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Amanita

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905663/epidemiology-and-clinics-of-mushroom-poisoning-in-northern-italy-a-21-year-retrospective-analysis
#1
G Cervellin, I Comelli, G Rastelli, F Sanchis-Gomar, F Negri, C De Luca, G Lippi
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about epidemiology and management of mushroom poisoning. We analyzed and described epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical course of mushroom-poisoned patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) of the Province of Parma, Italy. METHODS: Data from the database of mycological service were matched with clinical information retrieved from hospitals' database, from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2016. RESULTS: Mycologist consultation was obtained in 379/443 identified mushroom poisonings...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898719/a-cost-effective-lc-ms-ms-method-for-identification-and-quantification-of-%C3%AE-amanitin-in-rat-plasma-application-to-toxicokinetic-study
#2
Chunlei Li, Fen Wei, Saqib Muhammad, Guangde Yang, Sicen Wang, Xinshe Liu
α-Amanitin is the main lethal component of amanita mushrooms, and data on its toxicokinetics are few. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and cost-effective method to identify α-amanitin and investigate its toxicokinetic parameters using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The colchicine was used as the internal standard (IS). The compounds were extracted from plasma samples by protein precipitation with acetonitrile (containing 1% formic acid). The analysis was performed through multiple reactions monitoring...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895390/a-universal-method-for-the-identification-of-genes-encoding-amatoxins-and-phallotoxins-in-poisonous-mushrooms
#3
Agata Wołoszyn, Roman Kotłowski
Background: As the currently known diagnostic DNA targets amplified in the PCR assays for detection of poisonous mushrooms have their counterparts in edible species, there is a need to design PCR primers specific to the genes encoding amanitins and phallotoxins, which occur only in poisonous mushrooms. Objective: The aim of the study was testing of PCR-based method for detection of all genes encoding hepatotoxic cyclic peptides - amanitins and phallotoxins present in the most dangerous poisonous mushrooms...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868926/a-novel-chloro-substituted-pentenamide-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-amanita-virgineoides
#4
Liang-Yan Liu, Ji-Kai Liu, Wen-Han Su, Tao Peng
One unusual chloro-substituted pentenamide, (3R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxy-4-pentenamide (1), together with 11 known compounds (2-12) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Amanita virgineoides. The structure of 1 including the absolute configuration was characterized by extensive spectroscopic analyses and quantum calculation. Compound 1 displayed no obvious activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human enterovirus 71 (EV71) or coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3).
September 4, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860534/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-differential-regulation-of-diverse-terpenoid-and-polyketides-secondary-metabolites-in-hericium-erinaceus
#5
Juan Chen, Xu Zeng, Yan Long Yang, Yong Mei Xing, Qi Zhang, Jia Mei Li, Ke Ma, Hong Wei Liu, Shun Xing Guo
The lion's mane mushroom Hericium erinaceus is a famous traditional medicinal fungus credited with anti-dementia activity and a producer of cyathane diterpenoid natural products (erinacines) useful against nervous system diseases. To date, few studies have explored the biosynthesis of these compounds, although their chemical synthesis is known. Here, we report the first genome and tanscriptome sequence of the medicinal fungus H. erinaceus. The size of the genome is 39.35 Mb, containing 9895 gene models. The genome of H...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830736/-evaluation-of-the-toxicity-of-basidiomycota-fungi-on-the-hatching-of-artemia-franciscana-cysts
#6
Luis Eduardo Ruiz-González, Juan Antonio Vázquez-Zea, Fernando Vega-Villasante, Laura Guzmán-Dávalos, Saúl Rogelio Guerrero-Galván
BACKGROUND: The consumption of wild mushrooms has increased in recent years. However, not all mushrooms are edible and some of them may cause poisoning. Therefore, their toxicity needs to be studied. Artemia franciscana is a crustacean used in toxicity tests including toxins of fungi. AIMS: To determine the percentage of inhibition and mortality produced by extracts of several basidiomycetes on the hatching of A. franciscana cysts. METHODS: Aqueous extracts were prepared from 15 species of mushrooms collected from Jalisco state, Mexico...
August 19, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830233/investigating-and-analyzing-three-cohorts-of-mushroom-poisoning-caused-by-amanita-exitialis-in-yunnan-china
#7
J Sun, H-J Li, H-S Zhang, Y-Z Zhang, J-W Xie, P-B Ma, C Guo, C Y Sun
Amanita exitialis is a lethal mushroom found in China. Knowledge regarding taxonomic characterization, toxin detection, general poisoning conditions, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and clinical treatments for this species is currently lacking. We investigated three A. exitialis mushroom poisoning cohorts in Yunnan Province in 2014 and 2015, involving 10 patients. Mushroom samples were identified by morphological and molecular studies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect the peptide toxins in the mushroom samples...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819747/word-wide-meta-analysis-of-quercus-forests-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-reveals-southwestern-mexico-as-a-hotspot
#8
Olimpia Mariana García-Guzmán, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Edith Hernández, Elsa Arellano-Torres, Ken Oyama
Quercus is the most diverse genus of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host plants; it is distributed in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, from temperate to tropical regions. However, their ECM communities have been scarcely studied in comparison to those of conifers. The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of ECM fungi associated with oak forests in the Cuitzeo basin in southwestern Mexico; and to determine the level of richness, potential endemism and species similarity among ECM fungal communities associated with natural oak forests worldwide through a meta-analysis...
August 17, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800852/growth-of-amanita-caesarea-in-the-presence-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-and-bacillus-cereus
#9
J M Cano, M Berrocal-Lobo, J A Domínguez-Núñez
The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Amanita caesarea CECT 20127 was tested in vitro with two potentially mycorrhizal-promoting bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 and Bacillus cereus CECT 148. Although P. fluorescens showed spatial and temporal compatibility with A. caesarea, it did not affect growth of the fungus. Conversely, B. cereus exhibited no such compatibility and also inhibited fungal growth. The expression pattern of the A. caesarea gene AcMST-1 was analysed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at three time points...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767681/study-of-three-interesting-amanita-species-from-thailand-morphology-multiple-gene-phylogeny-and-toxin-analysis
#10
Benjarong Thongbai, Steven L Miller, Marc Stadler, Kathrin Wittstein, Kevin D Hyde, Saisamorn Lumyong, Olivier Raspé
Amanita ballerina and A. brunneitoxicaria spp. nov. are introduced from Thailand. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon. Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. brunneitoxicaria and A. fuligineoides in sect. Phalloideae (Fr.) Quél., the placement of A. ballerina is problematic. On the one hand, the morphology of A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749416/anti-oxidative-stress-activity-is-essential-for-amanita-caesarea-mediated-neuroprotection-on-glutamate-induced-apoptotic-ht22-cells-and-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#11
Zhiping Li, Xia Chen, Wenqian Lu, Shun Zhang, Xin Guan, Zeyu Li, Di Wang
Amanita caesarea, an edible mushroom found mainly in Asia and southern Europe, has been reported to show good antioxidative activities. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of A. caesarea aqueous extract (AC) were determined in an l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) induced HT22 cell apoptosis model, and in a d-galactose (d-gal) and AlCl₃-developed experimental Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. In 25 mM of l-Glu-damaged HT22 cells, a 3-h pretreatment with AC strongly improved cell viability, reduced the proportion of apoptotic cells, restored mitochondrial function, inhibited the over-production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+), and suppressed the high expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3, calpain 1, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and Bax...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710688/death-by-food
#12
Roger W Byard
Although death from food is not an uncommon finding in forensic facilities worldwide, the range of underlying lethal mechanisms and associated conditions that should be sought at the time of autopsy is quite disparate. Deaths may occur from i) infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, cestodes, nematodes and prions; ii) natural toxins including amanita toxins, tetrodotoxin, ciguatera and scombroid; iii) anaphylaxis; iv) poisoning; v) mechanical issues around airway and gut obstruction and/or perforation; and vi) miscellaneous causes...
July 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707897/redox-interconversion-of-non-oxido-vanadium-complexes-accompanied-by-acid-base-chemistry-of-thiol-and-thiolate
#13
Jyun-An Yan, Yu-Sen Chen, Ya-Ho Chang, Cheng-Yun Tsai, Chiao-Ling Lyu, Chun-Gang Luo, Gene-Hsiang Lee, Hua-Fen Hsu
The redox nature of the non-oxido vanadium sulfur center is associated with several biological systems such as vanadium nitrogenase, the reduction of vanadium ion in ascidians, and the function of amavadin, which is a vanadium(IV) natural product contained in Amanita mushrooms. But the related chemistry is less explored and understood compared to oxido vanadium species due to the oxophilic character of high valent vanadium ions. Herein, we present a class of non-oxido vanadium thiolate complexes, [V(III)(PS2″S(H))2](-) (1) (PS2″S(H) = [P(C6H3-3-Me3Si-2-S)2(C6H3-3-Me3Si-2-SH)](2-)), [V(IV)(PS3″)(PS2″S(H))](-) (2) (PS3″ = [P(C6H3-3-Me3Si-2-S)3](3-)), [V(PS3″)2](-) (3), [V(PS3″)(PS2″S(H))] (4), and [V(IV)(PS3*)2](2-) (5a) (PS3* = [P(C6H3-3-Ph-2-S)3](3-)), and study their interconversion through the redox and acid-base reactions...
August 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705393/the-gondwanan-connection-southern-temperate-amanita-lineages-and-the-description-of-the-first-sequestrate-species-from-the-americas
#14
Camille Truong, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Francisco Kuhar, Zachary Kaplan, Matthew E Smith
Amanita is a diverse and cosmopolitan genus of ectomycorrhizal fungi. We describe Amanita nouhrae sp. nov., a new hypogeous ('truffle-like') species associated with Nothofagus antarctica in northern Patagonia. This constitutes the first report of a sequestrate Amanita from the Americas. Thick-walled basidiospores ornamented on the interior spore wall ('crassospores') were observed consistently in A. nouhrae and its sister epigeous taxon Amanita morenoi, a rarely collected but apparently common species from northern Patagonia that has sometimes been misidentified as the Australian taxon Amanita umbrinella...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688806/evaluation-of-the-genotoxicity-of-alpha-amanitin-in-mice-bone-marrow-cells
#15
B Marciniak, D Łopaczyńska, T Ferenc
Alpha-amanitin is a known cytotoxic substance found in some mushroom species including Amanita phalloides. Its main mechanism of action is to block the transcription, which can lead to cell death. Lack of reports on the genotoxicity of this toxin was an inspiration for undertaking this experiment. Genotoxic effect of α-amanitin on balb/c mice bone marrow cells was tested using: comet assay and chromosomal aberration test. The tested substance was given once by intraperitoneal administration to animals at doses: 0...
July 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656949/-the-peculiar-features-of-the-morphological-manifestations-of-the-damage-to-the-liver-associated-with-the-death-cap-mushroom-poisoning
#16
E A Ivleva, D V Bogomolov, V A Putintsev, I N Bogomolova
This article is focused on the peculiar features of the morphological manifestations of massive hepatic necrosis associated with the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides) poisoning in comparison with similar cases of intoxication. It has been shown that the poisoning is associated with cell proliferation in the peri-portal regions of the liver and induction of the mechanisms of apoptosis responsible for the death of hepatocytes.
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572939/effect-of-cooking-and-preservation-on-nutritional-and-phytochemical-composition-of-the-mushroom-amanita-zambiana
#17
Tsungai Reid, Merjury Munyanyi, Takafira Mduluza
The effect of different cooking and preservation methods on the nutritional and phytochemical composition of the mushroom, Amanita zambiana, was investigated. Fresh mushrooms were boiled in water, fried, or microwaved. In addition, fresh mushrooms were either air-dried for 7 days or frozen at -20°C for 14 days. The protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and phenolic content of the treated mushrooms were measured and compared to the fresh mushroom contents. Frying increased the protein (2.01% ± 0.2% [fresh mushroom] to 2...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570504/amanita-phalloides-mushroom-poisonings-northern-california-december-2016
#18
Kathy T Vo, Martha E Montgomery, S Todd Mitchell, Pieter H Scheerlinck, Daniel K Colby, Kathryn H Meier, Susan Kim-Katz, Ilene B Anderson, Steven R Offerman, Kent R Olson, Craig G Smollin
Amanita phalloides, colloquially known as the "death cap," belongs to the Phalloideae section of the Amanita family of mushrooms and is responsible for most deaths following ingestion of foraged mushrooms worldwide (1). On November 28, 2016, members of the Bay Area Mycological Society notified personnel at the California Poison Control System (CPCS) of an unusually large A. phalloides bloom in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, coincident with the abundant rainfall and recent warm weather. Five days later, CPCS received notification of the first human A...
June 2, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509612/defining-the-phylogenetic-position-of-amanita-species-from-andean-colombia
#19
Natalia Vargas, Carlos José Pardo-de La Hoz, Giovanna Danies, Ana Esperanza Franco-Molano, Pedro Jiménez, Silvia Restrepo, Alejandro Grajales
Amanita is a worldwide-distributed fungal genus, with approximately 600 known species. Most species within the genus are ectomycorrhizal (ECM), with some saprotrophic representatives. In this study, we constructed the first comprehensive phylogeny including ECM species from Colombia collected in native Quercus humboldtii forests and in introduced Pinus patula plantations. We included 8 species (A. brunneolocularis, A. colombiana, A. flavoconia, A. fuligineodisca, A. muscaria, A. rubescens, A. sororcula, and A...
April 12, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485057/affinity-capillary-electrophoresis-and-density-functional-theory-study-of-noncovalent-interactions-of-cyclic-peptide-gly-6-antamanide-with-small-cations
#20
Sachin Pangavhane, Stanislav Böhm, Emanuel Makrlík, Paolo Ruzza, Václav Kašička
ACE and density functional theory were employed to study the noncovalent interactions of cyclic decapeptide glycine-6-antamanide ([Gly(6) ]AA), synthetic derivative of native antamanide (AA) peptide from the deadly poisonous fungus Amanita phalloides, with small cations (Li(+) , Rb(+) , Cs(+) , NH4(+) , and Ca(2+) ) in methanol. The strength of these interactions was quantified by the apparent stability constants of the appropriate complexes determined by ACE. The stability constants were calculated using the nonlinear regression analysis of the dependence of the effective electrophoretic mobility of [Gly(6) ]AA on the concentration of the above ions in the BGE (methanolic solution of 20 mM chloroacetic acid, 10 mM Tris, pHMeOH 7...
August 2017: Electrophoresis
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