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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902389/antimicrobial-susceptibility-to-azithromycin-among-salmonella-enterica-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-isolates-from-india
#1
Richa Misra, Kashi N Prasad
Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in typhoidal Salmonella isolates in areas of endemicity is a significant therapeutic problem. Guidelines for azithromycin disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published recently by CLSI in 2015.We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of azithromycin in 100 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n=80), Paratyphi A (n=18) and B (n=2) recovered from blood stream infections from January 2013 to December 2015...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901325/asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis-who-should-be-screened-who-should-be-treated-and-how-should-we-treat-them
#2
Djurre D DE Waard, Dylan Morris, Gert J DE Borst, Richard Bulbulia, Alison Halliday
Although stopping smoking, lowering blood pressure and reducing lipid levels will reduce global stroke risk and cardiovascular mortality, these remain leading causes of death and disability especially in ageing populations. Further prevention strategies are needed and, in the first part of this review, we explore the potential benefits of appropriate screening for carotid artery disease to reduce stroke and identify those who may have related cardiac disease. Although whole-population carotid screening is an inefficient and costly means of identifying candidates with tight carotid stenosis who might warrant intervention, it can identify many people with lower levels of stenosis who may benefit from cardiovascular risk reducing medications...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901040/follow-up-care-by-a-genetic-counsellor-for-relatives-at-risk-for-cardiomyopathies-is-cost-saving-and-well-appreciated-a-randomised-comparison
#3
Karin Nieuwhof, Erwin Birnie, Maarten P van den Berg, Rudolf A de Boer, Paul L van Haelst, J Peter van Tintelen, Irene M van Langen
Increasing numbers of patient relatives at risk of developing dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (DCM/HCM) are being identified and followed up by cardiologists according to the ACC/ESC guidelines. However, given limited healthcare resources, good-quality low-cost alternative approaches are needed. Therefore, we have compared conventional follow-up by a cardiologist with that provided at a cardiogenetic clinic (CGC) led by a genetic counsellor. Phenotype-negative first-degree relatives at risk for DCM/HCM were randomly assigned to see either a cardiologist or to attend a CGC...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900996/suppression-of-immunotherapy-on-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-allergic-rhinitis
#4
Da-Chuan Fan, Xiang-Dong Wang, Cheng-Shuo Wang, Yang Wang, Fei-Fei Cao, Luo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are regarded as a novel population of lineage-negative cells that induce innate Type 2 responses by producing the critical Th2-type cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13. ILC2s as key players in the development of allergic rhinitis (AR) have been proved, however, the effect of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract (Der p-SCIT) on ILC2s in AR patients is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the response of ILC2s of peripheral blood in house dust mites (HDM)-sensitized Chinese patients with AR who received SCIT with Der P extract...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900971/chronic-kidney-disease-stages-among-diabetes-patients-in-the-cape-coast-metropolis
#5
Richard K D Ephraim, Eric Arthur, W K B A Owiredu, Prince Adoba, Hope Agbodzakey, Ben A Eghan
Diabetes patients worldwide are at a high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which affects their quality of life and increases the risk of early death. This study used the new kidney disease improving global outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines to establish the prevalence and also identify the factors associated with CKD among diabetes patients in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Two hundred (200) diabetes patients were randomly recruited from the diabetic clinic of the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital from January to April 2014...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900954/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-blockade-in-diabetic-kidney-disease-a-critical-and-contrarian-point-of-view
#6
REVIEW
Mohamed E Elrggal, Shaaban M S Ahmed, Meguid El Nahas
Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is associated with high morbidity and cardiovascular mortality. A number of guidelines and recommendations have been issued over the years recommending the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade in the management of DKD. This critical analysis takes a contrarian view, based on a selection of key clinical trials in the field, to argue that albuminuria should not be considered a target for treatment but instead a surrogate marker of DKD progression...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898572/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-associated-risk-factors-among-street-based-and-residence-based-female-sex-workers-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#7
Rasheda Khanam, Masud Reza, Dilruba Ahmed, Mustafizur Rahman, M Shah Alam, Salima Sultana, Anadil Alam, Sharful I Khan, Kenneth H Mayer, Tasnim Azim
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh remain at elevated risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among them is low. Recent information on the burden and etiological diagnosis of STIs among them has been lacking. This study examines prevalence and risk behaviors of selected STIs among FSWs in Dhaka in 2014. METHODS: Between August and October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among street-based and residence-based FSWs receiving HIV prevention services at 24 drop in centers in Dhaka...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898507/blood-pressure-control-in-hypertension-pros-and-cons-of-available-treatment-strategies
#8
Giuseppe Mancia, Federico Rea, Cesare Cuspidi, Guido Grassi, Giovanni Corrao
The low rate of blood pressure (BP) control that characterizes the hypertensive population in real life is traditionally associated to factors such as low adherence of patients to the prescribed treatment regimen, physicians' therapeutic inertia, and deficiencies of the healthcare systems. This study will focus on a fourth factor that may also be importantly involved, i.e. reluctance to adopt drug treatment strategies that more effectively reduce an elevated BP. The point will be made that, vis-à-vis strategies based on patients' persistence in monotherapy, drug combinations are accompanied by a much more frequent BP control...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896927/a-retrospective-review-of-anesthesia-and-perioperative-care-in-children-with-medium-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#9
Claire Allen, Russell Perkins, Bernd Schwahn
BACKGROUND: Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common genetically determined disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Decompensation can result in hypoglycemia, seizures, coma, and death but may be prevented by ensuring glycogen stores do not become depleted. Perioperative care is of interest as surgery, fasting, and infection may all trigger decompensation and the safety of anesthetic agents has been questioned. Current guidelines from the British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group advise on administering fluid containing 10% glucose during the perioperative period...
November 29, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896765/blood-bio-sampling-procedures-for-multiplex-biomarkers-studies
#10
Paul C Guest, Hassan Rahmoune
A major challenge in single or panel of biomarker discovery and validation is the inherent biological complexity underlying disease heterogeneity and inconsistent responses to treatment. Moreover, the lack of standardization in the sampling, processing, and storage of biological fluids such as plasma and serum disrupts the discovery and validation of blood-based biomarker tests in preclinical and clinical settings. This chapter presents a reproducible sample collection and handling procedure that aims to enhance analyte stability and ensure compatibility with the corresponding multiplex biomarker profiling platforms...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896702/safety-of-regadenoson-stress-testing-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Victor M Moles, Thomas Cascino, Ashraf Saleh, Krasimira Mikhova, John J Lazarus, Michael Ghannam, Hong J Yun, Matthew Konerman, Richard L Weinberg, Edward P Ficaro, James R Corbett, Vallerie V McLaughlin, Venkatesh L Murthy
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the safety of regadenoson stress testing in patients with PH. BACKGROUND: PH is increasingly recognized at more advanced ages. As many as one-third of patients with PH have coronary artery disease. Because of their physical limitations, patients with PH are unable to adequately exercise. Regadenoson can potentially have an adverse impact due to their tenuous hemodynamics. Current guidelines suggest performing a coronary angiography in patients with PH who have angina or multiple coronary risk factors...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896444/is-all-hypoglycaemia-treated-as-equal-an-observational-study-of-how-the-type-of-diabetes-and-treatment-prescribed-prior-to-admission-influences-quality-of-treatment-of-inpatient-hypoglycaemia
#12
Gregory C Jones, Jansher Khan, Christopher A R Sainsbury
AIMS: Inpatient hypoglycaemia is common and associated with adverse outcomes. There is often increased vigilance of hypoglycaemia in inpatients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) compared to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We aimed to investigate this apparent discrepancy, utilising the time to repeat (TTR) capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement as a surrogate for engagement with guidelines stating that CBG should be rechecked following intervention within 15 min of an initial CBG of <4 mmol/L...
November 28, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896194/osteomyelitis-following-domestic-animal-bites-to-the-hand-two-case-reports-and-practical-guidelines
#13
Jung Soo Lim, Jin Hwan Byun, Kyung Hee Min, Hye Kyung Lee, Yun Sun Choi
Recently, the number of cases of animal bite wounds has increased significantly in concordance with an increase in the pet population around the world. The authors report two rare cases of osteomyelitis of the phalanx following cat and dog bites. On initial physical examination, signs of a severe infection were observed. Radiographs of both patients showed the presence of osteomyelitis, and in one of the patients, the diagnosis was confirmed with a bone biopsy. After use of empirical antibiotics, intravenous antibiotic therapy that matched the identified bacterium's sensitivity was initiated, and at the same time, secure dressing including debridement was performed to induce secondary healing...
November 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895488/advances-in-the-management-of-heart-failure-the-role-of-ivabradine
#14
REVIEW
Ursula Müller-Werdan, Georg Stöckl, Karl Werdan
A high resting heart rate (≥70-75 b.p.m.) is a risk factor for patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF), probably in the sense of accelerated atherosclerosis, with an increased morbidity and mortality. Beta-blockers not only reduce heart rate but also have negative inotropic and blood pressure-lowering effects, and therefore, in many patients, they cannot be given in the recommended dose. Ivabradine specifically inhibits the pacemaker current (funny current, If) of the sinoatrial node cells, resulting in therapeutic heart rate lowering without any negative inotropic and blood pressure-lowering effect...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895442/translation-of-the-medical-fear-survey-to-serbian-psychometric-properties
#15
J Djokovic, B Milovanovic, J R Milovanovic, O Milovanovic, I Stojic, S Mrvic, M Kostic, S Stefanovic, S M Jankovic
BACKGROUND: Medical Fear Survey (MFS) is an instrument designed for measuring fear of medical and related treatments. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study was MFS translation into Serbian, measurement of its psychometric properties and MFS validation using other Blood-injury-injections and related stimuli instruments that have been translated from English into Serbian. METHOD: After obtaining permission from the author of the original MFS, double forward translation from English to Serbian and backward translation to English were conducted in ten steps, according to International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) guidelines...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895016/are-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-target-concentrations-different-the-case-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-or-lamivudine-administered-to-infants-for-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-1-transmission-during-breastfeeding
#16
Frantz Foissac, Jörn Blume, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Thorkild Tylleskär, Chipepo Kankasa, Nicolas Meda, James K Tumwine, Mandisa Singata-Madliki, Kim Harper, Silvia M Illamola, Naïm Bouazza, Nicolas Nagot, Philippe Van de Perre, Stéphane Blanche, Déborah Hirt
The ANRS 12174 trial assessed the efficacy and tolerance of LPV/r versus 3TC prophylaxis administered to breastfed infants, whose HIV-infected mothers were not on ART. In this sub-study, we assessed LPV/r and 3TC pharmacokinetics to evaluate the percentage of infants with therapeutic plasma concentrations and to discuss these data in the context of a prophylactic treatment. Infants from the South African trial site underwent blood sampling for pharmacokinetic study at week 6, 26 and 38 of life. We applied a Bayesian approach to derive the 3TC and LPV pharmacokinetic parameters based on previously published pharmacokinetic models for HIV-infected children...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894313/identifying-the-barriers-and-enablers-for-a-triage-treatment-and-transfer-clinical-intervention-to-manage-acute-stroke-patients-in-the-emergency-department-a-systematic-review-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework-tdf
#17
REVIEW
Louise E Craig, Elizabeth McInnes, Natalie Taylor, Rohan Grimley, Dominique A Cadilhac, Julie Considine, Sandy Middleton
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend that assessment and management of patients with stroke commences early including in emergency departments (ED). To inform the development of an implementation intervention targeted in ED, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies to identify relevant barriers and enablers to six key clinical behaviours in acute stroke care: appropriate triage, thrombolysis administration, monitoring and management of temperature, blood glucose levels, and of swallowing difficulties and transfer of stroke patients in ED...
November 28, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893682/peritoneal-dialysis-related-peritonitis-due-to-halomonas-hamiltonii-a-first-case-report
#18
Se Hwan Yeo, Jae Hoon Kwak, Yeo Un Kim, Jin Suk Lee, Hyo Jin Kim, Kyoung Hwa Park, Jung Sook Lee, Gyoung Yim Ha, Jeong Ho Lee, Jun Yeop Lee, Kyung Don Yoo
INTRODUCTION: Halomonas hamiltonii is a Gram-negative, halophilic, motile, and nonspore-forming rod bacterium. Although most Halomonas sp. are commonly found in saline environments, it has rarely been implicated as a cause of human infection. Herein, the authors present a case report of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-related peritonitis attributed to H hamiltonii. CASE PRESENTATION: An 82-year-old male patient who had been receiving CAPD therapy presented to an emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain and cloudy dialysate that had persisted for 2 days...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892949/the-ebmt-eln-working-group-recommendations-on-the-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-gvhd-a-change-control-analysis
#19
T Ruutu, A Gratwohl, D Niederwieser, T de Witte, S van der Werf, A van Biezen, M Mohty, N Kröger, A Rambaldi, E McGrath, A Sureda, G Basak, H Greinix, R F Duarte
In 2013, recommendations for a standardized practice in the prophylaxis and treatment of GvHD were adopted and published by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the European LeukemiaNet. One year later, all 341 European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centres performing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation were contacted for a change-control analysis and asked to fill in a questionnaire; 111 centres (33%) responded. Of these, 83% had been aware of the recommendations...
November 28, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891360/why-should-viral-markers-be-mandatory-in-ocular-surgeries-a-hospital-based-retrospective-study
#20
Anita Ambastha, Rakhi Kusumesh, Gyan Bhasker
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus I, II (HIV-I,II) are serious global and public health problem. Knowledge of the seroprevalence would enable early diagnosis, treatment of patients and also help in prevention of horizontal spread of infection by application of universal infection control measures. AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV I, II infection in patients undergoing ocular surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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