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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741647/the-association-between-season-of-birth-age-at-onset-and-clozapine-use-in-schizophrenia
#1
J S Kim, C M Park, J A Choi, E Park, H J Tchoe, M Choi, J K Suh, Y H Kim, S H Won, Y C Chung, K Y Bae, S K Lee, S C Park, S H Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether the rate of clozapine use, an indicator of refractoriness in schizophrenia, is associated with the season of birth and age at onset in patients with schizophrenia based on nationwide data. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (n = 114 749) who received prescriptions for antipsychotic medication between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively identified from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. The study population was divided into three groups based on their age at the onset of schizophrenia (early, middle, and late onset)...
July 25, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738458/-associations-between-season-of-birth-and-age-both-at-menarche-and-at-menopause
#2
J H Si, R R Meng, J Lyu, Y Guo, Z Bian, C Q Yu, L Yang, Y L Tan, P Pei, J S Chen, Z M Chen, L M Li
Objective: To examine the associations between season of birth and factors as age at menarche, age at menopause and reproductive span. Methods: A total of 285 186 female from the China Kadoorie Biobank, with complete data on critical variables and had menarche at 9-18 years old, were included. A total of 132 373 female with natural menopause were included for the analysis on age at menopause and reproductive span. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations of birth season and the age at menarche, menopause, and reproductive span...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731219/daylight-effect-on-melatonin-secretion-in-adult-female-guanacos-lama-guanicoe
#3
J L Riveros, L M Correa, G Schuler
The wild South American camelids developed a strategy of seasonal reproduction during spring and summer with singleton birth. The photoperiod is one of the factors that may modulate this seasonality where light would be translated into a hormonal signal. This study evaluated the influence of changes in daily light intensity on melatonin concentration in captive guanacos under a long-day photoperiod (16 hr light/8 hr dark; 33 '28'S). Mean melatonin concentration was 28.3 ± 20.3 pg/ml, with a maximum of 52...
July 21, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727153/month-of-birth-is-associated-with-the-subsequent-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-hypothyroidism-a-nationwide-danish-register-based-study
#4
Marianne Thvilum, Frans Brandt, Thomas Heiberg Brix, Laszlo Hegedüs
BACKGROUND: The triggering of thyroid autoimmunity in the genetically susceptible remains a conundrum. Environmental exposures during gestation and/or early postnatally have proponents, as suggested in diabetes mellitus, with a higher incidence of births during spring and summer. Whether the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism (AIT) is influenced by month or season of birth is less clear. METHOD: Nationwide cohort study of 111,565 individuals diagnosed with AIT and four euthyroid controls per case, matched according to age and sex, were identified from Danish health registers...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726288/hot-dogs-high-ambient-temperatures-impact-reproductive-success-in-a-tropical-carnivore
#5
Rosie Woodroffe, Rosemary Groom, J Weldon McNutt
Climate change imposes an urgent need to recognise and conserve the species likely to be worst affected. However, while ecologists have mostly explored indirect effects of rising ambient temperatures on temperate and polar species, physiologists have predicted direct impacts on tropical species. The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), a tropical species, exhibits few of the traits typically used to predict climate change vulnerability. Nevertheless, we predicted that wild dog populations might be sensitive to weather conditions, because the species shows strongly seasonal reproduction across most of its geographical range...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711257/seasonal-and-maternal-effects-on-acid-base-l-lactate-electrolyte-and-hematological-status-of-205-dairy-calves-born-to-eutocic-dams
#6
L Kovács, F L Kézér, E Albert, F Ruff, O Szenci
In this study, we used linear mixed models to determine the effects of season, time of sampling relative to birth (factors), duration of the delivery process, duration of maternal grooming, calf body weight (BW) at birth, and time of day (covariates) on values of venous blood gas, acid-base and electrolyte parameters, and l-lactate concentrations in dairy calves born to eutocic dams in summer (SUM, n = 101) and winter (WIN, n = 104). Neonatal vitality was assessed at 0, 1, and 24 h after delivery in a linear scoring system using muscle tone, erection of the head, muscle reflexes, heart rate, and sucking drive as criteria...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708528/competition-for-oestrous-ewes-between-rams-reared-by-their-mothers-or-artificially-reared-effects-on-sexual-behaviour-and-testosterone-and-cortisol-serum-concentrations
#7
J P Damián, M J Hötzel, G Banchero, R Ungerfeld
The objective of this study was to determine how the social competition for an oestrous ewe affects the sexual behaviour and the endocrine response in two groups of rams, one reared by their mothers and another artificially reared. Thus, we compared the sexual behaviour and testosterone and cortisol changes in each group of rams in competitive and non-competitive tests, both during the first and second breeding seasons. Two groups of rams were: 1) artificially reared lambs, separated from their dams 24-36 h after birth (Week 0) and artificially fed with sheep milk until 10 weeks of age (group AR, n = 14); and 2) lambs reared by their dams until 10 weeks of age (group DR, n = 13)...
June 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708527/artificially-extended-photoperiod-administered-to-pre-partum-mares-via-blue-light-to-a-single-eye-observations-on-gestation-length-foal-birth-weight-and-foal-hair-coat-at-birth
#8
Margaret B Nolan, Caroline M Walsh, Noelle Duff, Conor McCrarren, Ralph L Prendergast, Barbara A Murphy
In seasonally breeding animals, photoperiod perception is crucial for timing of important physiological events. In the horse, long day photoperiod influences the onset of ovulation and cyclicity, shedding of the heavier winter coat and the timing of parturition. In this compilation of studies, conducted across three breeding seasons and two countries, the impact of artificially extended day length was investigated on gestation length, foal birth weight and foal hair coat at birth. The light therapy was administered to pre-partum mares via mobile head worn masks which provided short wavelength blue light to a single eye...
June 9, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708503/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-pufa-rich-fish-oil-on-reproductive-performance-of-the-goat-capra-hircus
#9
Ajit Singh Mahla, Ravjibhai K Chaudhari, Atul Kumar Verma, Amit Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Gyanendra Singh, Mihir Sarkar, Narayan Dutta, Harendra Kumar, Narayanan Krishnaswamy
Dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA decreases the luteolytic PGF2α and improves the pregnancy rate in the dairy cow. However, its effect in the goat is not known. Accordingly, we studied the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich Fish oil (FO) on different reproductive events in the goat. Cycling goats (n = 30) were divided into two equal groups and fed an isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet supplemented with either FO (TRT; n = 15) or palm oil (PO) (CON; n = 15) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 72 days during the breeding season...
May 26, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699878/genetically-stable-infectious-schmallenberg-virus-persists-in-foetal-envelopes-of-pregnant-ewes
#10
Antoine Poskin, Ludovic Martinelle, Yves Van der Stede, Claude Saegerman, Brigitte Cay, Nick De Regge
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently emerged vector-borne virus, inducing congenital defects in bovines, ovines and caprines. Here we have shown that infectious SBV is capable of persisting until the moment of birth in the foetal envelopes of ewes infected with SBV-infectious serum at day 45 (1/5 positive) and 60 (4/6 positive) of gestation. This persistence of at least 100 days is a new aspect of the SBV pathogenesis that could help to explain how SBV overwinters the cold season in temperate climate zones...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697835/-vitamin-d-level-at-birth-and-influencing-factors-in-preterm-infants
#11
Ren-Qiang Yu, Xin Zhao, Dao-Zhen Chen, Xiang-Peng Liao, Qin Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate vitamin D level at birth and possible influencing factors in preterm infants. METHODS: A total of 600 preterm infants were enrolled, and venous blood samples were collected within 24 hours after birth to measure the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The effect of sex, birth weight, birth season, gestational age, mother's age, body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy, delivery mode, and complications during pregnancy on serum 25(OH)D level was analyzed...
July 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697614/genetic-variation-in-and-relationships-among-faecal-worm-eggs-recorded-in-different-seasons-of-the-year-at-the-tygerhoek-farm-in-south-africa
#12
Ziyanda Mpetile, Kennedy Dzama, Schalk W P Cloete
Gastrointestinal nematodes result in severe economic and production losses to the sheep industry. An increase in resistance of the nematodes to chemicals used for control, as well as a demand of consumers for meat products free from chemicals, has fostered research on alternative control strategies. Breeding for resistance to nematodes offers an alternative to control parasitism but its effectiveness depends on genetic variation in faecal worm egg count (FWEC), an indirect measure of parasite resistance. A historic dataset of FWEC from four Merino lines subjected to natural parasite challenge was used to estimate genetic parameters for FWEC in three seasons (autumn, winter and spring) using a repeated records animal model, followed by a three-trait animal model analysis treating FWEC in different seasons as separate traits...
July 7, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696824/age-appropriate-versus-up-to-date-coverage-of-routine-childhood-vaccinations-among-young-children-in-israel
#13
Chen Stein-Zamir, Avi Israeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Routine childhood vaccinations schedules recommend that children receive the vaccine doses at specific ages. Vaccination coverage data are conventionally reported by the up-to-date method. We aimed to assess vaccination timeliness by the age-appropriate method and compare to the up-to-date vaccination coverage. METHODS: Assessment of age-appropriate and up-to-date vaccination coverage among children born in Israel in 2009 and followed to age 48 months (national representative sample, n = 3892)...
July 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696547/heat-stress-in-pregnant-sows-thermal-responses-and-subsequent-performance-of-sows-and-their-offspring
#14
REVIEW
Matthew C Lucy, Timothy J Safranski
Seasonal infertility is a significant problem in the swine industry, and may be influenced by photoperiod and heat stress. Heat stress during gestation in particular affects pregnancy, resulting in long-term developmental damage to the offspring. This review summarizes what is known about how heat stress on the pregnant sow affects lactation and her offspring. Sows responded to heat stress during gestation with increased rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, and tended to reduce their activity-which may have changed their body composition, increasing the adipose-to-muscle ratio...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695620/correlated-response-in-litter-size-components-in-rabbits-selected-for-litter-size-variability
#15
M J Argente, E W Calle, M L García, A Blasco
A divergent selection experiment for the environmental variability of litter size (Ve) over seven generations was carried out in rabbits at the University Miguel Hernández of Elche. The Ve was estimated as the phenotypic variance within the female, after correcting for year-season and parity-lactation status. The aim of this study was to analyse the correlated responses to selection in litter size components. The ovulation rate (OR) and number of implanted embryos (IE) in females were measured by laparoscopy at 12 day of the second gestation...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693662/growing-without-a-mother-results-in-poorer-sexual-behaviour-in-adult-rams
#16
J P Damián, F Beracochea, S Machado, M J Hötzel, G Banchero, R Ungerfeld
The aim of this study was to determine if the absence of the mother during rearing has long-term effects on sexual behaviour and physiological reproductive parameters of adult rams. Two groups of rams were: (1) artificially reared, separated from their dams 24 to 36 h after birth (Week 0) and fed using sheep milk until 10 weeks of age (group AR, n=14); and (2) reared by their dams until 10 weeks of age (group DR, n=13). Sexual behaviour (tests of 20 min) and physiological reproductive parameters were analysed separately for the non-breeding (Weeks 42 to 64) and the breeding (Weeks 66 to 90) seasons...
July 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691136/estimates-of-direct-and-maternal-co-variance-components-as-well-as-genetic-parameters-of-growth-traits-in-nellore-sheep
#17
Satish Kumar I, Vijaya Kumar C, Gangaraju G, Sapna Nath, Thiruvenkadan A K
In the present study, (co)variance components and genetic parameters in Nellore sheep were obtained by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method using six different animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal genetic effects for birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), 6-month weight (6MW), 9-month weight (9MW) and 12-month weight (YW). Evaluated records of 2075 lambs descended from 69 sires and 478 dams over a period of 8 years (2007-2014) were collected from the Livestock Research Station, Palamaner, India...
July 9, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686601/maternal-and-neonatal-vitamin-d-status-genotype-and-childhood-celiac-disease
#18
Karl Mårild, German Tapia, Margareta Haugen, Sandra R Dahl, Arieh S Cohen, Marika Lundqvist, Benedicte A Lie, Lars C Stene, Ketil Størdal
BACKGROUND: Low concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy may be associated with offspring autoimmune disorders. Little is known about environmental triggers except gluten for celiac disease, a common immune-mediated disorder where seasonality of birth has been reported as a risk factor. We therefore aimed to test whether low maternal and neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicted higher risk of childhood celiac disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this Norwegian nationwide pregnancy cohort (n = 113,053) and nested case-control study, we analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal blood from mid-pregnancy, postpartum and cord plasma of 416 children who developed celiac disease and 570 randomly selected controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676084/social-and-demographic-drivers-of-trend-and-seasonality-in-elective-abortions-in-denmark
#19
Tim A Bruckner, Laust H Mortensen, Ralph A Catalano
BACKGROUND: Elective abortions show a secular decline in high income countries. That general pattern, however, may mask meaningful differences-and a potentially rising trend-among age, income, and other racial/ethnic groups. We explore these differences in Denmark, a high-income, low-fertility country with excellent data on terminations and births. METHODS: We examined monthly elective abortions (n = 225,287) from 1995 to 2009, by maternal age, parity, income level and mother's country of origin...
July 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673994/social-and-physical-environments-early-in-development-predict-dna-methylation-of-inflammatory-genes-in-young-adulthood
#20
Thomas W McDade, Calen Ryan, Meaghan J Jones, Julia L MacIsaac, Alexander M Morin, Jess M Meyer, Judith B Borja, Gregory E Miller, Michael S Kobor, Christopher W Kuzawa
Chronic inflammation contributes to a wide range of human diseases, and environments in infancy and childhood are important determinants of inflammatory phenotypes. The underlying biological mechanisms connecting early environments with the regulation of inflammation in adulthood are not known, but epigenetic processes are plausible candidates. We tested the hypothesis that patterns of DNA methylation (DNAm) in inflammatory genes in young adulthood would be predicted by early life nutritional, microbial, and psychosocial exposures previously associated with levels of inflammation...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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