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seasonality of birth

Ben Lopman, Rebecca Dahl, Minesh Shah, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines were introduced in the United States in 2006 and in the subsequent years have fundamentally altered seasonality and shifted disease from annual to biennial epidemics. We investigated whether season and year of birth have emerged as risk factors for rotavirus and affected vaccine performance. We constructed a retrospective birth cohort of US children <5 years using the 2001-2014 MarketScan Database. We evaluated the assocations of season of birth, even/odd year of birth and interactions with vaccination...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
J M Colston, A M S Ahmed, S B Soofi, E Svensen, R Haque, J Shrestha, R Nshama, Z Bhutta, I F N Lima, A Samie, L Bodhidatta, A A M Lima, P Bessong, M Paredes Olortegui, A Turab, V R Mohan, L H Moulton, E N Naumova, G Kang, M N Kosek
Improving understanding of the pathogen-specific seasonality of enteric infections is critical to informing policy on the timing of preventive measures and to forecast trends in the burden of diarrhoeal disease. Data obtained from active surveillance of cohorts can capture the underlying infection status as transmission occurs in the community. The purpose of this study was to characterise rotavirus seasonality in eight different locations while adjusting for age, calendar time and within-subject clustering of episodes by applying an adapted Serfling model approach to data from a multi-site cohort study...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Gebretnsae Mezgebe, Solomon Gizaw, Mengistu Urge
The performance of indigenous Begait cattle (498 cows, 284 calves, and 48 heifers) in northern Ethiopia was studied. System of herd management significantly (P < 0.01) influenced all production traits. Calves in medium-input herds (MIHM) grew faster than those in low-input herds (LIHM), by 232 g/d from birth to 9 months (Gain1 ) and by 385 g/d from 9 to 12 months (Gain2 ). Cow's dry period, calving interval (CI), and age at first calving (AFC) were 234, 222, and 343 days shorter for MIHM than for LIHM...
March 8, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Eberhard A Deisenhammer, Christoph Stiglbauer, Georg Kemmler
BACKGROUND: Suicides are generally the consequence of overchallenged coping strategies of individual for psychological, social or internal and external biological strain factors. Timing of the suicide, too, may be influenced by external factors. Studies so far have yielded in part inconsistent results concerning the association of suicides with particular days or periods of the year. Even less is known regarding a potential effect of the time of birth on suicide risk. METHODS: The Tyrol Suicide Register (TSR) provides data on suicides occurring in the Austrian State of Tyrol including birthday of the suicide victim and day of the suicide...
March 7, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Michelle L Bell, Geetanjoli Banerjee, Gavin Pereira
Health studies on spatially-varying exposures (e.g., air pollution) during pregnancy often estimate exposure using residence at birth, disregarding residential mobility. We investigated moving patterns in pregnant women (n = 10,116) in linked cohorts focused on Connecticut and Massachusetts, U.S., 1988-2008. Moving patterns were assessed by race/ethnicity, age, marital status, education, working status, population density, parity, income, and season of birth. In this population, 11.6% of women moved during pregnancy...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Valentina Escott-Price, Daniel J Smith, Kimberley Kendall, Joey Ward, George Kirov, Michael J Owen, James Walters, Michael C O'Donovan
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that people born in winter and in spring have a small increased risk of schizophrenia. As this 'season of birth' effect underpins some of the most influential hypotheses concerning potentially modifiable risk exposures, it is important to exclude other possible explanations for the phenomenon. METHODS: Here we sought to determine whether the season of birth effect reflects gene-environment confounding rather than a pathogenic process indexing environmental exposure...
March 4, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Alison J Peel, Kate S Baker, David T S Hayman, Christopher C Broder, Andrew A Cunningham, Anthony R Fooks, Romain Garnier, James L N Wood, Olivier Restif
Spatiotemporally-localised prediction of virus emergence from wildlife requires focused studies on the ecology and immunology of reservoir hosts in their native habitat. Reliable predictions from mathematical models remain difficult in most systems due to a dearth of appropriate empirical data. Our goal was to study the circulation and immune dynamics of zoonotic viruses in bat populations and investigate the effects of maternally-derived and acquired immunity on viral persistence. Using rare age-specific serological data from wild-caught Eidolon helvum fruit bats as a case study, we estimated viral transmission parameters for a stochastic infection model...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adi Adar, Shlomit Shalitin, Ori Eyal, Neta Loewenthal, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Milana Levy, Orna Dally-Gottfried, Zohar Landau, Amnon Zung, Floris Levy-Khademi, David Zangen, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover, Marianna Rachmiel
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (<37 weeks). We aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of prematurity and early prematurity (<34 weeks) and birth season variability among T1DM and non-T1DM children. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted, with linkage of data from 13 pediatric diabetes centers and Israeli National Registries, including T1DM patients and general non-T1DM population, born during 2000-2013...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Hebah S Mejbel, Andrew M Simons
Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally "hard" termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking "turions" prior to freeze-over...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Qiong Wang, Huanhuan Zhang, Qianhong Liang, Luke D Knibbs, Meng Ren, Changchang Li, Junzhe Bao, Suhan Wang, Yiling He, Lei Zhu, Xuemei Wang, Qingguo Zhao, Cunrui Huang
The impact of ambient air pollution on pregnant women is a concern in China. However, little is known about the association between air pollution and preeclampsia and the potential modifying effects of meteorological conditions have not been assessed. This study aimed to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia, and to explore whether temperature and humidity modify the effects. We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 1.21 million singleton births from the birth registration system in Shenzhen, China, between 2005 and 2012...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ahva Shahabi, Desi Peneva, Devin Incerti, Kimmie McLaurin, Warren Stevens
BACKGROUND: The variability in cost of palivizumab treatment, indicated for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in high-risk infants, has not been robustly estimated in prior studies. This study aimed to determine the cost variations of palivizumab from a US payer perspective for otherwise healthy preterm infants born 29-35 weeks gestational age (wGA) using infant characteristics and applied dosing regimens. METHODS: Fenton Growth Charts were merged with World Health Organization Child Growth Standards to estimate preterm infant growth patterns...
March 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
Karien Viljoen, Ricardo Segurado, John O'Brien, Celine Murrin, John Mehegan, Cecily C Kelleher
OBJECTIVE: The association of maternal pregnancy diet with offspring asthma risk have been reported. However, literature on longitudinal patterns of asthma risk relative to intrauterine nutrient exposure is limited. We aimed to establish whether vegetable, oily fish and vitamin D intake during pregnancy are associated with childhood asthma risk over a 10-year period in the Irish Republic. DESIGN: Mother-child pairs (n=897) from the Lifeways prospective birth cohort, with data on nutrient intake during pregnancy and asthma status, respectively, were eligible for inclusion in the analysis...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Andreas Andersen, Ane Baerent Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, Cesario Martins, Henrik Ravn, Najaaraq Lund, Sofie Biering-Sørensen, Christine Stabell Benn, Peter Aaby
Background: A recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV) were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate, it would suggest beneficial NSEs. Setting: Between 2002 and 2014, Guinea-Bissau had 15 general OPV campaigns and other campaigns with OPV plus vitamin A supplementation (VAS), VAS-only, MV, and H1N1 vaccine...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Beth M Lett, Brian W Kirkpatrick
Multiple births or twinning in cattle is a naturally occurring reproductive phenomenon. For dairy cattle, twinning is considered a detrimental trait as it can be harmful to cow and calf as well as costly to the producer. The objective of this study was to examine recent US calving records for the Holstein breed to determine a current estimate of heritability for twinning rate along with effects of season and parity. Two models were used in this study: a linear sire model and a binary threshold-logit sire model...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Catherine A Dayger, Michael P LeMaster, Deborah I Lutterschmidt
When opportunities to feed and reproduce are limited, females are often unable to recover sufficient energy stores to reproduce in consecutive years. Body condition has been used as a proxy for recent reproductive history in such species. We previously found that glucocorticoid responses to capture stress vary with body condition in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), a species with limited seasonal breeding opportunities. Because variation in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein in the brain could explain these differences, we first assessed GR protein content in females in different body conditions...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Richard G Tait, Robert A Cushman, Anthony K McNeel, Eduardo Casas, Timothy P L Smith, Harvey C Freetly, Gary L Bennett
Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to equalize CAPN1 haplotypes, CAST, and GHR genetic marker frequencies. The objective was to estimate the pleiotropic effects of these carcass quality oriented markers for body weight, reproduction, and first calf performance traits in 174 replacement beef females which were managed under 2 post-weaning development protocols...
February 3, 2018: Theriogenology
Andrea K Turkalo, Peter H Wrege, George Wittemyer
African forest elephants face severe threats from illegal killing for ivory and bushmeat and habitat conversion. Due to their cryptic nature and inaccessible range, little information on the biology of this species has been collected despite its iconic status. Compiling individual based monitoring data collected over 20 years from the Dzanga Bai population in Central African Republic, we summarize sex and age specific survivorship and female age specific fecundity for a cohort of 1625 individually identified elephants...
2018: PloS One
Cynthia J Downs, Brianne V Boan, Thomas D Lohuis, Kelley M Stewart
Life-history theory is fundamental to understanding how animals allocate resources among survival, development, and reproduction, and among traits within these categories. Immediate trade-offs occur within a short span of time and, therefore, are more easily detected. Trade-offs, however, can also manifest across stages of the life cycle, a phenomenon known as carryover effects. We investigated trade-offs on both time scales in two populations of Dall sheep ( Ovis dalli dalli ) in Southcentral Alaska. Specifically, we (i) tested for glucocorticoid-mediated carryover effects from the breeding season on reproductive success and immune defenses during parturition and (ii) tested for trade-offs between immune defenses and reproduction within a season...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Minesh P Shah, Rebecca M Dahl, Umesh D Parashar, Benjamin A Lopman
BACKGROUND: Hospitalizations for rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) have declined in the US with rotavirus vaccination, though biennial peaks in incidence in children aged less than 5 years occur. This pattern may be explained by lower rotavirus vaccination coverage in US children (59% to 73% from 2010-2015), resulting in accumulation of susceptible children over two successive birth cohorts. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of claims data of commercially insured US children aged <5 years...
2018: PloS One
Loris Pagano, Caterina Pizzutelli, Maria Maddalena Matarazzo, Gaia Monteleone, Damiano Pizzuti
Migration and the current European socioeconomic conditions necessitate an evaluation/assessment, as detailed as possible, of the spread of seasonal infectious diseases in order to reduce inequalities in the healthcare system. The "Scuola di Formazione in Medicina Generale" of Lazio, in collaboration with the Community of Sant'Egidio of Rome, organized an influenza/flu vaccination campaign for homeless people, migrants and the poor in order to check their health conditions and prevent the spread of the most common infectious diseases...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
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