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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812989/small-smart-fast-and-cheap-microchip-based-sensors-to-estimate-air-pollution-exposures-in-rural-households
#1
Ajay Pillarisetti, Tracy Allen, Ilse Ruiz-Mercado, Rufus Edwards, Zohir Chowdhury, Charity Garland, L Drew Hill, Michael Johnson, Charles D Litton, Nicholas L Lam, David Pennise, Kirk R Smith
Over the last 20 years, the Kirk R. Smith research group at the University of California Berkeley-in collaboration with Electronically Monitored Ecosystems, Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, and other academic institutions-has developed a suite of relatively inexpensive, rugged, battery-operated, microchip-based devices to quantify parameters related to household air pollution. These devices include two generations of particle monitors; data-logging temperature sensors to assess time of use of household energy devices; a time-activity monitoring system using ultrasound; and a CO₂-based tracer-decay system to assess ventilation rates...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812150/respiratory-complications-after-colonic-procedures-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-does-laparoscopy-offer-a-benefit
#2
Sarath Sujatha-Bhaskar, Reza Fazl Alizadeh, Colette S Inaba, Christina Y Koh, Mehraneh D Jafari, Steven D Mills, Joseph C Carmichael, Michael J Stamos, Alessio Pigazzi
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at a higher risk for postoperative respiratory complications. Despite the benefits of a minimally invasive approach, laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum can substantially reduce functional residual capacity and raise alveolar dead space, potentially increasing the risk of respiratory failure which may be poorly tolerated by COPD patients. This raises controversy as to whether open techniques should be preferentially employed in this population...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811149/three-center-feasibility-of-lung-clearance-index-in-infants-and-preschool-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-other-lung-diseases
#3
Mirjam Stahl, Simon Y Graeber, Cornelia Joachim, Sandra Barth, Isabell Ricklefs, Gesa Diekmann, Matthias V Kopp, Lutz Naehrlich, Marcus A Mall
BACKGROUND: Lung clearance index (LCI) detects early ventilation inhomogeneity and has been suggested as sensitive endpoint in multicenter intervention trials in infants and preschoolers with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the feasibility of multicenter LCI in this age group has not been determined. We, therefore, investigated the feasibility of LCI in infants and preschoolers with and without CF in a three-center setting. METHODS: Following central training, standardized SF6-MBW measurements were performed in 73 sedated children (10 controls, 49 with CF and 14 with other lung diseases), mean age 2...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810616/single-blinded-randomized-and-controlled-clinical-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-among-septic-patients-with-intestinal-dysfunction-a-pilot-study
#4
Huaisheng Chen, Wei Wang, Yingcai Hong, Huadong Zhang, Chengying Hong, Xueyan Liu
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory reaction, which is aggravated by aspects of the immune response that are thought to be inhibited by Omega-3 fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to determine if Omega-3 fatty acid could modulate immunological function and improve survival rate among septic patients with intestinal dysfunction. A total of 48 mechanically ventilated patients with intestinal dysfunction were included in this prospective, randomized and single-blind clinical study. Patients were randomly divided into control (group A) and treatment groups (group B)...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810549/dexmedetomidine-preconditioning-protects-against-lung-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-through-inhibition-of-autophagy
#5
Wei Zhang, Jiaqiang Zhang
The present study aimed to evaluate the role of autophagy in the protective effect of dexmedetomidine in lung injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in rats. In total 48 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8) as follows: i) Sham group; ii) the IR group; iii) IR + 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine preconditioning group (pre-LD); iv) IR + 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine preconditioning group (pre-HD); v) IR + 1 µg/kg dexmedetomidine postconditioning group (post-LD); and vi) IR + 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine postconditioning group (post-HD)...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808693/the-simulated-air-flow-pattern-around-a-moving-animal-transport-vehicle-as-the-basis-for-a-prospective-biosecurity-risk-assessment
#6
Jens Seedorf, Ralf-Gunther Schmidt
Research that investigates bioaerosol emissions from animal transport vehicles (ATVs) and their importance in the spread of harmful airborne agents while the ATVs travel on roads is limited. To investigate the dynamical behaviour of theoretically released particles from a moving ATV, the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM was used to calculate the external and internal air flow fields with passive and forced ventilated openings of a common ATV moving at a speed of 80 km/h. In addition to a computed flow rate of approximately 40,000 m(3)/h crossing the interior of the ATV, the visualization of the trajectories has demonstrated distinct patterns of the spatial distribution of potentially released bioaerosols in the vicinity of the ATV...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807988/high-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy-versus-intermittent-noninvasive-ventilation-in-obese-subjects-after-cardiothoracic-surgery
#7
François Stéphan, Laurence Bérard, Saida Rézaiguia-Delclaux, Priscilla Amaru
BACKGROUND: Obese patients are considered at risk of respiratory failure after cardiothoracic surgery. High-flow nasal cannula has demonstrated its non-inferiority after cardiothoracic surgery compared to noninvasive ventilation (NIV), which is the recommended treatment in obese patients. We hypothesized that NIV was superior to high-flow nasal cannula for preventing or resolving acute respiratory failure after cardiothoracic surgery in this population. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of a randomized, controlled trial...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807986/a-turbine-driven-ventilator-improves-adherence-to-advanced-cardiac-life-support-guidelines-during-a-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-simulation
#8
Scott G Allen, Lara Brewer, Erik S Gillis, Nathan L Pace, Derek J Sakata, Joseph A Orr
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that increased breathing frequency during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is inversely correlated with systolic blood pressure. Rescuers often hyperventilate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Current American Heart Association advanced cardiac life support recommends a ventilation rate of 8 -10 breaths/min. We hypothesized that a small, turbine-driven ventilator would allow rescuers to adhere more closely to advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807196/trauma-patients-meeting-both-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-s-definitions-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-had-worse-outcomes-than-those-meeting-only-one
#9
Duraid Younan, Russell Griffin, Thomas Swain, Jean-Francois Pittet, Bernard Camins
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) replaced its old definition for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with the ventilator-associated events algorithm in 2013. We sought to compare the outcome of trauma patients meeting the definitions for VAP in the two modules. METHODS: Trauma patients with blunt or penetrating injuries and with at least 2 d of ventilator support were identified from the trauma registry from 2013 to 2014...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806453/neurologic-complications-associated-with-the-zika-virus-in-brazilian-adults
#10
Ivan Rocha Ferreira da Silva, Jennifer A Frontera, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Osvaldo Jose Moreira do Nascimento
Importance: There are no prospective cohort studies assessing the incidence and spectrum of neurologic manifestations secondary to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in adults. Objective: To evaluate the rates of acute ZIKV infection among patients hospitalized with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), meningoencephalitis, or transverse myelitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for neurological diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between December 5, 2015, and May 10, 2016, among consecutive hospitalized adults (>18 years of age) with new-onset acute parainfectious or neuroinflammatory disease...
August 14, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805343/rest-and-exercise-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-findings-in-active-duty-soldiers-referred-for-cardiac-catheterization-to-exclude-heart-disease-insights-from-past-invasive-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-using-multisensor-high-fidelity-catheters
#11
James A Watts, Faith R Kelly, Terry D Bauch, Joseph P Murgo, Bernard J Rubal
OBJECTIVE: This study describes results of iCPET from the past, which used submaximal stress and multisensor high-fidelity catheters to exclude heart disease in a unique population of young adults. BACKGROUND: There has been resurgence in comprehensive hemodynamic evaluation of complex cardiovascular patients. Although dynamic assessments during cardiac catheterization have become commonplace, there remains limited information regarding left and right heart hemodynamic changes during supine exercise in young adults...
May 8, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804889/a-randomised-trial-comparing-real-time-double-lumen-endobronchial-tube-placement-with-the-disposcope-%C3%A2-with-conventional-blind-placement
#12
P T Chen, C K Ting, M Y Lee, H W Cheng, K H Chan, W K Chang
Double-lumen endobronchial tube placement is challenging. This study compared double-lumen tube placement with the Disposcope(®) , a wireless videostylet allowing real-time visualisation, with conventional blind placement. Patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery with normal airways requiring one-lung ventilation were randomly allocated into two groups (27 patients in each group). The Disposcope was used to assist left-sided double-lumen tube placement in one group, and conventional blind placement was performed in the control group...
September 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804862/oncological-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-prognosis-decision-making-therapies-and-end-of-life-care
#13
Ewelina Biskup, Fengfeng Cai, Marcus Vetter, Stephan Marsch
The effectiveness of intensive care unit (ICU) care for cancer patients remains controversial. Advances in antitumour and supportive care led to major improvements in outcomes of oncological patients in the ICU. Improved cancer therapies and supportive management of organ dysfunctions have contributed to improved survival rates. As a consequence, the number of cancer patients requiring ICU admission is rising. Frequently, cancer patients have a poor performance status and are vulnerable. It is a heterogeneous population, where the nature and curability of the neoplasm and the severity of critical illness cause a plethora of issues about ICU admissions...
August 14, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803139/the-effect-of-age-on-the-manifestations-and-outcomes-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-adults
#14
Thomas J Marrie, Gregory J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
BACKGROUND: While a considerable amount is known about the effect of age on the manifestations and outcomes of pneumonia, the same is not true for invasive pneumococcal disease . METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of all cases (2435) of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in Northern Alberta from 2000 to 2014. Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease/100,000, sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, and invasive pneumococcal disease -related outcomes were compared for the following age groups - 17 to 54, 55 -64, 65 to 74 and 75 years and over...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802877/declining-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-cirrhosis-in-australia-and-new-zealand-between-2000-and-2015
#15
Avik Majumdar, Michael Bailey, William M Kemp, Rinaldo Bellomo, Stuart K Roberts, David Pilcher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies have described the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis receiving intensive care unit (ICU) admission at a population level. We aimed to describe trends in the mortality of such patients in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ), and to investigate the relationship with associated organ failures. METHODS: We studied patients admitted to 172 ICUs on a non-elective basis, with and without cirrhosis between January 1(st) 2000 and December 31(st) 2015 as recorded by the ANZ Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcome and Resource Evaluation Adult Patient Database...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802543/outcomes-and-predictors-of-failure-of-non-invasive-ventilation-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department
#16
Amjad Al-Rajhi, Anwar Murad, P Z Li, Jason Shahin
OBJECTIVE: We set out to describe the use and analyze the predictors of non-invasive ventilation failure in patients with community-acquired pneumonia who receive non-invasive ventilation as first line ventilatory therapy in the emergency department. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among consecutive patients with community acquired pneumonia requiring ventilator support presenting to two tertiary care university-affiliated emergency departments...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800992/new-approaches-to-airway-management-in-tracheal-resections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Mark Schieren, Andreas Böhmer, Fabian Dusse, Aris Koryllos, Frank Wappler, Jerome Defosse
OBJECTIVES: Although endotracheal intubation, surgical crossfield intubation, and jet ventilation are standard techniques for airway management in tracheal resections, there are also reports of new approaches, ranging from regional anesthesia to extracorporeal support. The objective was to outline the entire spectrum of new airway techniques. DESIGN: The literature databases PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Library were searched systematically for prospective and retrospective trials as well as case reports on tracheal resections...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800989/a-prospective-comparison-of-intraluminal-and-extraluminal-placement-of-the-9-french-arndt-bronchial-blocker-in-adult-thoracic-surgery-patients
#18
T Wesley Templeton, Benjamin N Morris, Eduardo J Goenaga-Diaz, Daniel J Forest, Rhett Hadley, Blake A Moore, Yvon F Bryan, Roger L Royster
OBJECTIVE: To compare the standard intraluminal approach with the placement of the 9-French Arndt endobronchial blocker with an extraluminal approach by measuring the time to positioning and other relevant intraoperative and postoperative parameters. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 41 patients (20 intraluminal, 21 extraluminal) undergoing thoracic surgery...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800866/five-year-trends-of-critical-care-practice-and-outcomes
#19
Craig M Lilly, Sunil Swami, Xinggang Liu, Richard R Riker, Omar Badawi
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal analyses of large detailed adult critical care datasets provide insights into practice trends and generate useful outcome and process benchmarks. METHODS: Data representing 991,571 consecutive critical care visits to160 United States adult ICUs during 2009 to 2013 from the eICU Research Institute clinical practice database were used to quantitate patient characteristics, APACHE IV based acuity predictions, treatments, and outcomes. Analyses for changes over time were performed for patient characteristics, entry and discharge locations, primary admission diagnosis, treatments, adherence to consensus ICU best practices, length of stay (LOS), and inpatient mortality...
August 8, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799774/real-time-surveillance-of-influenza-morbidity-tracking-intensive-care-unit-resource-utilization
#20
Arthur W Baker, Michael B Edmond, Loreen A Herwaldt, Luke F Chen, Sudha Srikantaswamy, Daniel J Sexton
RATIONALE: Existing real-time surveillance of influenza morbidity, based primarily upon time-trended U.S. hospitalization and death data, is inadequate. These surveillance methods do not accurately predict hospital resource requirements or sufficiently capture the public health impact of the current influenza season. OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of tracking surrogate markers of influenza morbidity among patients hospitalized with influenza...
August 11, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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