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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921362/effects-of-mineral-salt-supplement-on-enteric-methane-emissions-ruminal-fermentation-and-methanogen-community-of-lactating-cows
#1
Xiaohua Li, Chong Liu, Yongxing Chen, Rongguang Shi, Zhenhua Cheng, Hongmin Dong
We evaluated the effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of dairy cows over a whole lactation period. Ten Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) diet were randomly allocated into two groups, one supplied with mineral salts as the treatment group and the other as the control group. The methane measurement showed that the ingestion of mineral salts lowered enteric methane emissions significantly (P < 0.05), with an average of 10...
December 6, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917166/temporal-metagenomic-and-metabolomic-characterization-of-fresh-perennial-ryegrass-degradation-by-rumen-bacteria
#2
Olga L Mayorga, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Eun J Kim, Gordon G Allison, Toby J Wilkinson, Matthew J Hegarty, Michael K Theodorou, Charles J Newbold, Sharon A Huws
Understanding the relationship between ingested plant material and the attached microbiome is essential for developing methodologies to improve ruminant nutrient use efficiency. We have previously shown that perennial ryegrass (PRG) rumen bacterial colonization events follow a primary (up to 4 h) and secondary (after 4 h) pattern based on the differences in diversity of the attached bacteria. In this study, we investigated temporal niche specialization of primary and secondary populations of attached rumen microbiota using metagenomic shotgun sequencing as well as monitoring changes in the plant chemistry using mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914121/hidden-potential-diet-driven-changes-in-redox-level-shape-the-rumen-microbiome
#3
David Berry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 3, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910262/enterobacter-sp-lu1-as-a-novel-succinic-acid-producer-co-utilization-of-glycerol-and-lactose
#4
Marcin Podleśny, Piotr Jarocki, Jakub Wyrostek, Tomasz Czernecki, Jagoda Kucharska, Anna Nowak, Zdzisław Targoński
Succinic acid is an important C4-building chemical platform for many applications. A novel succinic acid-producing bacterial strain was isolated from goat rumen. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Enterobacter. This is the first report of a wild bacterial strain from the genus Enterobacter that is capable of efficient succinic acid production. Co-fermentation of glycerol and lactose significantly improved glycerol utilization under anaerobic conditions, debottlenecking the utilization pathway of this valuable biodiesel waste product...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909428/rapid-fermentable-substance-modulates-interactions-between-ruminal-commensals-and-toll-like-receptors-in-promotion-of-immune-tolerance-of-goat-rumen
#5
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhan Chen, Yufeng Wu, Zanming Shen
Whether dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC), a rapid fermentable substance, affects immune homeostasis of rumen through the modulation of interactions of ruminal microbiota and epithelial toll-like receptors (TLRs) remains unclear. A combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCRs was applied to study the synergetic responses of ruminal microbiota and epithelial TLRs to the dietary NFC switch from 15 to 31% in the goat model. The results showed that the 31% NFC diet caused the radical increases on the richness and diversity of rumen microbiota...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906983/tithonia-diversifolia-as-a-supplementary-feed-for-dairy-cows
#6
Rafael Sandin Ribeiro, Stephanie Amelia Terry, João Paulo Sacramento, Sylvia Rocha E Silveira, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Elsa Fernandes da Silva, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Marco Antônio Sundfeld da Gama, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira, Thierry Ribeiro Tomich, Rogério Martins Maurício, Alexandre Vieira Chaves
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899919/fermentation-of-ammonia-fiber-expansion-treated-and-untreated-barley-straw-in-a-rumen-simulation-technique-using-rumen-inoculum-from-cattle-with-slow-versus-fast-rate-of-fiber-disappearance
#7
Candace L Griffith, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Masahito Oba, Tim A McAllister, Karen A Beauchemin
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898968/post-artificial-insemination-supplementation-with-calcium-salts-of-soybean-oil-influences-pregnancy-establishment-factors-in-beef-cows
#8
R S Cipriano, R F Cooke, A D Rodrigues, L G T Silva, D W Bohnert, R S Marques, J L M Vasconcelos, A V Pires, R L A Cerri
The objective of this experiment was to compare hormonal, uterine, and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) for 21 d beginning after timed AI. One hundred lactating multiparous Nelore cows were allocated to 20 groups of 5 cows/group and timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment. After AI, groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of protein-mineral mix + 100 g of ground corn per cow per day, in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO ( = 10) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; = 10)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898920/effects-of-dietary-roughage-and-sulfur-in-diets-containing-corn-dried-distillers-grains-with-solubles-on-hydrogen-sulfide-production-and-fermentation-by-rumen-microbes-in-vitro
#9
E Y Binversie, M Ruiz-Moreno, A J Carpenter, B J Heins, G I Crawford, A DiCostanzo, M D Stern
Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) have been used in production animal diets; however, overuse of DDGS can cause toxic concentrations of ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (HS), resulting in polioencephalomalacia, a deleterious brain disease. Because HS gas requires an acidic rumen environment and diet can influence ruminal pH, it has been postulated that dietary manipulation could help mitigate HS production. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary roughage and sulfur concentrations on HS production and rumen fermentation...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898895/effects-of-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-and-low-feed-intake-on-short-chain-fatty-acid-transporters-and-flux-pathways-in-holstein-steers
#10
A H Laarman, R-L A Pederzolli, K M Wood, G B Penner, B W McBride
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of protein-mediated transport pathways for short-chain fatty acid flux across the ruminal epithelium, using subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and feed restriction as models. Twenty-one Holstein steers (216.8 ± 31.4 kg BW) were individually housed and fed a total mixed ration (TMR) with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ad libitum for 5 d. After the 5 d diet adjustment period, calves were assigned 1 of 3 treatments: control (CTRL) calves were fed the TMR ad libitum on d 1, subacute ruminal acidosis calves were given 25% of their ad libitum DMI on d 1 and then given a barley grain challenge at 30% of ad libitum DMI on d2 (ACID) calves were given 25% of their ad libitum DMI on d 1 and then given a barley grain challenge at 30% of ad libitum DMI on d 2, and feed restriction (FR) calves were given 25% of their ad libitum DMI for 5 d...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898891/behavior-and-inflammation-of-the-rumen-and-cecum-in-holstein-bulls-fed-high-concentrate-diets-with-different-concentrate-presentation-forms-with-or-without-straw-supplementation
#11
M Devant, G B Penner, S Marti, B Quintana, F Fábregas, A Bach, A Arís
Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898880/water-temperature-impacts-water-consumption-by-range-cattle-in-winter
#12
M K Petersen, J M Muscha, J T Mulliniks, A J Roberts
Water consumption and DMI have been found to be positively correlated, and both may interact with ingestion of cold water or grazed frozen forage due to transitory reductions in the temperature of ruminal contents. The hypothesis underpinning the study explores the potential that cows provided warm drinking water would have increased in situ NDF and OM disappearances and a more stable rumen temperature, drink more water, and lose less BW during the winter. This hypothesis was tested in 3 experiments. In Exp...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898875/relationships-of-feedlot-performance-feeding-behavior-rumen-morphometrics-and-carcass-characteristics-of-nellore-cattle-differing-in-phenotypic-residual-feed-intake
#13
M C S Pereira, G D Cruz, M D B Arrigoni, A L N Rigueiro, J Silva, T V B Carrara, P C S Santos, L L Cursino, D D Millen
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of DMI fluctuation, feedlot performance, feeding behavior, rumen morphometrics, and carcass characteristics in Nellore cattle classified by residual feed intake (RFI). One experiment was conducted in 2 consecutive years using individual pens (1.0 × 7.0 m) at the São Paulo State University feedlot, Dracena campus, Brazil. The experiment in year 1 started in June of 2012 with forty-eight 20-mo-old Nellore yearling bulls with an initial BW of 358.2 ± 19...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898865/monensin-virginiamycin-and-flavomycin-in-a-no-roughage-finishing-diet-fed-to-zebu-cattle
#14
B J M Lemos, F G F Castro, L S Santos, B P C Mendonça, V R M Couto, J J R Fernandes
Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of monensin, virginiamycin, and flavomycin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation of zebu cattle fed a no-roughage finishing diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] based). In Exp. 1, 100 crossbred bulls (; 392 kg [SD 46.8] average initial BW) were blocked by initial BW in a 101-d feedlot trial. Five treatments were evaluated using 4 pens per treatment (5 bulls/pen): monensin at 30 mg/kg DM, virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM, monensin at 20 mg/kg DM plus virginiamycin at 25 mg/kg DM, flavomycin at 4...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898861/interactions-between-levels-of-heat-treated-soybean-meal-and-prilled-fat-on-growth-rumen-fermentation-and-blood-metabolites-of-holstein-calves
#15
M Kazemi-Bonchenari, M Mirzaei, M Jahani-Moghadam, A Soltani, E Mahjoubi, R A Patton
This study evaluated the interaction of RUP and fat levels on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Forty 3-d-old calves (20 females and 20 males) with a starting BW of 40.6 ± 2.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within sex treatments were: (1) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); (2) low RUP and high fat (LRUP-HF); (3) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); and high RUP and high fat (HRUP-HF). Low-RUP starter contained 21...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898843/influence-of-protein-nutrition-and-virginiamycin-supplementation-on-feedlot-growth-performance-and-digestive-function-of-calf-fed-holstein-steers
#16
J Salinas-Chavira, A Barreras, A Plascencia, M F Montano, J D Navarrete, N Torrentera, R A Zinn
Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885125/immature-rumen-fluke-cause-deaths-of-ewes
#17
(no author information available yet)
Ewe deaths due to immature rumen flukeAmyloidosis in a Suffolk-cross lambHaemonchosis in Valais blacknose ewesDeaths and diarrhoea due to Salmonella Reading in 26-week-old giltsFeline dysautonomia in a kittenThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for August 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).
November 26, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881594/hepatic-activity-and-transcription-of-betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase-methionine-synthase-and-cystathionine-synthase-in-periparturient-dairy-cows-are-altered-to-different-extents-by-supply-of-methionine-and-choline
#18
Zheng Zhou, Timothy A Garrow, Xianwen Dong, Daniel N Luchini, Juan J Loor
BACKGROUND: Compared with choline, Met enhances milk yield and feed intake, and elicits a better immuno-metabolic status in periparturient cows. It is unknown whether hepatic activity and transcription of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) are responsive to Met and choline supply. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to characterize hepatic BHMT, MTR, and CBS transcription and activity in response to Met and choline supplementation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878924/differences-in-rumen-fermentation-characteristics-between-low-yield-and-high-yield-dairy-cows-in-early-lactation
#19
Ahmad Sofyan, Makoto Mitsumori, Hideyuki Ohmori, Yutaka Uyeno, Toshiya Hasunuma, Kiyoshi Akiyama, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Yokokawa, Tsuneko Yamaguchi, Takumi Shinkai, Makoto Hirako, Shiro Kushibiki
Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P < 0...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878891/cloning-and-characterization-of-the-glutamate-dehydrogenase-gene-in-streptococcus-bovis
#20
Tasuke Ando, Yoko Sugawara, Ryohei Nishio, Miho Murakami, Emiko Isogai, Hiroshi Yoneyama
Streptococcus bovis, an etiologic agent of rumen acidosis in cattle, is a rumen bacterium that can grow in a chemically defined medium containing ammonia as a sole source of nitrogen. To understand its ability to assimilate inorganic ammonia, we focused on the function of glutamate dehydrogenase. In order to identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we first amplified an internal region of the gene by using degenerate primers corresponding to hexameric family I and NAD(P)(+) binding motifs. Subsequently, inverse PCR was used to identify the whole gene, comprising an open reading frame of 1350 bp that encodes 449 amino acid residues that appear to have the substrate binding site of glutamate dehydrogenase observed in other organisms...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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