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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777997/rumen-fluid-fermentation-for-enhancement-of-hydrolysis-and-acidification-of-grass-clipping
#1
Siqi Wang, Guangming Zhang, Panyue Zhang, Xiaowen Ma, Fan Li, Haibo Zhang, Xue Tao, Junpei Ye, Mohammad Nabi
Rumen fluid, formed in rumen of ruminants, includes a complex microbial population of bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea, and has high ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, rumen fluid was used to ferment grass clipping for enhancing the hydrolysis and acidification of organic matters. Results showed that strict anaerobic condition, higher grass clipping content and smaller particle size of grass clipping were beneficial to the hydrolysis and acidification of organics. The increase of SCOD and total VFA concentration respectively reached 24...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775785/integration-of-mirna-weighted-gene-co-expression-network-and-mirna-mrna-co-expression-analyses-reveals-potential-regulatory-functions-of-mirnas-in-calf-rumen-development
#2
Duy N Do, Pier-Luc Dudemaine, Bridget E Fomenky, Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu
This study aimed to explore the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in calf rumen development during early life. Rumen tissues were collected from 16 calves (8 at pre-weaning and 8 at post-weaning) for miRNA-sequencing, differential expression (DE), miRNA weighted gene co-expression network (WGCNA) and miRNA-mRNA co-expression analyses. 295 miRNAs were identified. Bta-miR-143, miR-26a, miR-145 and miR-27b were the most abundantly expressed. 122 miRNAs were significantly DE between the pre- and post-weaning periods and the most up- and down-regulated miRNAs were bta-miR-29b and bta-miR-493, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772023/prepartum-supplementation-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-cla-increased-milk-energy-output-and-decreased-serum-fatty-acids-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-early-lactation-dairy-cows
#3
Rafael Caputo Oliveira, Ryan S Pralle, Lucas C de Resende, Carlos Henrique P C Nova, Valentina Caprarulo, Joshua A Jendza, Arnulf Troescher, Heather M White
Prepartum supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may influence lipolysis and hyperketonemia in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prepartum CLA supplementation on lactation performance and serum fatty acids (FA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in early lactation dairy cows, and secondarily on reproductive performance. Multiparous cows were enrolled in the study at 18 days prior to expected calving date, and randomly assigned 100 g/day of Lutrell Pure (BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 75% FA), providing 10 g/day of each CLA isomer (trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 CLA) or equivalent amount of rumen inert fatty acids as control (78 g/day of Energy Booster 100; Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770108/gc-ms-analysis-of-the-ruminal-metabolome-response-to-thiamine-supplementation-during-high-grain-feeding-in-dairy-cows
#4
Fuguang Xue, Xiaohua Pan, Linshu Jiang, Yuming Guo, Benhai Xiong
Introduction: Thiamine is known to attenuate high-concentrate diet induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objectives: The major objective of this study was to investigate the metabolic mechanisms of thiamine supplementation on high-concentrate diet induced SARA. Methods: Six multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767159/niacin-alters-the-ruminal-microbial-composition-of-cattle-under-high-concentrate-condition
#5
Dan Luo, Yufei Gao, Youyou Lu, Mingren Qu, Xiaowen Xiong, Lanjiao Xu, Xianghui Zhao, Ke Pan, Kehui Ouyang
To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20), high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80), and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN). Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767152/rumen-liquor-from-slaughtered-cattle-as-inoculum-for-feed-evaluation
#6
Pius Lutakome, Fred Kabi, Francis Tibayungwa, Germana H Laswai, Abiliza Kimambo, Cyprian Ebong
Use of nonlinear mathematical models has been majorly based on in vitro gas production (GP) data generated when substrates are incubated with rumen liquor from fistulated steers. However, existing evidence suggests that rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle of unknown dietary history also generates quantifiable in vitro GP data. Fitting and description of GP data obtained from 4 diets incubated with rumen liquor from slaughtered cattle was evaluated using single-pool exponential model with discrete lag time (EXPL), logistic (LOG), Groot's (GRTS) and Gompertz (GOMP) models...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767114/effects-of-physical-form-of-diet-on-nutrient-digestibility-rumen-fermentation-rumination-growth-performance-and-protozoa-population-of-finishing-lambs
#7
Elham Karimizadeh, Morteza Chaji, Tahereh Mohammadabadi
This study was conducted to compare effects of 3 physical forms of feed including mash (diet 1), pellet (diet 2) and complete feed block (CFB; diet 3) on digestion, fermentation and performance of lambs. Twenty-one lambs with an initial average body weight of 26 ± 2.5 kg and 6 ± 1.5 months of age were assigned through a completely randomized design to 3 treatments and 7 replicates. The experimental treatments had the same formulation. The results of present experiment showed that CFB significantly increased feed intake and nutrient digestibility ( P  < 0...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767085/nitrogen-fractionation-of-certain-conventional-and-lesser-known-by-products-for-ruminants
#8
M S Mahesh, Sudarshan S Thakur, Rohit Kumar, Tariq A Malik, Rajkumar Gami
Dietary proteins for ruminants are fractionated according to solubility, degradability and digestibility. In the present experiment, 11 vegetable protein meals and cakes used in ruminant nutrition were included with a main focus on determining various nitrogen (N) fractions in vitro . Total N (N × 6.25) content varied from 22.98% (mahua cake) to 65.16% (maize gluten meal), respectively. Guar meal korma contained the lowest and rice gluten meal had the highest acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN; N × 6...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767056/performance-and-ruminal-parameters-of-fattening-moghani-lambs-fed-recycled-poultry-bedding
#9
Ayoub Azizi, Afrooz Sharifi, Arash Azarfar, Ali Kiani, Alireza Jolazadeh
This study investigated the effects of recycled poultry bedding (RPB) on performance and protozoa population, microbial enzyme activity and microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen contents of fattening lambs. Thirty-six male Moghani lambs (31.4 ± 3.2 kg body weight) were fed iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets containing 0, 70, 140 or 210 g/kg dry matter (DM) RPB in a balanced randomized design (9 lambs per treatment). Results showed that final body weight, DM intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were unchanged ( P  > 0...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766608/effects-of-supplementary-desalted-mother-liquor-as-replacement-of-commercial-salt-in-diet-for-thai-native-cattle-on-digestibility-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-and-rumen-conditions
#10
Yoshiaki Sato, Wanna Angthong, Patima Butcha, Motoharu Takeda, Kazato Oishi, Hiroyuki Hirooka, Hajime Kumagai
Four Thai native cattle were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the availability of desalted mother liquor (DML) as replacement of salt in concentrate. Each cattle was assigned to one of the following concentrate feeding treatments: C1, 1% NaCl was added as salt; C2, 2% NaCl was added as salt; D1, 1% NaCl was replaced by DML; D2, 2% NaCl was replaced by DML, on a dry matter (DM) basis. The animals were fed rice straw and experimental concentrates (40:60) at 1.9% of body weight on a DM basis, daily...
May 16, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763726/susceptibility-of-ruminal-bacteria-isolated-from-large-and-small-ruminant-to-multiple-conventional-antibiotics
#11
Abdelfattah Z M Salem, Ameer Khusro, Mona M Y Elghandour, Jaime Olivares-Pérez, Saúl Rojas-Hernandez, Régulo Jiménez-Guillén
The pivotal aim of the present context was to isolate diversified group of bacteria from the ruminants and to evaluate their antibiogram pattern against 22 antibiotics of 14 different classes. The bacterial isolates from small and large ruminant (sheep, cattle, and calves) were isolated from the rumen based on various colonies morphology, and subjected for preliminary antibiotics susceptibility assay using disc diffusion method. The most sensitive isolates (based on zone of inhibition) were selected for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each antibiotic ranging from 1 to 256 μg/mL...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762736/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-rumen-papillae-in-suckling-and-weaned-japanese-black-calves-using-rna-sequencing
#12
Koki Nishihara, Daichi Kato, Yutaka Suzuki, Dahye Kim, Misato Nakano, Yu Yajima, Satoshi Haga, Miwa Nakano, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Tomohiro Kono, Kazuo Katoh, Sang-Gun Roh
The length and density of rumen papillae starts to increase during weaning and growth of ruminants. This significant development increases the intraruminal surface area and the efficiency of VFA (acetate, propionate, butyrate, etc.) uptake. Thus, it is important to investigate the factors controlling the growth and development of rumen papillae during weaning. This study aimed to compare the transcriptomes of rumen papillae in suckling and weaned calves. Total RNA was extracted from the rumen papillae of 10 male Japanese Black calves (5 suckling calves, 5 wk old; 5 weaned calves, 15 wk old) and used in RNA-sequencing...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762731/nutrient-digestibility-rumen-microbial-protein-synthesis-and-growth-performance-in-sheep-consuming-rations-containing-sea-buckthorn-pomace
#13
X Y Hao, X G Diao, S C Yu, N Ding, C T Mu, J X Zhao, J X Zhang
This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and growth performance when different proportions of sea buckthorn pomace (SBP) were included in the diet of sheep. A total of forty1/2 Dorper × 1/2 thin-tailed Han ram lambs (BW= 22.2 ± 0.92 kg, Age =120 ± 11 d; mean ± SD) were selected and divided into four groups in a randomized design, and were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment diets. Diets were formulated isonitrogenously and contained different levels of SBP: 1) 0% SBP (control); 2) 7...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758485/isolation-characterization-and-strain-selection-of-a-paenibacillus-species-for-use-as-a-probiotic-to-aid-in-ruminal-methane-mitigation-nitrate-nitrite-detoxification-and-food-safety
#14
Elizabeth A Latham, William E Pinchak, Julian Trachsel, Heather K Allen, Todd R Callaway, David J Nisbet, Robin C Anderson
The effects of dietary nitrate and Paenibacillus 79R4 (79R4), a denitrifying bacterium, when co-administered as a probiotic, on methane emissions, nitrate and nitrite-metabolizing capacity and fermentation characteristics were studied in vitro. Mixed populations of rumen microbes inoculated with 79R4 metabolized all levels of nitrite studied after 24 h in vitro incubation. Results from in vitro simulations resulted in up to 2 log10 colony forming unit reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni when these were co-cultured with 79R4...
April 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758277/first-genetic-evidence-for-the-presence-of-the-rumen-fluke-paramphistomum-epiclitum-in-pakistan
#15
Qasim Ali, Imran Rashid, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Haroon Akbar, Kashif Shahzad, Kamran Ashraf, Neil Sargison, Umer Chaudhry
More than 70 species of the Superfamily Paramphistomoidea, have been identified in ruminants in different parts of the world. Most are pathogenic, causing amphistomosis. Adult flukes within this family have a predilection for the forestomach (rumen) or bile duct of the liver, where they may cause epithelial damage. Identification of adult Paramphistomum, Calicophoron, Gastrothylax and Fischoederius at the species level based on morphology requires specialised expertise, whereas molecular genetic marker analysis is more precise and transferable...
May 11, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756576/improving-feed-protein-utilization-rate-in-cattle-through-nutritional-approaches
#16
Guangyong Zhao
Cattle supply important amounts of nutritious products such as beef and milk for human consumption. However, cattle excrete large amounts of feces and urine with low utilization rate of dietary crude protein (CP). These not only negatively affect the global environment by emission of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and N bleaching the soil and underground water, but also increase the feed cost. The low nitrogen (N) utilization rate of cattle could possibly result from the activity of rumen microorganisms degrading feed protein...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753476/technical-note-the-development-of-a-methodology-for-ruminal-and-colon-tissue-biopsying-of-young-holstein-dairy-calves
#17
J K van Niekerk, M Middeldorp, M A Steele
The objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for biopsying the rumen and colon of young dairy calves and to collect suitable quality tissue samples for microscopic and gene expression analysis. Six Holstein dairy bull calves (45.0 ± 1.5 kg birth weight) were ruminally cannulated during the second week of life and weaned at the end of wk 6. Ruminal and colon tissue samples were collected at the end of wk 5, 6, 7, 8, and 12. Calves were not sedated but were restrained in a chute for sampling. The endoscope (100 cm length, 9...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753473/dietary-linseed-supplementation-affects-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-the-sn-2-position-of-triglycerides-in-sheep-milk
#18
A Serra, G Conte, F Ciucci, E Bulleri, L Corrales-Retana, A Cappucci, A Buccioni, M Mele
In the human intestine, lipids are absorbed as sn-2 monoglycerides (sn-2, also named β-position), produced mainly by pancreatic lipases, which hydrolysate the triglyceride molecule in positions 1 and 3 (sn-1,3, α-position). The fatty acids esterified in sn-2 are thus preferentially absorbed, which means that the bioavailability of a single fatty acid is affected by its position on the triglyceride. This experiment is carried out with the milk used to make cheese applied in a study with 42 human volunteers...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753202/effects-of-supplementing-corn-silage-with-different-nitrogen-sources-on-ruminal-fermentation-and-microbial-populations-in-vitro
#19
Maren Witzig, Melanie B Lengowski, Karin H R Zuber, Jens Möhring, Markus Rodehutscord
Compared to grass silage (GS)-, corn silage (CS)-based diets appear to increase the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS) in the rumen. Opposite results for the EMPS obtained in vitro have raised the question of whether an inadequate supply of amino N for microbes might explain the low EMPS. We examined the effects of supplementation with different N sources in CS on the EMPS and microbial populations in vitro. GS and CS were used as substrates for in vitro incubation. CS was non-supplemented or supplemented with urea, mixed amino acids (AA), peptone, or protein to adjust the N content to that of GS...
May 1, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747497/effects-of-zinc-bearing-palygorskite-on-rumen-fermentation-in-vitro
#20
Mengjiao Chen, Yumeng Xi, Lin Zhang, Hanfang Zeng, Yeqing Li, Zhaoyu Han
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of zinc-bearing palygorskite (Zn-Pal) on rumen fermentation by in vitro gas-production system. Methods: In trial, 90 incubators were evenly divided into five groups: control (0 % Zn-Pal), treatment Ⅰ (0.2 % Zn-Pal), treatment Ⅱ (0.4 % Zn-Pal), treatment Ⅲ (0.6 % Zn-Pal) and treatment Ⅳ (0.8 % Zn-Pal). The contents of zinc fortreatments were 0, 49, 98, 147, 196 mg/kg, respectively. The main chemical composition and microstructure of Zn-Pal was investigated by X-ray diffraction...
April 19, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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