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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910775/hepatoprotective-effects-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-triterpenoids-from-lingzhi-or-reishi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-agaricomycetes-on-%C3%AE-amanitin-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#1
Huihui Wu, Shanshan Tang, Zhaoqin Huang, Qian Zhou, Ping Zhang, Zuohong Chen
Most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by species of the genus Amanita; the amatoxins are responsible for acute liver failure and death in humans. Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of triterpenoids from G. lucidum on liver injury induced by a-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and the mechanisms of action of these triterpenoids, including radical scavenging and antiapoptosis activities...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619375/mercury-in-forest-mushrooms-and-topsoil-from-the-yunnan-highlands-and-the-subalpine-region-of-the-minya-konka-summit-in-the-eastern-tibetan-plateau
#2
Jerzy Falandysz, Martyna Saba, Hong-Gao Liu, Tao Li, Ji-Peng Wang, Anna Wiejak, Ji Zhang, Yuan-Zhong Wang, Dan Zhang
This study aimed to investigate and discuss the occurrence and accumulation of mercury in the fruiting bodies of wild-growing fungi (Macromycetes) collected from montane forests in two regions of southwestern China with differences in soil geochemistry, climate and geographical conditions. Fungal mycelia in soils of the subalpine region of the Minya Konka (Gongga Mountain) in Sichuan and in the highlands of Yunnan efficiently accumulated mercury in fruiting bodies (mushrooms). The examined sites in Yunnan with highly mineralized red and yellow soils showed Hg contents ranging from 0...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600603/structure-and-antioxidant-activity-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-derived-from-amanita%C3%A2-caesarea
#3
Yuanxiu Zhu, Xiang Ding, Mei Wang, Yiling Hou, Wanru Hou, Changwu Yue
A heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Amanita caesarea using a diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column, Sephacryl S‑300 gel column and Sephadex G‑200 column. The Amanita caesarea polysaccharide was predominantly composed of α-D-glucose and α-D-lyxose at a ratio of 2:1, and it had a molecular weight of 19,329 Da. The structural features of the Amanita caesarea polysaccharide were investigated by a combination of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569718/bioaccumulation-of-heavy-metals-metalloids-and-chlorine-in-ectomycorrhizae-from-smelter-polluted-area
#4
Jaroslava Cejpková, Milan Gryndler, Hana Hršelová, Pavel Kotrba, Zdeněk Řanda, Iva Synková, Jan Borovička
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contribute to the survival of host trees on metal-rich soils by reducing the transfer of toxic metals into roots. However, little is known about the ability of ECM fungi to accumulate elements in ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). Here we report Ag, As, Cd, Cl, Cu, Sb, V, and Zn contents in wild-grown Norway spruce ECMs collected in a smelter-polluted area at Lhota near Příbram, Czech Republic. The ECMs data were compared with the element concentrations determined in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal fine roots, soils, and soil extracts...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554846/the-tip-and-hidden-part-of-the-iceberg-proteinogenic-and-non-proteinogenic-aliphatic-amino-acids
#5
Maximilian Fichtner, Kerstin Voigt, Stefan Schuster
BACKGROUND: Amino acids are the essential building blocks of proteins and, therefore, living organisms. While the focus often lies on the canonical or proteinogenic amino acids, there is also a large number of non-canonical amino acids to explore. Some of them are part of toxins or antibiotics in fungi, bacteria or animals (e.g. sponges). Some others operate at the translational level like an "undercover agent". SCOPE OF REVIEW: Here we give an overview of natural aliphatic amino acids, up to a side chain length of five carbons, without rings and with an unmodified backbone, and have a closer look on each of them...
August 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551514/cytotoxic-l-amino-acid-oxidases-from-amanita-phalloides-and-clitocybe-geotropa-induce-caspase-dependent-apoptosis
#6
A Pišlar, J Sabotič, J Šlenc, J Brzin, J Kos
L-amino-acid oxidases (LAO) purified from fungi induce cell death in various mammalian cells including human tumor cell lines. The mechanism, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to define a precise mechanism of cell death induced in Jurkat and MCF7 cancer cell lines by ApLAO and CgLAO, LAOs isolated from Amanita phalloides and Clitocybe geotropa, respectively. Cell death induced by both LAOs is shown to be concentration- and time-dependent, with higher toxic effects in Jurkat cells. LAO activity is required for the cytotoxicity...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493118/%C3%A2-early-initiation-of-mars%C3%A2-dialysis-in-amanita-phalloides-induced-acute-liver-injury-prevents-liver-transplantation
#7
Mike Hendrik Pillukat, Tina Schomacher, Peter Baier, Gert Gabriëls, Hermann Pavenstädt, Hartmut H J Schmidt
 Amanita phalloides is the most relevant mushroom intoxication leading to acute liver failure. The two principal groups of toxins, the amatoxins and the phallotoxins, are small oligopeptides highly resistant to chemical and physical influences. The amatoxins inhibit eukaryotic RNA polymerase II causing transcription arrest affecting mainly metabolically highly active cells like hepatocytes and renal cells. The clinically most characteristic symptom is a 6-40 h lag phase before onset of gastrointestinal symptoms and the rapid progression of acute liver failure leading to multi-organ failure and death within a week if left untreated...
September 2016: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476461/cyclopeptide-toxins-of-lethal-amanitas-compositions-distribution-and-phylogenetic-implication
#8
Shanshan Tang, Qian Zhou, Zhengmi He, Tao Luo, Ping Zhang, Qing Cai, Zhuliang Yang, Jia Chen, Zuohong Chen
Lethal amanitas (Amanita sect. Phalloideae) are responsible for 90% of all fatal mushroom poisonings. Since 2000, more than ten new lethal Amanita species have been discovered and some of them had caused severe mushroom poisonings in China. However, the contents and distribution of cyclopeptides in these lethal mushrooms remain poorly known. In this study, the diversity of major cyclopeptide toxins in seven Amanita species from Eastern Asia and three species from Europe and North America were systematically analyzed, and a new approach to inferring phylogenetic relationships using cyclopeptide profile was evaluated for the first time...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474516/lethal-amanita-species-in-china
#9
Qing Cai, Yang-Yang Cui, Zhu L Yang
Lethal amanitas (Amanita sect. Phalloideae) cause many casualties worldwide. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revealed diverse lethal Amanita spp. in China. Here a 5-gene phylogeny (nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 with the 5.8S rDNA, the D1-D3 domains of nuc 28S rDNA, and partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin genes) is used to investigate the phylogenetic lineages and species delimitation in this section...
September 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433443/saproamanita-a-new-name-for-both-lepidella-e-j-gilbert-and-aspidella-e-j-gilbert-amaniteae-amanitaceae
#10
Scott A Redhead, Alfredo Vizzini, Dennis C Drehmel, Marco Contu
The genus Amanita has been divided into two monophyletic taxa, Amanita, an ectomycorrhizal genus, and Aspidella, a saprotrophic genus. The controversies and histories about recognition of the two genera based on trophic status are discussed. The name Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert is shown to be illegitimate and a later homonym of Aspidella E. Billings, a well-known generic name for an enigmatic fossil sometimes classified as a fungus or alga. The name Saproamanita is coined to replace Aspidella E.-J. Gilbert for the saprotrophic Amanitas, and a selection of previously molecularly analyzed species and closely classified grassland species are transferred to it along with selected similar taxa...
June 2016: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394089/fabrication-of-a-biomimetic-adsorbent-imprinted-with-a-common-specificity-determinant-for-the-removal-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-amanitin-from-plasma
#11
Lei Tan, Rong He, Yongxian Li, Yong Liang, He Li, Youwen Tang
α-Amanitin and β-amanitin are the main toxins of mushroom poisoning. The application of traditional non-selective adsorbents is not satisfactory in clinical treatment of amanita mushroom poisoning due to lack of specificity adsorption capability of these adsorbents toward amanitin toxins. In the current work, we introduce a novel molecularly imprinted biomimetic adsorbent based on a ligand specificity determinant through surface imprinted strategy. Owing to the expensive price of the amanitin sources, we selected a typical common moiety of α, β-amanitin as specificity determinant to synthesize a template necessary for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389675/effectiveness-of-fractionated-plasma-separation-and-absorption-as-a-treatment-for-amanita-phalloides-poisoning
#12
Rafał Stankiewicz, Zbigniew Lewandowski, Marcin Kotulski, Waldemar Patkowski, Marek Krawczyk
BACKGROUND Fractionated plasma separation and absorption (FPSA) is an extracorporeal liver support method that detoxifies accumulated toxins. There are limited data of its use in the treatment of Amanita phalloides intoxication. The objective of this study was to investigate whether FPSA before liver transplantation improves patients' short-term post liver transplantation survival in Amanita phalloides poisoning. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study population consisted of ten patients who had liver transplantation (LT) due to acute liver failure (ALF) caused by Amanita phalloides poisoning...
2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359312/-acute-liver-failure-after-ingestion-of-death-cap-mushrooms
#13
Anna-Maria Zuliani, Iyad Kabar, Todd Mitchell, Hauke Sebastian Heinzow
Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available...
July 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350835/results-of-liver-transplantation-in-patients-with-acute-liver-failure-due-to-amanita-phalloides-and-paracetamol-acetaminophen-intoxication
#14
Maciej Krasnodębski, Michał Grąt, Wacław Hołówko, Łukasz Masior, Karolina M Wronka, Karolina Grąt, Jan Stypułkowski, Waldemar Patkowski, Marek Krawczyk
INTRODUCTION: Amanita phalloides and paracetamol intoxications are responsible for the majority of acute liver failures. AIM: To assess survival outcomes and to analyse risk factors affecting survival in the studied group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of 1369 liver transplantations performed in the Department of General, Transplant, and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw before December 2013, 20 (1.46%) patients with Amanita phalloides (n = 13, 0...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302036/biochemical-characteristics-of-a-novel-protease-from-the-basidiomycete-amanita-virgineoides
#15
Xianghe Yuan, Mengjuan Zhu, Guoting Tian, Yongchang Zhao, Liyan Zhao, Tzi Bun Ng, Hexiang Wang
The characterization of a novel protease from Amanita virgineoides is described herein. The A. virgineoides protease was purified to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose, CM-cellulose, DEAE-cellulose and a gel filtration step on Superdex 75. The molecular mass of the purified protease was estimated to be 16.6 kDa. The protease was purified 32.1 fold and its specific activity was 301.4 U/mg. The optimum pH was 4.0 and the optimum temperature was 50 ˚C. Kinetic constants (Km , Vmax ) were determined under the optimum reaction conditions, with Km and Vmax , being 3...
June 15, 2016: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282772/mycorrhizal-detection-of-native-and-non-native-truffles-in-a-historic-arboretum-and-the-discovery-of-a-new-north-american-species-tuber-arnoldianum-sp-nov
#16
Rosanne A Healy, Hannah Zurier, Gregory Bonito, Matthew E Smith, Donald H Pfister
During a study comparing the ectomycorrhizal root communities in a native forest with those at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts (USA), the European species Tuber borchii was detected on the roots of a native red oak in the arboretum over two successive years. Since T. borchii is an economically important edible truffle native to Europe, we conducted a search of other roots in the arboretum to determine the extent of colonization. We also wanted to determine whether other non-native Tuber species had been inadvertently introduced into this 140-year-old Arboretum because many trees were imported into the site with intact soil and roots prior to the 1921 USDA ban on these horticultural practices in the USA...
October 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274881/application-of-the-liver-maximum-function-capacity-test-in-acute-liver-failure-a-helpful-tool-for-decision-making-in-liver-transplantation
#17
Florian Wolfgang Rudolf Vondran, Carsten Schumacher, Kai Johanning, Björn Hartleben, Wolfgang Knitsch, Olaf Wiesner, Elmar Jaeckel, Michael Peter Manns, Juergen Klempnauer, Hueseyin Bektas, Frank Lehner
Background. Despite aggressive intensive medical management acute liver failure (ALF) may require high-urgency liver transplantation (LTx). Available prognostic scores do not apply for all patients; reliable tools to identify individuals in need of LTx are highly required. The liver maximum function capacity test (LiMAx) might represent an appropriate option. Referring to a case of ALF after Amanita phalloides-intoxication the potential of the LiMAx-test in this setting is discussed. Presentation of Case. LiMAx was performed in a 27-year-old patient prior to and after high-urgency LTx...
2016: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170397/acute-liver-failure-it-s-just-a-matter-of-cell-death
#18
Jan-Peter Sowa, Guido Gerken, Ali Canbay
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized by a sudden loss of hepatic function due to hepatocyte cell death and dysfunction in previously healthy individuals. The clinical presentation of ALF is associated with coagulopathy (international normalized ratio ≥1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy, although the latter may be less pronounced. Without appropriate and timely intensive care or liver transplantation (LTx), ALF will result in multi-organ failure and death. Various causes may induce ALF, with acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication and acute hepatitis B infection as most common causes in industrialized countries...
2016: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163570/larvicidal-efficiency-of-the-mushroom-amanitamuscaria-agaricales-amanitaceae-against-the-mosquito-culexquinquefasciatus-diptera-culicidae
#19
Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo, Luiz Paiva Carapeto, Jucelio Peter Duarte, Eduardo Bernardi, Paulo Bretanha Ribeiro
We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A...
February 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27153089/a-simple-and-high-throughput-analysis-of-amatoxins-and-phallotoxins-in-human-plasma-serum-and-urine-using-uplc-ms-ms-combined-with-prime-hlb-%C3%AE-elution-platform
#20
Shuo Zhang, Yunfeng Zhao, Haijiao Li, Shuang Zhou, Dawei Chen, Yizhe Zhang, Qunmei Yao, Chengye Sun
Amatoxins and phallotoxins are toxic cyclopeptides found in the genus Amanita and are among the predominant causes of fatal food poisoning in China. In the treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning, an early and definite diagnosis is necessary for a successful outcome, which has prompted the development of protocols for the fast and confirmatory determination of amatoxins and phallotoxins in human biological fluids. For this purpose, a simple, rapid and sensitive multiresidue UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of α-amanitin, β-amanitin, γ-amanitin, phalloidin (PHD) and phallacidin (PCD) in human plasma, serum and urine was developed and validated...
2016: Toxins
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