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S Sai Latha, S Naveen, C K Pradeep, C Sivaraj, M G Dinesh, K R Anilakumar
Background: Poisoning by different kinds of toxic mushrooms is unfortunately becoming an increasingly important medical problem, evident from the growing number of reports worldwide since the 1950s. Mycetism being a health concern, deserves scientific attention. In this perspective, the present study aims to assess the potential effects of ingesting the selected wild mushrooms from regions of the Western Ghats, India. Methods: The preliminary cytotoxicity of the selected mushrooms was studied in vitro on the intestinal NCM460 and the Chang's liver cell lines on the basis of cell viability...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
So Yeon Kim, Yang Hyun Baek, Sang Young Han, Sung Wook Lee, Young Hoon Roh, Kwan Woo Kim, Sung Hwa Kang, Jin Sook Jeong
There are currently over 5,000-known species of mushrooms worldwide. Only 20-25% of mushrooms have been named, and 3% of these are poisonous. More than 95% of mushroom poisoning cases occur due to difficulties associated with the identification of mushroom species. Most of the fatal mushroom poisoning cases recorded to date have been related to the Amanita species. Until now, a case of fatal poisoning caused by Macrolepiota neomastoidea ( M. neomastoidea ) has not been reported in Asia. A 57-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
E Kieslichova, S Frankova, M Protus, D Merta, E Uchytilova, J Fronek, J Sperl
INTRODUCTION: Amanita phalloides poisoning is a potentially fatal cause of acute liver failure. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of initial patients' characteristics and different treatment modalities on the outcome of patients with liver failure caused by Amanita poisoning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 23 patients admitted to our center between July 2007 and August 2016. RESULTS: Mean time interval between Amanita phalloides ingestion and the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms was 12...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Daniel Robles-García, Humberto Suzán-Azpiri, Adriana Montoya-Esquivel, Jesús García-Jiménez, Edgardo Ulises Esquivel-Naranjo, Elhadi Yahia, Fidel Landeros-Jaime
BACKGROUND: Fungi have multiple uses in temperate areas of México, but an important decrease in the traditional knowledge of uses and customs of mushrooms becomes a fundamental issue for fungi conservation. However, only few studies quantify the traditional ethnomycological knowledge in México, and this study is the first quantitative report for Querétaro, a central state with both Otomí and Mestizo communities and a high fungi diversity. METHODS: The present study was conducted registering traditional knowledge on the use and consumption of mushrooms in three Hñähñu (Otomí) communities (Tesquedó, Xajay, and Tenasdá) in Amealco de Bonfil, Querétaro, México, between August 2013 and November 2014...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Jian Sun, Yu-Min Niu, Yu-Tao Zhang, Hai-Jiao Li, Yu Yin, Yi-Zhe Zhang, Pei-Bin Ma, Jing Zhou, Lie Huang, Hong-Shun Zhang, Cheng-Ye Sun
In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules, after which they were assessed for signs of toxicity, as well as biochemical and pathological changes. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay the peptide toxins. The total peptide toxins in A. exitialis was 3482.6 ± 124...
January 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
James H Diaz
Amatoxins are produced primarily by 3 species of mushrooms: Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina. Because amatoxin poisonings are increasing, the objective of this review was to identify all amatoxin-containing mushroom species, present a toxidromic approach to earlier diagnoses, and compare the efficacies and outcomes of therapies. To meet these objectives, Internet search engines were queried with keywords to select peer-reviewed scientific articles on amatoxin-containing mushroom poisoning and management. Descriptive epidemiological analyses have documented that most mushroom poisonings are caused by unknown mushrooms, and most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by amatoxin-containing mushrooms...
January 8, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Maja Karaman, Ljiljana Janjušević, Dragica Jakovljević, Filip Šibul, Boris Pejin
This study outlines antioxidant and anti-AChE activities of the polysaccharide (PSH) extract from the mushroom species Amanita strobiliformis. Both the presence of α and ß glucans within the aforementioned extract was recorded. PSH extract displayed a profound scavenging activity of OH radicals (IC50 value, 11.86 ± 0.59 μg/mL) and high potential for reduction of Fe3+ ions (174.11 ± 8.70 mg eq. AA/g d.w.) being almost 48- and 5-fold more effective than mannitol and butylated hydroxytoluene used as a positive control, respectively...
January 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Aynur Sahin, Mualla Aylin Arici, Yeliz Yilmaz, Sule Kalkan, Nergiz Durmus, Bekir Ugur Ergur, Ilkay Yakut Aksu, Neşe Atabey, Yesim Tuncok
Amanita phalloides species mushrooms containing alpha-amanitin (α-AMA) are responsible for the majority of fatal mushroom intoxications and can lead to severe poisonings resulting in hepatotoxicity and acute hepatic failure. Existing antidotes, such as silibinin, are not sufficiently effective in the prevention and/or resolution of α-AMA-induced hepatotoxicity. We investigated the effects of resveratrol on α-AMA-induced hepatotoxicity and compared with silibinin, a known antidote using in vivo and in vitro toxicity models...
December 29, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Bingji Ma, Jinwen Shen, Wandee Yindeeyoungyeon, Yuan Ruan
The unusual amino acid l-cyclopropylalanine was isolated from the mushroom Amanita virgineoides after detection in an anti-fungal screening test. l-Cyclopropylalanine was found to exhibit broad-spectrum inhibition against fungi and bacteria. The anti-fungal activity was found to be abolished in the presence of the amino acid l-leucine, but not any other amino acids, indicating that l-cyclopropylalanine may block the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid l-leucine, thereby inhibiting fungal and bacteria growth...
December 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anna Muszewska, Kamil Steczkiewicz, Marta Stepniewska-Dziubinska, Krzysztof Ginalski
Transposable elements (TEs) shape genomes via recombination and transposition, lead to chromosomal rearrangements, create new gene neighborhoods, and alter gene expression. They play key roles in adaptation either to symbiosis in Amanita genus or to pathogenicity in Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Despite growing evidence of their importance, the abundance and distribution of mobile elements replicating in a "cut-and-paste" fashion is barely described so far. In order to improve our knowledge on this old and ubiquitous class of transposable elements, 1,730 fungal genomes were scanned using both de novo and homology-based approaches...
December 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Li-Ping Tang, Su-See Lee, Nian-Kai Zeng, Qing Cai, Ping Zhang, Zhu L Yang
Some Amanita specimens collected from Malaysia are critically investigated by morphological examination and molecular analysis of two gene fragments, the nuc rDNA partial 28S (28S) gene and the internal transcriber spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) regions. Six phylogenetic species of Amanita section Caesareae are recognized among the studied collections. One of them is described as new, A. malayensis. Four of the phylogenetic species correspond with existing morphology-based taxa: A. aporema, A. javanica, A. princeps, and A...
July 2017: Mycologia
Xiaohan Wang, Minyi Lin, Dan Xu, Daowan Lai, Ligang Zhou
Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring) reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and octadecapeptides as well as cyclic peptides containing ether bonds in the core ring have been isolated from fungi...
November 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lúcia Dias, Nihel Bekhti, Maxim L Kuznetsov, José A B Ferreira, Maria C Bacariza, José Armando L da Silva
Reactions of two vanadium(IV) complex anions that are homologues of amavadin, [V(HIDPA)2 ]2- and [V(HIDA)2 ]2- (HIDPA=N-oxyiminodipropionate, HIDA=N-oxyiminodiacetate), with the nitrite ion (NO2 - ) in aqueous solution were investigated by experimental (absorption spectroscopy in the visible range, through measurements of dioxygen formed in solution from water oxidation and identification of nitrogen oxide species of a gaseous atmosphere from nitrite reduction by using an IR analyser) and theoretical methods...
February 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Satariya Trakulsrichai, Charuwan Sriapha, Achara Tongpoo, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Sunun Wongvisavakorn, Sahaphume Srisuma, Winai Wananukul
Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome of amatoxin poisoning cases. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of amatoxin poisoning cases from Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System, from May 2013 to August 2015. Results: There were 30 consultations with a total of 55 poisoning cases. Most cases were male and from the north-east region. Hepatitis, acute kidney injury, jaundice, and coagulopathy accounted for 74%, 46...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
Xiaomin Xu, Jingshun Zhang, Zengxuan Cai, Jing Zhang, Baifen Huang, Jiaojiao Xu, Qing Chen
A fast and wide linear range method was established for the determination of mushroom toxins amanitins ( α -amanitin, β -amanitin and γ -amanitin) and phallotoxins (phallacidin and phalloidin) in wild mushrooms by online liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS). The mushroom toxins were extracted with methanol, and diluted with water. The extracts were separated on an XBridgeTM BEH C18 column (150 mm×3.0 mm, 2.5 μm) under pH 10.7, measured by DAD and then analyzed by MS/MS...
June 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Diksha Sharma, Virendra Pratap Singh, Narendra Kumar Singh
Mushrooms have an established history of use in traditional oriental medicine. Higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Medicinal mushrooms possess medicinal properties such as anti-tumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-fungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Several compounds isolated from medicinal mushrooms have been subjected to Phase-I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively to treat various diseases including cancer...
September 27, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
G Cervellin, I Comelli, G Rastelli, F Sanchis-Gomar, F Negri, C De Luca, G Lippi
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about epidemiology and management of mushroom poisoning. We analyzed and described epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical course of mushroom-poisoned patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) of the Province of Parma, Italy. METHODS: Data from the database of mycological service were matched with clinical information retrieved from hospitals' database, from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2016. RESULTS: Mycologist consultation was obtained in 379/443 identified mushroom poisonings...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Chunlei Li, Fen Wei, Saqib Muhammad, Guangde Yang, Sicen Wang, Xinshe Liu
α-Amanitin is the main lethal component of amanita mushrooms, and data on its toxicokinetics are few. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and cost-effective method to identify α-amanitin and investigate its toxicokinetic parameters using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The colchicine was used as the internal standard (IS). The compounds were extracted from plasma samples by protein precipitation with acetonitrile (containing 1% formic acid). The analysis was performed through multiple reactions monitoring...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Agata Wołoszyn, Roman Kotłowski
Background: As the currently known diagnostic DNA targets amplified in the PCR assays for detection of poisonous mushrooms have their counterparts in edible species, there is a need to design PCR primers specific to the genes encoding amanitins and phallotoxins, which occur only in poisonous mushrooms. Objective: The aim of the study was testing of PCR-based method for detection of all genes encoding hepatotoxic cyclic peptides - amanitins and phallotoxins present in the most dangerous poisonous mushrooms...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Liang-Yan Liu, Ji-Kai Liu, Wen-Han Su, Tao Peng
One unusual chloro-substituted pentenamide, (3R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxy-4-pentenamide (1), together with 11 known compounds (2-12) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Amanita virgineoides. The structure of 1 including the absolute configuration was characterized by extensive spectroscopic analyses and quantum calculation. Compound 1 displayed no obvious activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human enterovirus 71 (EV71) or coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3).
September 4, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
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