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Robert Ringseis, Wilhelm Windisch, Klaus Eder
In the present study, transcript profiling was carried out in liver biopsies from high-yielding dairy cows at week 5 of lactation in order to identify genes and pathways regulated by feeding rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during the transition period. Analysis of a bovine whole genome microarray revealed a total number of 130 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the liver between cows of the CLA group and the control group (filter: P < 0.05 and fold change (FC) ≥ 1.3 or ≤- 1...
December 2016: Genomics Data
L Chen, G Guo, X J Yuan, J Zhang, A Y Wen, X H Sun, T Shao
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ensiling different ratios of whole crop oat to lucerne on fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro digestibility of silage on the Tibetan plateau. Four experimental treatments were produced varying in the ratio of forages on a fresh matter (FM) basis: 1) 100% oat (control, dry matter (DM) content: 317 g/kg), 2) 90% oat + 10% lucerne (OL10, DM content: 316 g/kg), 3) 80% oat+ 20% lucerne (OL20, DM content: 317 g/kg) and 4) 70% oat+ 30% lucerne (OL30, DM content: 318 g/kg)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Janine Kamke, Sandra Kittelmann, Priya Soni, Yang Li, Michael Tavendale, Siva Ganesh, Peter H Janssen, Weibing Shi, Jeff Froula, Edward M Rubin, Graeme T Attwood
BACKGROUND: Enteric fermentation by farmed ruminant animals is a major source of methane and constitutes the second largest anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Reducing methane emissions from ruminants is needed to ensure sustainable animal production in the future. Methane yield varies naturally in sheep and is a heritable trait that can be used to select animals that yield less methane per unit of feed eaten. We previously demonstrated elevated expression of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway genes of methanogenic archaea in the rumens of high methane yield (HMY) sheep compared to their low methane yield (LMY) counterparts...
October 19, 2016: Microbiome
R Antanaitis, V Žilaitis, V Juozaitiene, R Stoškus
The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the acidity and temperature of the contents of the reticulorumen and abomasum in the first 10 days after calving and to evaluate these factors as predictive traits for the diagnosis of subclinical acidosis. The acidity and temperature of the contents of the reticulorumen and abomasum were measured using specific smaXtec boluses manufactured for animal care. According to the directions of the manufacturer, the boluses were inserted into the reticulorumen of the cows researched with the help of a specific tool...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Taiala Cristina de Jesus Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira, Jeruzia Vitória Moreira, José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo, Ronan Batista, Vanderlúcia Fonseca de Paula, Brena Santos Oliveira, Edileusa de Jesus Dos Santos
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alkaloid extracts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. pods obtained by two extraction methods as compared with sodium monensin on the gas production kinetic, mitigation of methane, and rumen fermentation products using wheat bran or Tifton 85 hay as substrates, by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. A completely randomized design was adopted, and two natural additives were tested made from mesquite pod (alkaloid extract I and alkaloid extract II) at three levels (3...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Krasimira Hristova, Vera Bogdanova, Rumen Marinov
OBJECTIVE: Arterial hypertension (HTN) causes left ventricular (LV) dysfunction even if ejection function (EF) remains preserved. The objective of this study was to assess whether complex LAFI (left atrium functional index) had additional value in definition and grading of diastolic dysfunction and compare with indices of atrial deformation - longitudinal strain. DESIGN AND METHOD: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) was evaluated in 82 patients with systemic HTN and preserved EF (> = 55%) divided in 41 with diastolic dysfunction but no hypertrophy (HTNdd), and 41 with no diastolic dysfunction or hypertrophy (eHTN)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Krasimira Hristova, Rumen Marinov, Georgi Stamenov, Kristina Chacheva, Marina Michova, Sabina Persenska, Ani Racheva
OBJECTIVE: Normal pregnancy is associated with reversible changes in both systolic and diastolic mechanics, consistent with an increase in preload and decrease in afterload and systemic vascular resistance. The aim is to evaluate left ventricular (LV) twist and untwist mechanics in a population of pregnant women during differing stages of a healthy pregnancy. DESIGN AND METHOD: We included 22 pregnant patients, 10 with multiple pregnancy (mean age 36.5 ± 3 years) and 20 healthy non pregnant women (mean age 33 ± 4years)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
A H Dezfoulian, H Aliarabi
There have been extensive studies in sheep and cattle considering cobalt (Co) supplementation and its effects on vitamin B12 concentrations in the body. However, there are limited studies on goats. The aim of this study was to compare two different sources of Co (sulfate v. glucoheptonate) at two different concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg dry matter) in goat kid nutrition, and to evaluate the effects of these supplements on performance, serum vitamin B12, blood biochemistry and rumen volatile fatty acids...
October 18, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Saravanan Devendran, Ahmed M Abdel-Hamid, Anton F Evans, Michael Iakiviak, In Hyuk Kwon, Roderick I Mackie, Isaac Cann
Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
G Klop, S van Laar-van Schuppen, W F Pellikaan, W H Hendriks, A Bannink, J Dijkstra
The adaptation of dairy cows to methane (CH4)-mitigating feed additives was evaluated using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Nine rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were grouped into three blocks and within blocks randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: Control (CON; no feed additive), Agolin Ruminant® (AR; 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM)) or lauric acid (LA; 30 g/kg DM). Total mixed rations composed of maize silage, grass silage and concentrate were fed in a 40 : 30 : 30 ratio on DM basis...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
D Yesilbag, H Biricik, I Cetin, C Kara, Y Meral, S S Cengiz, A Orman, D Udum
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of juniper essential oil on the growth performance, rumen fermentation parameters, rumen protozoa population, blood antioxidant enzyme parameters and faecal content in growing Saanen kids. Thirty-six male Saanen kids (36 ± 14 days of age) were used in the study. Each group consisted of 9 kids. The control group (G1) was fed with a diet that consisted of the above concentrated feed and oat hay, whereas the experimental groups consumed the same diet but with the concentrated feed uniformly sprayed with juniper essential oil 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Georgi Iskrov, Tsonka Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Rumen Stefanov
BACKGROUND: Limited resources and expanding expectations push all countries and types of health systems to adopt new approaches in priority setting and resources allocation. Despite best efforts, it is difficult to reconcile all competing interests, and trade-offs are inevitable. This is why multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has played a major role in recent uptake of value-based reimbursement. MCDA framework enables exploration of stakeholders' preferences, as well as explicit organization of broad range of criteria on which real-world decisions are made...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Maria A Oliveira, Susana P Alves, José Santos-Silva, Rui J B Bessa
Forty lambs were fed one of four diets supplemented with a linseed and sunflower oil blend but differing in starch level (mid, ≈35 vs. high, ≈50%) and starch rumen degradability (mid, ≈70 vs. high, ≈80%). The effects of diet on growth, carcass traits and meat fatty acid (FA) composition, with emphasis on biohydrogenation intermediates were evaluated. Lambs stayed on trial for 5weeks until slaughter. Treatment had no effect on animal performance and carcass traits. High-degradability diets decreased (P=0...
October 5, 2016: Meat Science
Baisuo Zhao, Jie Liu, Craig Frear, Mark Holtzapple, Shulin Chen
This study employed mixed-culture consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to digest microalgal biomass in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The primary objectives are to evaluate the impact of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on the productivity of carboxylic acids and to characterize the bacterial community. HRT affects the production rate and patterns of carboxylic acids. For the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentation, a 12-day HRT was selected because it offered the highest productivity of carboxylic acids and it synthesized longer chains...
October 1, 2016: Bioresource Technology
W A Knauer, S M Godden, N McDonald
Indwelling rumen temperature bolus (RTB) systems have the potential to offer a convenient and timely method of detecting pyrexia, indicative of active infectious disease. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of using RTB systems in preweaned dairy calves. First, an in vitro study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the RTB in its immediate environment. Thirteen RTB were immersed in a hot water bath (WB). Variably collected RTB temperatures were then matched to WB temperatures, which varied from 36 to 41°C, with 1 h spent at each temperature...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
A Palmonari, G Canestrari, M Fustini, E Bonfante, L Mammi, A Formigoni
In vitro methods requiring ruminal microorganisms to ferment and digest feeds have been used for decades. Though commonly accepted, collecting and pooling rumen fluid from different donor animals to avoid individual characteristics could affect in vitro fermentations. The current study evaluated the effects of individual or pooled liquors on in vitro digestibility of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom). The study was conducted on 24 samples (8 alfalfa hays, 8 grass hays, and 8 corn silages)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Melissa Bainbridge, Jana Kraft
Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle...
2016: PloS One
Kjartan Østbye, Robert Wilson, Knut Rudi
Knowledge about the factors shaping the rumen microbiota in wild animals is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiota from the three cervid species moose (Alces alces, n = 5), red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 4) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 12), sharing the same habitat. Using deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found that the largest species moose had the highest number of unique Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Furthermore, red deer and moose, shared more of the microbiota, compared with the smallest species, roe deer, with Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota being significantly overrepresented for the shared microbiota...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Xuewei Wang, Xingzhong Liu, Johannes Z Groenewald
The phylum Neocallimastigomycota contains eight genera (about 20 species) of strictly anaerobic fungi. The evolutionary relationships of these genera are uncertain due to insufficient sequence data to infer their phylogenies. Based on morphology and molecular phylogeny, thirteen isolates obtained from yak faeces and rumen digesta in China were assigned to Neocallimastix frontalis (nine isolates), Orpinomyces joyonii (two isolates) and Caecomyces sp. (two isolates), respectively. The phylogenetic relationships of the eight genera were evaluated using complete ITS and partial LSU sequences, compared to the ITS1 region which has been widely used in this phylum in the past...
October 12, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Tzvetina Brumbarova, Rumen Ivanov
Endosomal recycling of plasma membrane proteins contributes significantly to the regulation of cellular transport and signaling processes. Members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SORTING NEXIN (SNX) protein family were shown to mediate the endosomal retrieval of transporter proteins in response to external challenges. Our aim is to understand the possible ways through which external stimuli influence the activity of SNX1 in the root. Several proteins are known to contribute to the function of SNX1 through direct protein-protein interaction...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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