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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213681/quantifying-functionals-of-age-distributions-in-the-wild-by-solving-an-operator-equation
#1
Hao Ji, Hans-Georg Müller, Nikos T Papadopoulos, James R Carey
Residual demography is a recent concept that has proved to be a useful tool to gain insights about the age distributions of wild populations, especially insects. We develop an operator equation that permits the derivation of functionals of the age distribution in wild populations, such as mean age, within the framework of residual demography. Our method combines information from an observed captive cohort, which consists of subjects that are sampled from the wild with unknown ages and then raised in the laboratory until death, and from a reference cohort that consists of subjects raised in the laboratory since birth of the same population...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213594/brighter-children-the-association-between-seasonality-of-birth-and-child-iq-in-a-population-based-birth-cohort
#2
Nina H Grootendorst-van Mil, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Albert Hofman, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
OBJECTIVE: Season of birth has repeatedly been found to be a risk indicator for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several explanations for this finding have been put forward but no conclusion has been reached. In the current study, we explored the role of sociodemographic and biological factors in the association between season of birth and child IQ. DESIGN: In a prenatally recruited birth cohort (born in 2002-2006), we examined the association between season of birth and non-verbal IQ at age 6 years among 6034 children...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212590/the-july-effect-on-maternal-peripartum-complications-before-and-after-resident-duty-hour-reform-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Ithan D Peltan, Crystal E Brown, Alson K Burke, Eric J Chow, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Matthew R Crull
Objective To compare maternal birth complications early versus late in the academic year and to evaluate the impact of resident work hour limitation on the "July effect." Study Design We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of 628,414 singleton births in Washington State from 1987 to 2012 measuring the adjusted risk of maternal peripartum complications early (July/August) versus late (April/May) in the academic year. To control for seasonal outcome variation unrelated to trainees' involvement in care as well as long-term trends in maternal complications unrelated to variation in trainees' effect on outcomes across the academic year, we employed difference-in-differences methods contrasting outcomes at teaching to nonteaching hospitals for deliveries before and after restriction of resident work hours in July 2003...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190746/birth-outcomes-for-australian-mother-infant-pairs-who-received-an-influenza-vaccine-during-pregnancy-2012-2014-the-flumum-study
#4
Lisa McHugh, Ross M Andrews, Stephen B Lambert, Kerri A Viney, Nicholas Wood, Kirsten P Perrett, Helen S Marshall, Peter Richmond, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady
INTRODUCTION: In Australia, influenza vaccination is recommended for all women who will be pregnant during the influenza season. Vaccine safety and effectiveness are key concerns and influencers of uptake for both vaccine providers and families. We assessed the safety of receiving an influenza vaccination during any trimester of pregnancy with respect to preterm births and infant birthweight. METHODS: We conducted a nested retrospective cohort study of 'FluMum' participants (2012-2014)...
February 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187750/study-on-age-dependent-pre-existing-2009-pandemic-influenza-virus-t-and-b-cell-responses-from-chinese-population
#5
Jin Lv, Zhen-Yong Ren, Ying-Ying Zhang, Yun-E Liu, Jun Gao, Kun Yao, Dan Feng, Zhen-Yuan Li, Xin Feng, Yun-Xi Liu, Na Jia
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (H1N1pdm) affected thousands of people in Mexico and the United States, and spread rapidly throughout the world from April 2009 to July 2010. To explore the age-specific prevalence of seroprotection against H1N1pdm infection, we estimated pre-existing humoral and cellular immunities of residents in Northern China against H1N1pdm and seasonal H1N1 virus in an age-dependent manner. METHODS: Anonymous serum samples were collected from 1425 to 1434 adult healthy individuals before and after the pandemic outbreak, and then grouped by birth year 1913-1990...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186955/cross-sectional-analysis-of-universal-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-former-east-germany-during-the-first-year-of-life
#6
Aris Siafarikas, Alfons Deichl, Gerhard Jahreis, Angela Pieplow, Hartmut Vogel, Eberhard Kauf, Anna-Elisabeth Kapuhs, Elke Badeke, Günter Berger, Hans Kändler, Volker Hesse
BACKGROUND: Universal vitamin D supplementation is controversial. Preventative examinations and public health initiatives in former East Germany that included vitamin D prophylaxis for children were regulated by official recommendations and guidelines. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of a standardised nationwide guideline for universal supplementation with 400 International Units (IU) vitamin D3/day during the first year of life on clinical and biochemical parameters and the influence of surrounding factors...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166975/impact-of-a-killed-tritrichomonas-foetus-vaccine-on-clearance-of-the-organism-and-subsequent-fertility-of-heifers-following-experimental-inoculation
#7
Misty A Edmondson, Kellye S Joiner, Jennifer A Spencer, Kay P Riddell, Soren P Rodning, Julie A Gard, M Daniel Givens
Tritrichomonas foetus is a sexually transmitted reproductive pathogen of cattle that causes transient infertility, early embryonic death, metritis, pyometra, and sporadic abortions. The objective of this research was to assess the impact on reproductive health of vaccinating naïve heifers with a killed T. foetus vaccine (TrichGuard) before experimental exposure followed by breeding. A total of 40 beef heifers were randomly assigned into two treatment groups. Heifers where then vaccinated with two doses of TrichGuard or sham vaccinated with 0...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165406/examining-the-effects-of-ambient-temperature-on-pre-term-birth-in-central-australia
#8
Supriya Mathew, Deepika Mathur, Anne B Chang, Elizabeth McDonald, Gurmeet R Singh, Darfiana Nur, Rolf Gerritsen
Preterm birth (born before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years of age. Several recent studies have examined the association between extreme temperature and preterm births, but there have been almost no such studies in arid Australia. In this paper, we explore the potential association between exposures to extreme temperatures during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy in a Central Australian town. An immediate effect of temperature exposure is observed with an increased relative risk of 1%-2% when the maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the summer season maximum temperature data...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161184/growth-behavior-and-economics-of-group-fed-dairy-calves-fed-once-or-twice-daily-in-an-organic-production-system
#9
M J Kienitz, B J Heins, H Chester-Jones
Heifer calves (n = 102) were used to evaluate the effect of once- or twice-daily feeding on growth, behavior, and economics of calves in an organic group management system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in superhutches by birth order, during 2 seasons from September to December 2013 and March to May 2014 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris. Calves in groups were the experimental unit. Breed groups of calves were Holsteins (n = 26), crossbreds (n = 45) including combinations Holsteins, Montbéliarde, and Viking Red (selected for high production), and crossbreds (n = 31) including combinations of Holsteins, Jersey, Normande, and Viking Red (selected for robustness)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160198/effects-of-neonatal-diarrhea-and-other-conditions-on-subsequent-productive-and-reproductive-performance-of-heifer-calves
#10
Fatemeh Aghakeshmiri, Mohammad Azizzadeh, Nima Farzaneh, Morteza Gorjidooz
Diarrhea is one of the most frequent diseases of neonatal calves in dairy herds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of neonatal diarrhea and other conditions on subsequent first lactation milk production and reproductive performance of heifer calves up to the first calving. Seven hundred heifer calves (350 with and 350 without the history of diarrhea in first month of life) were monitored from birth until a year after calving. For each heifer, birth season, birth weight, ease of birth and occurrence of diseases from birth to the end of first lactation were recorded as independent variables...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149681/an-examination-of-factors-potentially-influencing-birth-distributions-in-golden-snub-nosed-monkeys-rhinopithecus-roxellana
#11
Zuofu Xiang, Wanji Yang, Xiaoguang Qi, Hui Yao, Cyril C Grueter, Paul A Garber, Baoguo Li, Ming Li
Many species of primates are considered seasonal breeders, but the set of factors, such as food availability, day length and temperature, that influence the timing of reproductive events for both wild and captive individuals remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of factors in shaping breeding patterns in Rhinopithecus roxellana, a temperate colobine primate. We used circular statistics to describe and compare the patterns of reproductive seasonality among individuals in 13 captive groups and two free ranging but provisioned groups at various locations throughout China...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133478/is-month-of-birth-a-risk-factor-for-colorectal-cancer
#12
N K Francis, N J Curtis, E Noble, M Cortina-Borja, E Salib
Introduction. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis and season of birth have been linked to a wide variety of later life conditions including cancer. Whether any relationship between month and season of birth and colorectal cancer exists is unknown. Methods. A case-control study was performed with month of birth extracted from a dedicated colorectal cancer database. Age and gender matched patients were used as a control group. Generalised linear models were fitted with Poisson and negative binomial responses and logarithmic links...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129049/protection-of-children-against-influenza-emerging-problems
#13
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Influenza is a common disease and in children it can be severe enough to lead to hospitalization and death. Protection of all children against influenza, particularly the youngest, is strongly recommended by most health authorities. However, available vaccines cannot be used in the first 6 months of age, a period of life characterized by the highest risk of influenza-related complications. Maternal immunization is an attractive possibility to overcome this problem. For years, protection against influenza has been pursued by administering the trivalent inactivated vaccine given intramuscularly (IIV3)...
January 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124681/-plasma-25-oh-vitamin-d-concentrations-in-cord-blood-after-summer-months-spain
#14
Cristina Manzano Varo, Oscar García-Algar, Antonio Mur Sierra, Roser Ferrer Costa, Antonio Carrascosa Lezcano, Diego Yeste Fernández, Sandra Ortigosa Gómez
OBJECTIVE: Plasma vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in the newborn are dependent on maternal stores. Several studies showing a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women have been published last years. The aim of the study was to analyze 25(OH)D levels in cord blood after summer month, determine whether there is a relation with different variables. METHODS: 103 pregnant women were recruited between October and early December 2014, whose gestations took place during month of maximum sun exposure...
January 25, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115035/age-at-menarche-in-relation-to-prenatal-rainy-season-exposure-and-altitude-of-residence-results-from-a-nationally-representative-survey-in-a-tropical-country
#15
E C Jansen, O F Herrán, N L Fleischer, A M Mondul, E Villamor
Intrauterine exposure to the rainy season in the tropics may be accompanied by high rates of infection and nutritional deficiencies. It is unknown whether this exposure is related to the extrauterine timing of development. Our aim was to evaluate the relations of prenatal exposure to the rainy season and altitude of residence with age at menarche. The study included 15,370 girls 10 to <18 years old who participated in Colombia's 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Primary exposures included the number of days exposed to the rainy season during the 40 weeks preceding birth, and altitude of residence at the time of the survey...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104187/growth-faltering-in-rural-gambian-children-after-four-decades-of-interventions-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Helen M Nabwera, Anthony J Fulford, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice
BACKGROUND: Growth faltering remains common in children in sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Due to a very slow decline in the prevalence of stunting, the total number of children with stunting continues to rise in sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of effective interventions remains a challenge. METHODS: We analysed the effect of 36 years of intensive health interventions on growth in infants and young children from three rural Gambian villages...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103212/coverage-with-tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-and-influenza-vaccine-among-pregnant-women-minnesota-march-2013-december-2014
#17
Alexandra Barber, Miriam Halstead Muscoplat, Anna Fedorowicz
Pertussis and influenza infections can result in severe disease in infants. The diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is recommended for infants beginning at age 2 months, and influenza vaccine is recommended for infants aged ≥6 months. Vaccination of pregnant women induces the production of antibodies that are transferred across the placenta to the fetus and provide passive protection until infants are old enough to receive DTaP and influenza vaccines (1-3). To protect young infants before they are age-eligible for vaccination, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended since 2004 that all women who are or will be pregnant during influenza season receive inactivated influenza vaccine (1), and since 2013 that all pregnant women receive the tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine (3)...
January 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096222/first-infant-formula-type-and-risk-of-islet-autoimmunity-in-the-environmental-determinants-of-diabetes-in-the-young-teddy-study
#18
Sandra Hummel, Andreas Beyerlein, Roy Tamura, Ulla Uusitalo, Carin Andrén Aronsson, Jimin Yang, Anne Riikonen, Åke Lernmark, Marian J Rewers, William A Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Olli G Simell, Jorma Toppari, Anette-G Ziegler, Beena Akolkar, Jeffrey P Krischer, Suvi M Virtanen, Jill M Norris
OBJECTIVE: Studies on the introduction of infant formulas and its effect on the risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes (T1D) have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether the introduction of formula based on hydrolyzed cow's milk as the first formula is associated with reduced islet autoimmunity risk in a large prospective cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study prospectively monitors 8,676 children at increased genetic risk for T1D...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094804/six-years-in-the-life-of-a-mother-bear-the-longest-continuous-heart-rate-recordings-from-a-free-ranging-mammal
#19
Timothy G Laske, Paul A Iaizzo, David L Garshelis
Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093094/impact-of-hurricane-exposure-on-reproductive-health-outcomes-florida-2004
#20
Shannon C Grabich, Whitney R Robinson, Charles E Konrad, Jennifer A Horney
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal hurricane exposure may be an increasingly important contributor to poor reproductive health outcomes. In the current literature, mixed associations have been suggested between hurricane exposure and reproductive health outcomes. This may be due, in part, to residual confounding. We assessed the association between hurricane exposure and reproductive health outcomes by using a difference-in-difference analysis technique to control for confounding in a cohort of Florida pregnancies...
January 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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