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Majed Hababeh, Wafaa Zeidan, Mariam Abdel El-Kader, Anwar Al Thaher, Nimer Kassim, Elias Habash, Hasan Arab, Ali Khader, Akihiro Seita
BACKGROUND: UNRWA introduced family planning services in 1994 as an integral part of its expanded maternal and child health-care programme. The main objective of UNRWA's family planning programme is to promote the health of mothers, children, and their families. The aim of this follow-up study was to assess contraceptive practices in the target population 5 years after the 2010 follow-up study and to identify future programme needs. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was a done by trained nurses from June 1 to Dec 31, 2015...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ana Fonseca, Bárbara Nazaré, Maria Cristina Canavarro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of one's attachment representations on one's and the partner's caregiving representations. BACKGROUND: According to attachment theory, individual differences in parenting and caregiving behaviours may be a function of parents' caregiving representations of the self as caregiver, and of others as worthy of care, which are rooted on parents' attachment representations. Furthermore, the care-seeking and caregiving interactions that occur within the couple relationship may also shape individuals' caregiving representations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Filiz Mine Çizmecioğlu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Sakina Kherra, Mariam Kourime, Ruth McGowan, M Guftar Shaikh, Malcolm Donaldson
OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis is of proven benefit in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We therefore examined key perinatal features to aid early recognition. METHODS: Data were collected from case records of subjects attending a multi-disciplinary clinic and from a retrospective birth questionnaire. RESULTS: Ninety patients (54 male: 36 female) were seen between 1991-2015, most with paternal deletion (n=56) or maternal isodisomy (n=26). Features included cryptorchidism in 94% males, preterm birth (26%), birthweight <2500g (24%), polyhydramnios (23%), breech presentation (23%) and need for nasogastric feeding (83%)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Laurence Thielemans, Gornpan Gornsawun, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Moo Kho Paw, Pen Porn, Paw Khu Moo, Bart Van Overmeire, Stephane Proux, François Nosten, Rose McGready, Verena I Carrara, Germana Bancone
Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST), which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Ju-Hyun Song, Brenda Volling
This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and sibling interactions (i.e., positive engagement and antagonism) and parental discipline strategies (i.e., child-centred and parent-centred discipline) at 4 and 8 months in the first year of siblinghood...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
S Haider, C Stoffel, A M Dude
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe contraceptive method use by adolescent women in the six months following any pregnancy. DESIGN: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2011-13 and 2013-15 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth. SETTING: This survey is a nationally - representative population - based survey of reproductive aged women in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included respondents who had at least one pregnancy that ended both within the contraceptive calendar period and before the month of the respondent's twentieth birthday...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
M McGowan, M K Holland, G Boe-Hansen
This review focuses on current understanding of prenatal, prepubertal and post-pubertal development of the male reproductive system of cattle. The critical developmental events occur during the first 3 to 4 months of gestation and the first ~6 to 9 months after birth. The Wilms Tumor-1 and SRY proteins play critical roles in early development and differentiation of the fetal testis, which in turn drives gestational development of the entire male reproductive system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures earlier in the bovine fetus than other domestic species with descent of the testes into the scrotum occurring around the 4th month of gestation...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Kana R Jat, Dinesh K Walia, Anju Khairwa
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with an approximate prevalence of 1 in 3500 live births. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease caused by aspergillus-induced hypersensitivity with a prevalence of 2% to 15% in people with cystic fibrosis. The mainstay of treatment includes corticosteroids and itraconazole. The treatment with corticosteroids for prolonged periods of time, or repeatedly for exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, may lead to many adverse effects...
March 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Amy E Mitchell, Koa Whittingham, Stanley Steindl, James Kirby
To evaluate the acceptability and potential utility of a small package of online resources designed to improve self-compassion for mothers of infants. A within-groups repeated-measures study design was used. A community sample of 262 mothers who were ≤ 24 months post-partum were given access to a set of online resources (two videos plus a tip sheet) that outlined simple techniques for increasing self-compassion drawn from compassion-focused therapy (CFT). Participants completed pre-intervention assessment, followed by post-intervention assessment 1 month later...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Nermin Hrnčić
Aim To identify risk factors for hearing impairment presented in neonates born in Cantonal Hospital Zenica (CHZ) and to estimate their influence on outcome of hearing tests in Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS). Methods Retrospective-prospective study was done at the Department of Gynaecology and Maternity. The NHS was performed with transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) during a six-month period using "Titan" device (Interacoustics, Denmark). The questionnaire was written for the purpose of getting more structured basic information about every newborn and to identify risk factors for hearing impairment...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
Waqas Hameed, Bilal Iqbal Avan
INTRODUCTION: Respectful and dignified healthcare is a fundamental right for every woman. However, many women seeking childbirth services, especially those in low-income countries such as Pakistan, are mistreated by their birth attendants. The aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalence of mistreatment and types of mistreatment among women giving birth in facility- and home-based settings in Pakistan in order to address the lack of empirical evidence on this topic...
2018: PloS One
Zoë W Hawks, Natasha Marrus, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Previous research has suggested that behavioral comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception in autism. The present study aimed to trace the respective origins of autistic and general psychopathologic traits-and their association-to infancy. Measurements of autistic traits and early liability for general psychopathology were assessed in 314 twins at 18 months, ascertained from the general population using birth records. 222 twins were re-evaluated at 36 months. Standardized ratings of variation in social communication at 18 months were highly heritable and strongly predicted autistic trait scores at 36 months...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Edward E Walsh, Lu Wang, Ann R Falsey, Xing Qiu, Anthony Corbett, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Thomas J Mariani, David J Topham, Mary T Caserta
Background: Maternally derived serum antibody and viral load are thought to influence disease severity in primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. As part of the AsPIRES study of RSV pathogenesis we correlated various serum antibody concentrations and viral load with disease severity. Methods: Serum neutralizing titers and IgG to RSV F, Ga and Gb proteins, the CX3C region of G, and nasal viral load were measured in 139 full-term previously healthy infants with primary RSV infection and correlated with illness severity...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Sarah Caughlin, Shikhar Maheshwari, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Aaron J Harris, Kristina Jurcic, Ken K-C Yeung, David F Cechetto, Shawn N Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of simple gangliosides GM2 and GM3, and gangliosides with longer long-chain bases (d20:1) have been linked to toxicity and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, complex gangliosides, such as GM1, have been shown to be neuroprotective. Recent evidence using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has demonstrated that a-series gangliosides are differentially altered during normal aging, yet it remains unclear how simple species are shifting relative to complex gangliosides in the prodromal stages of AD...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
M Baraa Allaf, Maria Andrikopoulou, Natalie Crnosija, Jolene Muscat, Martin R Chavez, Anthony M Vintzileos
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility in visualizing placental cord insertion (PCI) during second-trimester fetal anatomical survey and the association between marginal cord insertion (MCI) and preterm delivery (PTD) and low birth weight (LBW). Our secondary objectives were to evaluate the association of MCI with adverse composite obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed over a 28-month period. Women with singleton pregnancies presenting for routine anatomical survey between 18-22 weeks' gestation were included...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Emily A McCourt, Gui-Shuang Ying, Anne M Lynch, Alan G Palestine, Brandie D Wagner, Erica Wymore, Lauren A Tomlinson, Gil Binenbaum
Importance: The Colorado Retinopathy of Prematurity (CO-ROP) model uses birth weight, gestational age, and weight gain at the first month of life (WG-28) to predict risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In previous validation studies, the model performed very well, predicting virtually all cases of severe ROP and potentially reducing the number of infants who need ROP examinations, warranting validation in a larger, more diverse population. Objective: To validate the performance of the CO-ROP model in a large multicenter cohort...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Susan Woskie, Pornpimol Kongtip, Wiroj Thanasanpaiboon, Napaporn Kiatdamrong, Nantha Charoonrungsirikul, Noppanun Nankongnab, Anu Surach, Akkarat Phamonphon
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether prenatal exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides from maternal agricultural use are associated with neonatal neurobehavioral effects. A pilot study conducted in three provinces in Thailand measured maternal urinary metabolites of OP pesticides in pregnant women at 7 months gestation and at birth. Within 3 days of birth, 82 newborns underwent neurobehavioral testing using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Comparison of the NBAS test results with maternal OP metabolite levels found the neonates NBAS Habituation cluster score increased with maternal dimethylphosphate (DMP) levels (p = 0...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Mathilde Fort, Imme Lammertink, Sharon Peperkamp, Adriana Guevara-Rukoz, Paula Fikkert, Sho Tsuji
Adults and toddlers systematically associate pseudowords such as "bouba" and "kiki" with round and spiky shapes, respectively, a sound symbolic phenomenon known as the "bouba-kiki effect". To date, whether this sound symbolic effect is a property of the infant brain present at birth or is a learned aspect of language perception remains unknown. Yet, solving this question is fundamental for our understanding of early language acquisition. Indeed, an early sensitivity to such sound symbolic associations could provide a powerful mechanism for language learning, playing a bootstrapping role in the establishment of novel sound-meaning associations...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Science
Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjaer, Christian Ritz, Iva Hojsak, Kim Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard
AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility...
March 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
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