undertaken to systematically evaluate and compare the efficacies of six different bioactive POSs (10g/kg diet) with respect to ruminal fermentation, feed digestibility, biohydrogenation and bacterial population using a rumen simulation technique. The experiment consisted of 4 independent 12-d incubation periods (each including 8 d for acclimation, followed with 4 d for sample collection)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154437/effect-of-adding-different-levels-of-rumen-protected-choline-to-the-diet-on-productive-and-reproductive-performance-of-female-goats-and-growth-of-their-kids-from-birthing-to-weaning
#3
Alsaied A Habeeb, Ahmed E Gad, Mostafa A Atta, Mohammed M Mustafa
Forty female goats in the third parity were randomly divided into four similar groups. The experiment was started 20 days before mating and lasted until the end of the suckling period for 60 days and weaning their kids. The first group were fed diet without supplementation and kept as control while in the second, third and fourth groups, each doe was fed diets with rumen protected choline (RPC) at the rate of 10, 20 and 40 g/day, respectively. Results showed that number of doe kidding twins and triplets and litter weight of kids born per group increased with increasing the level of RPC in the diet of goats and viability rate of born kids during the suckling period improved due to RPC supplementation in the diets of their mothers...
November 20, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153529/evaluation-of-carinata-meal-as-a-feedstuff-for-growing-dairy-heifers-effects-on-growth-performance-rumen-fermentation-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-nutrients
#4
K Rodriguez-Hernandez, J L Anderson
Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding carinata meal (CRM) compared with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and nutrient utilization in peripubertal dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized block design experiment with 24 Holstein heifers [6.6 ± 0.7 mo and 218 ± 27 kg of body weight (BW)] was conducted. Treatments diets were (1) 10% cold-pressed CRM and (2) 10% DDGS on a dry matter (DM) basis. The remainder of the diets consisted of grass hay, ground corn, soybean meal, and mineral mix...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153523/uncertainty-assessment-of-the-breath-methane-concentration-method-to-determine-methane-production-of-dairy-cows
#5
Liansun Wu, Peter W G Groot Koerkamp, Nico Ogink
The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure and rank cows' methane production. A range of controlled methane fluxes from a so-called artificial reference cow were dosed in a feed bin, and its exhaled air was sampled by a tube inside the feeder and analyzed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153519/invited-review-practical-feeding-management-recommendations-to-mitigate-the-risk-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-in-dairy-cattle
#6
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153518/subacute-ruminal-acidosis-affects-fermentation-and-endotoxin-concentration-in-the-rumen-and-relative-expression-of-the-cd14-tlr4-md2-genes-involved-in-lipopolysaccharide-systemic-immune-response-in-dairy-cows
#7
B Stefanska, W Człapa, E Pruszynska-Oszmałek, D Szczepankiewicz, V Fievez, J Komisarek, K Stajek, W Nowak
The first objective of this study was to investigate the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on fermentation, ruminal free lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and expression of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) complex in white blood cells involved in the systemic immune response in dairy cows. The second objective was a study of whether increased expression of the LPS receptor complex led to increases in the concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum Ca...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153160/a-100-year-review-calf-nutrition-and-management
#8
A F Kertz, T M Hill, J D Quigley, A J Heinrichs, J G Linn, J K Drackley
The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153157/a-100-year-review-protein-and-amino-acid-nutrition-in-dairy-cows
#9
Charles G Schwab, Glen A Broderick
Considerable progress has been made in understanding the protein and amino acid (AA) nutrition of dairy cows. The chemistry of feed crude protein (CP) appears to be well understood, as is the mechanism of ruminal protein degradation by rumen bacteria and protozoa. It has been shown that ammonia released from AA degradation in the rumen is used for bacterial protein formation and that urea can be a useful N supplement when lower protein diets are fed. It is now well documented that adequate rumen ammonia levels must be maintained for maximal synthesis of microbial protein and that a deficiency of rumen-degradable protein can decrease microbial protein synthesis, fiber digestibility, and feed intake...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153154/a-100-year-review-from-ascorbic-acid-to-zinc-mineral-and-vitamin-nutrition-of-dairy-cows
#10
W P Weiss
Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows was studied before the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published and is still actively researched today. The initial studies on mineral nutrition of dairy cows were simple balance experiments (although the methods available at the time for measuring minerals were anything but simple). Output of Ca and P in feces, urine, and milk was subtracted from intake of Ca and P, and if values were negative it was often assumed that cows were lacking in the particular mineral...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151400/review-optimizing-ruminant-conversion-of-feed-protein-to-human-food-protein
#11
G A Broderick
Ruminant livestock have the ability to produce high-quality human food from feedstuffs of little or no value for humans. Balanced essential amino acid composition of meat and milk from ruminants makes those protein sources valuable adjuncts to human diets. It is anticipated that there will be increasing demand for ruminant proteins in the future. Increasing productivity per animal dilutes out the nutritional and environmental costs of maintenance and rearing dairy animals up to production. A number of nutritional strategies improve production per animal such as ration balancing in smallholder operations and small grain supplements to ruminants fed high-forage diets...
November 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151162/enrichment-of-lignocellulose-degrading-microbial-communities-from-natural-and-engineered-methanogenic-environments
#12
Emine Gozde Ozbayram, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz, Bahar Ince, Orhan Ince
The aim of this study was to develop an effective bioaugmentation concept for anaerobic digesters treating lignocellulosic biomass such as straw. For that purpose, lignocellulose-degrading methanogenic communities were enriched on wheat straw from cow and goat rumen fluid as well as from a biogas reactor acclimated to lignocellulosic biomass (sorghum as mono-substrate). The bacterial communities of the enriched cultures and the different inocula were examined by 454 amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes while the methanogenic archaeal communities were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the mcrA gene...
November 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150805/aspergillus-terreus-treated-rice-straw-suppresses-methane-production-and-enhances-feed-digestibility-in-goats
#13
P Mohd Azlan, M F Jahromi, M O Ariff, M Ebrahimi, S C L Candyrine, J B Liang
The objectives of this study were to test the efficacy of producing lovastatin in rice straw treated with Aspergillus terreus in larger laboratory scale following the procedure previously reported and to investigate the effectiveness of the treated rice straw containing lovastatin on methane mitigation in goats. The concentration of lovastatin in the treated rice straw was 0.69 ± 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM) rice straw. Our results showed that supplementation of lovastatin at 4.14 mg/kg BW reduced methane production by 32% while improving the DM digestibility by 13% (P < 0...
November 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143720/epidemiological-investigation-of-a-severe-rumen-fluke-outbreak-on-an-irish-dairy-farm
#14
James O'Shaughnessy, Andres Garcia-Campos, Conor G McAloon, Seamus Fagan, Theo de Waal, Maire McElroy, Micheal Casey, Barbara Good, Grace Mulcahy, John Fagan, Denise Murphy, Annetta Zintl
Although the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi is now very common and widespread throughout Western Europe, reports of clinical cases are still rare. This study explores the epidemiological background to a severe rumen fluke outbreak in 6-month-old heifers on a dairy farm in Ireland. Sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) gene of the rumen fluke metacercariae on pasture failed to identify predominant, possibly pathogenic subtypes. However, estimates of metacercarial load indicated that the animals were exposed to a daily dose of about 5334 C...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141135/the-fatty-acid-composition-of-lamb-liver-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-in-response-to-rumen-protected-conjugated-linoleic-acid-cla-supplementation-is-tissue-dependent
#15
Stefano Schiavon, Matteo Bergamaschi, Erika Pellattiero, Alberto Simonetto, Franco Tagliapietra
The tissue-specific response to rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid supply (rpCLA) of liver, two muscles and three adipose tissues of heavy lambs was studied. Twenty-four lambs, 8 months old, divided into 4 groups of 6, were fed at libitum on a ration supplemented without or with a mixture of rpCLA. Silica and hydrogenated soybean oil was the rpCLA coating matrix. The lambs were slaughtered at 11 months of age. Tissues were collected and analysed for their FA profiles. The dietary rpCLA supplement had no influence on carcass fatness nor on the fat content of the liver and tissues, and had little influence on the FA profiles of these tissues...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129322/effects-of-replacing-soybean-meal-with-canola-meal-or-treated-canola-meal-on-ruminal-digestion-omasal-nutrient-flow-and-performance-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#16
E M Paula, G A Broderick, M A C Danes, N E Lobos, G I Zanton, A P Faciola
Extrusion treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen-undegraded protein fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows. To assess performance, 30 multiparous Holstein cows averaging (mean ± SD) 119 ± 23 d in milk and 44 ± 7 kg of milk/d and 15 primiparous cows averaging 121 ± 19 d in milk and 34 ± 6 kg of milk/d were blocked in a randomized complete block design with a 2-wk covariate period and 12-wk experimental period (experiment 1)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128887/the-effect-of-methanogenesis-inhibition-inoculum-and-substrate-concentration-on-hydrogen-and-carboxylic-acids-production-from-cassava-wastewater
#17
Norma C S Amorim, Eduardo L C Amorim, Mario T Kato, Lourdinha Florencio, Savia Gavazza
Manipueira is a carbohydrate-rich agro-industrial waste from cassava processing. It is considered well suitable for biotechnological processes, such as hydrogen and carboxylic acids production, due to the high content of easily degradable organic matter. However, the proper methanogenesis inhibition method, inoculum type, and organic loads are factors still limiting the processes. The objective in this work was to evaluate the effects of such factors on byproducts production in anaerobic reactors. Batch experiments were conducted with 2...
November 11, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128223/lowering-rumen-degradable-and-undegradable-protein-improved-amino-acid-metabolism-and-energy-utilization-in-lactating-dairy-cows-exposed-to-heat-stress
#18
J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J T Mulliniks, A G Ríus
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on protein and energy metabolism in heat-stressed dairy cows. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial (n = 12/treatment). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments that included 2 levels of RDP (10 and 8%; D) and 2 levels of RUP (8 and 6%; U) of dry matter for 21 d as (1) 10D:8U, (2) 8D:8U, (3) 10D:6U, and (4) 8D:6U...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128213/the-effects-of-feeding-a-partial-mixed-ration-plus-a-top-dress-before-feeding-on-milk-production-and-the-daily-rhythm-of-feed-intake-and-plasma-hormones-and-metabolites-in-dairy-cows
#19
M Niu, K J Harvatine
Total mixed rations (TMR) are commonly fed to dairy cows with a goal of reducing ruminal acidosis, but the daily pattern of feed intake has major implication for rumen fermentation and postabsorptive physiology. Generally there is low feed intake during the overnight period and high intake after feeding and during the afternoon. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding a partial mixed ration (PMR) plus a high starch top-dress before feeding of the PMR would improve production and modify key daily rhythms...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126828/imported-malaria-in-bulgaria-status-and-prognosis-after-eradication-in-1965
#20
Iskra G Rainova, Rumen N Harizanov, Iskren T Kaftandjiev, Ognyan D Mikov, Nina D Tsvetkova
BACKGROUND: This retrospective analysis assessed all recorded malaria cases in Bulgaria after 1965, when the country was certified as malaria-free by the World Health Organization (WHO), and evaluated the readiness of the public health system to interrupt an outbreak of local transmission in case of infection importation. METHODS: The cases were analyzed according to causative species; geographic origin of the imported case; and the citizenship, age, and gender of the infected individuals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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