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seasonality of birth

Victor Grech, Dorota Zammit, Hagen Scherb
Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Chih-Sung Liang, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Chia-Kuang Tsai, Wu-Chien Chien
PURPOSE: Seasonal variation exists in the psychopathology of eating disorders. However, it is still unknown whether there is seasonal variation in eating disorder symptom severity. This study investigated seasonal trends in hospital admissions and birth dates among patients with eating disorders in Taiwan (25°N). Subgroup analyses by gender and comorbid affective disorders were also of interest. METHODS: Data on all hospital admissions between 2000 and 2013 were collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, and 1954 patients with eating disorders were identified...
October 15, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Corwin D Nelson, John D Lippolis, Timothy A Reinhardt, Randy E Sacco, Jessi L Powell, Mary E Drewnoski, Matthew O'Neil, Donald C Beitz, William P Weiss
The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not well known. The vitamin D status of animals is reliably indicated by the concentration of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] metabolite in serum or plasma, with a concentration of 30 ng/mL proposed as a lower threshold for sufficiency...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Kirsten Maertens, Tessa Braeckman, Geert Top, Pierre Van Damme, Elke Leuridan
In Belgium, pertussis vaccination is recommended for all pregnant women in every pregnancy. Adults in close contact with young infants are equally advised to receive a pertussis containing booster dose. Maternal influenza vaccination is likewise recommended in Belgium in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, within the influenza season. A quantitative multicenter survey study has been performed between October 2014 and May 2015 in both postpartum women (N=823, response rate=89.2%) and health care workers (HCWs) (N=261) to assess the coverage of both vaccines during pregnancy along with the coverage of the pertussis cocoon strategy, and to evaluate the knowledge and recommending attitude of HCWs towards the maternal vaccination strategies and the cocoon strategy among surveyed women and HCWs...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
S Vinothraj, A Subramaniyan, R Venkataramanan, Cecilia Joseph, S N Sivaselvam
AIM: The present investigation was undertaken to study the reproduction performance and effect of non-genetic factors on reproduction performance of Jersey crossbred cows. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 355 Jersey crossbred cattle maintained at the Post-graduate Research Institute in Animal Sciences, Kattupakkam, Tamil Nadu, distributed over 30 years (1985 to 2014). The effect of various non-genetic factors including the period of birth, season of birth, period of calving, season of calving and parity were analyzed through least-squares analyses using univariate general linear model...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Rocío N Villar-Quiles, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Gloria Ortega, Inés González-Suárez, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested an association between the month of birth and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), related to environmental factors, mainly sun exposure and maternal vitamin D levels. Few studies have been conducted in Southern Europe countries. Madrid has a continental climate with considerable variation of sun hours between winter and summer, so it may be relevant to study this relationship. METHODS: MS patients, born between 1932 and 2003, 1,335 of them from our database between 2004 and 2015, were analysed...
October 8, 2016: European Neurology
Yoonmi Woo, Yung Taek Ouh, Ki Hoon Ahn, Geum Joon Cho, Soon Cheol Hong, Min Jeong Oh, Hai Joong Kim
The aim of this study was to investigate a seasonal pattern of preterm births in Korea. Data were obtained from the national birth registry of the Korean Statistics Office and included all births in Korea during the period 2000-2012 (n = 6,310,800). Delivery dates were grouped by month of the year or by season (winter [December, January, February], spring [March, April, May], summer [June, July, August], and autumn [September, October, November]). The seasonal patterns of prevalence of preterm births were assessed...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
N Hernández, J C Martínez-González, G M Parra-Bracamonte, A M Sifuentes-Rincón, N López-Villalobos, S T Morris, F Briones-Encinia, E Ortega-Rivas, V I Pacheco-Contreras, And L A Meza-García
Polymorphisms in candidate genes can produce significant and favorable changes in the phenotype, and therefore are useful for the identification of the best combination of favorable variants for marker-assisted selection. In the present study, an assessment to evaluate the effect of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes on live weight traits of registered Brahman cattle was performed. Data from purebred bulls were used in this assessment. The dataset included birth (BW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weights...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
C Rosales, N Krekeler, B Tennent-Brown, M A Stevenson, D Hanlon
AIMS: To describe selected periparturient variables in a sample of Thoroughbred mares and their foals on a commercial stud farm in New Zealand. METHODS: Data were collected for 969 foaling records from 592 mares by foaling attendants from one Thoroughbred stud farm in the Waikato region of New Zealand for the breeding seasons 2008-2013, inclusive, and collated retrospectively. The association between mare- and foal-level variables and gestation length, time of birth (expressed as the number of hours after midday), fetal membrane retention time, time for the foal to stand and suckle after birth, and foal mortality was quantified using linear and logistic regression models...
October 5, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
(no author information available yet)
Corrigendum to Season of birth and not vitamin D receptor promoter polymorphisms is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis by DA Fernandes de Abreu, MC Babron I, C Rebeix, J Fontenille, D Yaouanq, B Brassat, F Fontaine, F Clerget-Darpoux, F Jehan and Feron. Mult Scler 2009; 15: 1146-1152 [DOI: 10.1177/1352458509106780].
October 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
William Johnson, Momodou K Darboe, Fatou Sosseh, Patrick Nshe, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore
Prenatal supplementation with protein-energy (PE) and/or multiple-micronutrients (MMNs) may improve fetal growth, but trials of lipid-based nutritional supplements (LNSs) have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of non-primary outcomes in a trial in Gambia, with the aim to test the associations of LNS with fetal growth and explore how efficacy varies depending on nutritional status. The sample comprised 620 pregnant women in an individually randomized, partially blinded trial with four arms: (a) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablet (usual care, referent group), (b) MMN tablet, (c) PE LNS, and (d) PE + MMN LNS...
October 2, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Scott S Field
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccines are underused. METHODS: Most (131/140) patients from a pediatric practice who were tested for influenza in the 2012-2013 season were enrolled. Medical records plus questionnaires determined vaccine and past disease histories and influenza vaccine attitudes. Influenza-negative tested cases (n = 65) and negative controls (n = 110) closely age-matched to 55 test-positive cases were compared with influenza-positive cases (n = 66) regarding prior influenza, vaccine efficacy, and limited vaccine season conflicting with birth dates and preventative visit timing to determine possible validity of reasons given for underutilization...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Yasuyuki Muroyama
Individual spatial positioning plays an important role in mediating the costs and benefits of group living, and thus shapes different aspects of animal social systems including group structure and cohesiveness. I aimed to quantify variation in individual spacing behavior and its correlates in a group of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in north Cameroon. I collected data on inter-individual distances during group scans when following subject females. Individuals had longer inter-individual distances during the non-birth season than during the birth season...
September 29, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Eluned C Price, Catherine Payne, Dominic Wormell
Diurnal primates typically give birth at night, when it is presumed that they are safer at a very vulnerable time, and this is reflected in an overwhelmingly nocturnal pattern of delivery in most species of Callitrichidae. However, over half (51.1%) of 88 births to pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) at Durrell Wildlife Park occurred during the day (0800-1700), almost always in the afternoon. Nearly three quarters of breeding females (17/23) had at least one diurnal birth, including females from all generations in captivity from wild-caught to fifth captive-born generation, and from all six matrilines represented at Durrell...
September 29, 2016: Zoo Biology
R M Delabre, N Salez, N Lapidus, M Lemaitre, M Leruez-Ville, X de Lamballerie, F Carrat
We explored age-dependent patterns in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre to seasonal [1956 A(H1N1), 1977 A(H1N1), 2007 A(H1N1)] and pandemic [A(H1N1)pdm09] influenza strains using serological data collected from an adult French influenza cohort. Subjects were recruited by their general practitioners from 2008 to 2009 and followed until 2010. We explored age-related differences between strain-specific HI titres using 1053 serological samples collected over the study period from 398 unvaccinated subjects...
September 29, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
M Mikulecky, Z Rausova, L Dedik, V Mojto
OBJECTIVES: This study indicates that the seasonality of births of patients with DM1 and DM2 has occurred in their adolescence or adulthood. BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) with the maturity onset have different seasonal birth patterns from those with Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) with the maturity onset, or DM1children. METHODS: Monthly numbers of births of 81 and 236 children with DM1 and DM2, respectively, in adolescent or adult age, were adapted to different actual length of calendar months...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Daniel F Mackay, Gordon C S Smith, Sally-Ann Cooper, Rachael Wood, Albert King, David N Clark, Jill P Pell
Learning disabilities have profound, long-lasting health sequelae. Affected children born over the course of 1 year in the United States of America generated an estimated lifetime cost of $51.2 billion. Results from some studies have suggested that autistic spectrum disorder may vary by season of birth, but there have been few studies in which investigators examined whether this is also true of other causes of learning disabilities. We undertook Scotland-wide record linkage of education (annual pupil census) and maternity (Scottish Morbidity Record 02) databases for 801,592 singleton children attending Scottish schools in 2006-2011...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Cornelia Fiessler, Annette B Pfahlberg, Andrea K Keller, Martin Radespiel-Tröger, Wolfgang Uter, Olaf Gefeller
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in infancy on melanoma risk in later life is scarce. Three recent studies suggest that people born in spring carry a higher melanoma risk. Our study aimed at verifying whether such a seasonal pattern of melanoma risk actually exists. METHODS: Data from the population-based Cancer Registry Bavaria (CRB) on the birth months of 28 374 incident melanoma cases between 2002 and 2012 were analysed and compared with data from the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing on the birth month distribution in the Bavarian population...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Holger W Unger, Per Ashorn, Jordan E Cates, Kathryn G Dewey, Stephen J Rogerson
BACKGROUND: In low-resource settings, malaria and macronutrient undernutrition are major health problems in pregnancy, contributing significantly to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. Affected pregnancies may result in stillbirth and neonatal death, and surviving children are at risk of poor growth and infection in infancy, and of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Populations exposed to macronutrient undernutrition frequently reside in malaria-endemic areas, and seasonal peaks of low food supply and malaria transmission tend to coincide...
2016: BMC Medicine
Frank Wen, Trevor Bedford, Sarah Cobey
Most antigenically novel and evolutionarily successful strains of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) originate in East, South and Southeast Asia. To understand this pattern, we simulated the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza in a host metapopulation representing the temperate north, tropics and temperate south. Although seasonality and air traffic are frequently used to explain global migratory patterns of influenza, we find that other factors may have a comparable or greater impact. Notably, a region's basic reproductive number (R0) strongly affects the antigenic evolution of its viral population and the probability that its strains will spread and fix globally: a 17-28% higher R0 in one region can explain the observed patterns...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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